Source: KANSAS STATE UNIV submitted to
AGROFORESTRY IN THE GREAT PLAINS REGION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0189080
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
KS611
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2001
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2006
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Geyer, W. A.
Recipient Organization
KANSAS STATE UNIV
(N/A)
MANHATTAN,KS 66506
Performing Department
HORTICULTURE & FORESTRY
Non Technical Summary
The major goal of forestry research at Kansas State University is to develop forestry ecosystems that provide woodland practices and products with ecologically sound management principles.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
20306201060100%
Goals / Objectives
Evaluate established riparian field plantings (previous project) to determine the best root-soil mantle barrier to moving water in riparian streamside tree plantings and for their effect on improving water quality in streams and rivers in central Kansas. A secondary objective included for completion of previous studies is as follows: Evaluate ginseng, goldenseal, and hazelnut production (forest farming) in specific habitats commonly found on farms, including black walnut, green ash and black locust plantations, pecan orchards, and in native hardwood stands adjacent to streams. And establish productive ginseng plantings over 150 miles west of the known natural range to the 97th west longitudinal meridian (Wichita, Kansas). People are interested in growing ginseng, goldenseal, and hazelnut as a cultivated crops because of their value. There appears to be no limitation to growing ginseng in eastern Kansas and Nebraska with over 1.8 million acres of natural woodlands. Much of this exists on underutilized private land 99 percent.
Project Methods
Inventory the plant growth and survival during dormant season on the four riparian buffer planting sites established previously - six years ago, Year 1 Determine the soil type and extent of root growth for the different tree and shrub species at the four test sites. Year 2 Select and test soil and water sampling weirs. Collection of runoff at selected plots at one site (intermittent stream) soon after precipitation. Laboratory analyses of the soluble material in the samples. Year 3 Conduct the above collection procedures a second time throughout the growing season and laboratory testing of the collectate. Year 4 Inventory a second site and run tests as described above. Write manuscripts and best management practice publications. Year 5 Forest farming - Inventory plantation sites for plant species, soil type, and growing conditions in spring and/summer and establish initial survival and growth trials for the three species in the fall . Year 1 Select additional planting sites in SC and NE Kansas and SE Nebraska. Evaluate survival and growth. Year 2 Establish a second set of trials in the fall to evaluate mulching effects of various material coverings. Evaluate survival and growth all sites. Year 3 Establish a third set of trials in the fall to evaluate various ground incorporated organic matter and fertilizer amendments. Evaluate survival and growth at all sites. Year 4 Determine final growth characteristics of all plantings and prepare manuscripts. Year 5

Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/06

Outputs
During this time period 41 publications (13 refereed articles) and 18 oral presentations given. Two major field studies were established and monitored to evaluate alley cropping configurations of growing tree and agriculture crops together. Both single and triple rows of trees were planted and farm crops grown in between the rows. The major tree species in both studies were black walnut; a highly valued trees species for wood products. A study with single rows of trees with alternating Scotch pine and black walnut showed that the pine after four years gave good growth and tree form for potential Christmas trees. Shaping was necessary as usual. On the other hand black walnut, which was planted at 16 x 40 ft., resulted in poor stem growth requiring much stem pruning and straightening. Agricultural crops grew well through droughty years as well as moist years. At this young age competition from trees was not a factor. Economic analysis of 4 years data showed that horticultural crops of tomatoes, pumpkins, of melons was the most rewarding financially. Agricultural crops of soy bean, milo or smooth bromegrass were much, much less rewarding. Another study with a single row of black walnut bordered by two trainer rows of various broadleafed tree species showed care must be taken in selecting the proper tree species as border rows. Many grew too slowing for competitive training and some grew too fast. Only autumn olive and black locust should be consider for training purposes. The olive should be planted one or two years before the walnut and the black locust should be planted a few years later. Neither species has aided in promoting straight boles after 4 years. The four riparian field studies were established for further study. They all had very good survival and the tree rows at five years are collecting and preventing flood debris from depositing on the protected cultivated fields. One site has been selected for chemical run-through studies. Water collecting meters are being built. Many oral presentations have been given to various conservation groups.

Impacts
Alleycropping may be a way for farm/ranch producers to have two crops on the same piece of land. While trees have a very long growth period, the cash crops from agriculture could offset this long period with an economic return. Results show that walnut should be planted in multiple rows having training rows of autumn olive or black locust. Much corrective trimming was necessary to produce straight boles. Farm crops yields so far indicate that horticultural crop gave highest economic returns. Soybeans and milo gave a higher economic return than the bromegrass. The riparian studies will provide information as to what type of trees/shrubs should be planted to retain the streambanks and the benefit they provide in filtering surface water in the plains area. Even very small seedling trees provide soil bank protection.

Publications

  • Geyer, W.A, T. Neppl and K, Brooks. 2001. Woody vegetation protects streambank stability during the 1993 flood in central Kansas. Jour. Soil & Water Cons.55(4) 483-486.
  • Geyer, W.A. 2001. Use of fabric weed barriers for tree establishment in the Great Plains USA. Kan. Acad. Sci.104(3-4) pp.195-198.G
  • Geyer, W.A. 2001. Agroforestry practices in Brazil. Proc. of Kan. Acad. Sci. Vol.20.p31
  • Geyer, W.A. 2001. Overview of agroforestry practices in central Brazil. Abstract: 7th. N.A. Agrofor. Conf. Saska, CAN. .
  • Dube,F. and W.A. Geyer. 2001. Economics of commercial alley cropping in central Brazil. Abstract: 7th. N.A. Agrofor. Conf. Saska, CAN. Aug. 13-15,2001.Aug. 13-15,2001
  • Geyer,W.A. 2001 Herbicides applied at two height levels on recently cut Siberian elm trees. NCWSS Res. Rep.
  • Loucks,W.L.and W.A.Geyer. March 2001. Chemical weed control in tree plantings.KS For.Ser. MF-656.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Objectives of this project are two-fold: 1) evaluate riparian field plantings for growth and filtration attributes; 2) determine the practicality of forest farming in eastern Kansas growing non-timber products, such as ginseng and goldenseal. The four riparian field studies have been established previously and one site was selected for chemical run-through studies. This was shrub/grass cover vegetation planted area about 8 years ago. Water collection meters were built. Results after one growing season is follows: total suspended solids reduction was highly variable in 2001; total phosphorous concentration reduction averaged 50% and similar in all three vegetation types; total nitrogen concentration reduction from surface runoff was about 45% in 2001. Data has been collected from a second site that is not forested, but is grass/weed covered for evaluation. A fifth site is being considered for a native woodland evaluation. Many oral presentations have been given to various conservation groups. Refereed articles are now being prepared for this experiment. Ginseng and goldenseal trials have been run at four locations for six years. Dry weather conditions have greatly reduced survival and growth for these years. Drought conditions have taken a toll on the ginseng plantings, while goldenseal is more tolerant of dry conditions. Eastern Kansas planting along the Missouri line have done adequately well as compared to the other sites in central Kansas. Goldenseal does best and is a possible plant for herbs production in eastern Kansa

Impacts
The riparian studies will provide information as to what type of trees/shrubs should be planted to retain the streambanks and the benefit they provide in filtering surface water in the plains area

Publications

  • Geyer, W.A. and F.D. Deneke. Comparison of planting stock for establishing black walnut in central Kansas. Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci. Vol. 108, no 3/4 :156-1158. 2005.
  • Fick, W.H. and W.A. Geyer. 2005 Eliminating salt cedar in riparian ecosystems of southwest Kansas. Abs. Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci. Proc. Vol. 108, no 3/4 :167. 2005.
  • Fick, W.H. and W.A. Geyer. Cut-stump treatment of saltcedar in southwest Kansas. Proc. 2004. NCWSci. Proc. 59:79
  • Geyer, W.A. K.D. Lynch, J.Row, P. Schaeffer, and W. Bagley. Performance of green ash seed sources at four locations in the Great Plains Region. No. Jour. For. V22, no.1, pp.54-58. 2005.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Objectives of this project are two-fold: 1) evaluate riparian field plantings for growth and filtration attributes; 2) determine the practicality of forest farming in eastern Kansas growing non-timber products, such as ginseng and goldenseal. The four riparian field studies have been established previously and one site was selected for chemical run-through studies. This was shrub/grass cover vegetation planted area about 8 years ago. Water collection meters were built. Results after one growing season is follows: total suspended solids reduction was highly variable in 2001; total phosphorous concentration reduction averaged 50% and similar in all three vegetation types; total nitrogen concentration reduction from surface runoff was about 45% in 2001. Data has been collected from a second site that is not forested, but is grass/weed covered for evaluation. A fifth site is being considered for a native woodland evaluation. Extramural funding is sought from the Kansas KDHE for water testing. Many oral presentations have been given to various conservation groups. Ginseng and goldenseal trials have been run at four locations for five years. Dry weather conditions have greatly reduced survival and growth for these years. Drought conditions have taken a toll on the ginseng plantings, while goldenseal is more tolerant of dry conditions. Eastern Kansas planting along the Missouri have done adequately well as compared to the other sites in central Kansas.

Impacts
The riparian studies will provide information as to what type of trees/shrubs should be planted to retain the streambanks and the benefit they provide in filtering surface water in the plains area.

Publications

  • Geyer, W.A., F. Dube, and L. Couto. 2004. Overview of agroforestry practices in southeastern Brazil. Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci. Vol. 107, no 3/4 :143-147.
  • Geyer, W. 2004. Synthetic weed barrier mulches for promoting survival and growth of tree seedlings. Proc:13th Cent. Hwd For. Conf. Urban IL. Feb. 02. 2003. USDA Forest Service, No. Ctrl. Res. Sta. Gen. Tech. Rept. NC-234. p 443-446.
  • Carlisle, J.D., W,A. Geyer, and J.W. VanSambeek. 2004. Increasing amounts of chemical weed control increase growth of white ash, white oak, and black walnut saplings in a tall fescue sod. Proc:13th Cent. Hwd For. Conf. Urban IL. Feb. 02. 2003. USDA Forest Service, No. Ctrl. Res. Sta. Gen. Tech. Rept. NC-234. p 449-450.
  • Geyer, W.A., C. Barden, K. Mankin, and D.Devlin. 2004. Riparian shrub buffers reduce surface water pollutant loads. Proc:13th Cent. Hwd For. Conf. Urban IL. Feb. 02. 2003. USDA Forest Service, No. Ctrl. Res. Sta. Gen. Tech. Rept. NC-234. p 130-131.
  • Geyer, W.A. and Felix Ponder, Jr. 2004. Site relationships and black walnut height growth in natural stands in eastern Kansas. Proc: 6th Walnut Council research symposium, July 2004. Lafayette IN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-243. St. Paul MN 188p.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Objectives of this project are two-fold: 1) evaluate riparian field plantings for growth and filtration attributes; 2) determine the practicality of forest farming in eastern Kansas growing non-timber products, such as ginseng and goldenseal. Four riparian field studies have been established previously and one site has been selected for chemical run-through studies. Water collection meters have been built and tested and found adequate for trials. Results after one growing season are as follows: total suspended solids reduction was highly variable in 2001; total phosphorous concentration reduction averaged 50% and was similar in all three vegetation types; total nitrogen concentration reduction from surface runoff was about 45% in 2001. Data has been collected at a second site that is not forested, but is grass/weed covered for evaluation. Many oral presentations have been given to various conservation groups. Ginseng and goldenseal trials have been run at four locations for four years. Dry weather conditions have greatly reduced survival and growth at these years. Drought conditions have taken a toll on the ginseng plantings, while goldenseal is more tolerant of dry conditions. Additional planting have been made this fall

Impacts
The riparian studies will provide information as to what type of trees/shrubs should be planted to retain the streambanks and the benefit they provide in filtering surface water in the plains area.

Publications

  • Geyer, W.A., K. Brooks, and T. Neppl . 2003. Streambank stability of two Kansas river systems during the 1993 flood in Kansas USA. Kan. Acad. Sci. Vol. 10. (1,2), April. p48-53.
  • Walawender, W.P., T.K. Suazo and W.A. Geyer 2003. Effects of tree species on the devolatization of oven-dry wood. Wood and Fiber Sci. 35(2) p301-307.
  • Geyer, W.A., R. Janke and W.J. Lamont. 2003. Intercropping with black walnut. Proceedings 6th North Amer. Agrofor. Conf. June 12-16 1999. Hot Springs, Arkansas. 201-203.
  • Barden, K.R. Mankin, D. Ngandu, W.A.Geyer, D.L. Devlin, and K. McVay.2003. Assessing the effectiveness of riparian buffer strips. Keeping Up with Research. KSU # 137.
  • Geyer, W.A., W.H. Fick, and E. Rhodenbaugh. 2003. Weed control with imazaquin and pendimethlin around newly planted shrubs and trees. Keeping Up with Research. #138.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Objectives of this project are twofold: 1) evaluate riparian field plantings for growth and filtration attributes; 2) determine the practicality of forest farming in eastern Kansas growing non-timber products, such as ginseng and goldenseal. The four riparian field studies have been established previously and one site has been selected for chemical run-through studies. Water collection meters have been built and are being tested. Early results indicate there is a distinct reduction of various chemicals and particulate matter thru the buffer strips. A second site has been selected that is not forested, but is grass/weed covered for evaluation. Many oral presentations have been given to various conservation groups. Ginseng and goldenseal trials have been started at four locations this past spring. Dry weather conditions have greatly reduced survival and growth this year. Additional planting will be made this fall.

Impacts
The riparian studies will provide information as to what type of trees/shrubs should be planted to retain the streambanks and the benefit they provide in filtering surface water in the plains area.

Publications

  • Geyer, W.A., J. Carlisle and W. H. Fick. 2002. Weed mngt on military storage gravel lots. Kan. Acad. Sci. Vol 103 (1,2): pp 58-63.
  • Geyer, W.A., J. Carlisle, T. Neppl, K. Brooks, and N.Mitiana. 2002. Stream characteristics affecting bank stability during a major flood event. Russian Acad. of Sci. Arid Ecosystems. V.8. N16. pp. 40-47.
  • Geyer, W.A. and W. Loucks. 2002. Chem. weed control recommendations. Christmas Tree Jour. April . pp6-12.
  • Geyer, W.A., J. Carlisle, T. Neppl, K. Brooks, and N.Mitiana Stream characteristics affecting bank stability under a large flooding event. Abstract: 5th Int. Cong. Water Ecology and Tech. ECWATECH-2002. pp88-89.
  • Geyer, W.A. and R. Atchison. 2002. Synthetic weed barrier mulches for promoting survival and growth of tree seedlings. Keep Up Res. KSU # 135.