Source: LANGSTON UNIVERSITY submitted to
GOAT NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0188701
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
OKLX-SAHLU
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jan 1, 2001
Project End Date
May 31, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Sahlu, T.
Recipient Organization
LANGSTON UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
LANGSTON,OK 73050
Performing Department
AGRI RES & EXTENSION CENTER
Non Technical Summary
The number of goats in the US is rapidly increasing, however, knowledge regarding goat production lags behind that for other ruminant species, namely cattle and sheep. Of the different areas of goat production, the aspect of nutrition, feeds, and feeding is by far the most important. The purpose of the project is to study goat nutrient requirements, management practices, and production systems in order to increase the level and efficiency of goat productivity for increased profitability.
Animal Health Component
70%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
70%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3023820101040%
3053820101015%
3053820106015%
3073820101015%
3073820106015%
Goals / Objectives
The general objective of the project is to study goat nutrient requirements, management practices, and production systems in order to increase the level and efficiency of goat productivity for increased profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products.
Project Methods
Performance and metabolism type of experiments will be carried out, both which follow well accepted, routine, and standard animal science procedures. Performance experiments will be conducted both in confinement and on pasture. Animals will be weighed at the beginning and end of experiments and at various periods within experiments. Body weight gain will be determined by differences in weight or by regression procedures with frequencies of weighing no greater than 2 weeks. In some instances urea dilution will be used to estimate body composition. Body composition and various carcass measures will be determined via slaughter. For metabolism type experiemnts goats will be placed in metabolism stalls for total collections of feces and urine according to standard procedures, which along with estimation of intake, allows for estimation of digestibilities of constituents. Some experiments will entail usage of animals with cannulas in the rumen, duodenum, and/or ileum, for partitioning of digestion into that occuring in the stomach (reticulum and rumen), small intestine, and hindgut (cecum and large intestine), or stomach and postruminal tract.

Progress 01/01/01 to 05/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The general objective of the project is to gain a better understanding of goat nutrient requirements, management practices, and production systems in order to increase the level and efficiency of goat productivity for increased profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products. Numerous experiments have been conducted. Principal outputs of the project have been in information dissemination via abstracts and associated oral or poster presentations at scientific meetings as noted below in this report and previous ones. Meetings where this information has been transferred are the national meetings of the American Society of Animal Science and American Dairy Science Association, as well as the meetings of the southern section of the American Society of Animal Science. Similar abstracts and presentations have been made at the annual Oklahoma Research Day for Oklahoma universities. Numerous manuscripts have been published. Moreover, information gained has been disseminated through the website of the American Institute for Goat Research and extension activities such as the Annual Goat Field Day and various workshops held throughout the year. PARTICIPANTS: There have been numerous participants in the project. Primary ones are faculty and staff of the American Institute for Goat Research. In addition, as noted from authors listed on publications noted above and on previous reports, this project has entailed a great deal of collaboration with the USDA ARS and other universities. Notable collaborators on publications listed in the report are Dr. G.E. Aiken previously of the Dale Bumpers Small Farmers Research Center of the USDA ARS and Dr. C.R. Krehbiel of the Department of Animal Science of Oklahoma State University. There have been many individuals from abroad contributing to this research, such as ones noted in publications of this report: Drs. T. Negesse and A. Tolera from Ethiopia and Dr. A.K. Patra of India. These individuals participated in research training at the Institute. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audience for this project is broad, including farmers, allied industries, researchers, teachers, and extension personnel. Our findings may stimulate interest and future research by other scientists. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: There have been no major changes in the approach.

Impacts
Goat enterprises are important components of many farms and farming systems in the US, particularly small and resource-poor units. In addition, there are growing numbers of farms where sales of goats or goat products provide the great majority of income and also large operations have added goats to more conventional production systems to benefit from unique feeding habits of goats. Therefore, this project can lead to improvements in goat management practices and production systems for increased levels and efficiencies of goat productivity, accompanied by greater increased profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products. The resources employed and activities undertaken are contributing to a better understanding of factors influencing goat nutrient requirements, management practices, and production systems. The continual evaluation of the project by University administrators, collaborators from institutions such as the USDA/ARS and other universities, and peer researchers has been critical for successful conduct of project activities.

Publications

  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., AIKEN, G.E., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., KREHBIEL, C.R., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T. AND DAWSON, L.J. 2007. Effects of pasture inclusion of mimosa on growth by sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forb pastures. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 31:1-10.
  • GIPSON, T.A., GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G. AND SAHLU, T. 2007. Effects of feeding method, diet nutritive value, and physical form and phenotype on feed intake, feeding behavior, and growth performance by meat goats. Small Rum. Res. 71:170-178.
  • NEGESSE, T., PATRA, A.K., DAWSON, L.J., TOLERA, A., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2007. Performance of Spanish and Boer x Spanish doelings consuming diets with different levels of broiler litter. Small Rum. Res. 69:187-197.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Results of a study indicated that yearling meat goats can markedly reduce energy expenditure (EE) when metabolizable energy intake (MEI) is restricted, with a 1-2 week period required for change. Change in EE in response to limited MEI does not appear linear. With realimentation after a severe MEI restriction, EE quickly peaks, but initially at a level less than the increase in MEI. A study was conducted to determine effects of grazing of mixed grass/forb pastures at three stocking rates (SR) on subsequent performance of growing Boer goats and Katahdin sheep fed a concentrate-based diet. Experimental periods were 15 weeks in length, following 16 weeks of grazing (May to September) of pastures with warm season grasses and various forbs. Stocking rates were four (SR4), six (SR6), and eight (SR8) animals per 0.4-ha pasture, with equal numbers of sheep and goats and three pastures per SR. Average daily gain (ADG) by all animals during grazing tended to decrease linearly (P < 0.10) with increasing SR (61, 51, and 47 g/day for SR4, SR6, and SR8, respectively). In the period after grazing, dry matter (DM) intake tended (P < 0.10) to be affected by an interaction between SR and year (year 1: 958, 966, and 1011 g/day; year 2: 1109, 904, and 930 g/day for SR4, SR6, and SR8, respectively). EE measured in weeks 3 and 9 via heart rate increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing SR (562, 589, and 628 kJ/kg BW0.75 for SR4, SR6, and SR8, respectively). In conclusion, SR had no impact on ADG of sheep and goat wethers consuming a concentrate-based diet subsequent to the grazing period, which may involve effect of prior SR on subsequent EE. Alpine does were used to determine effects of standing vs. walking at different speeds and interactions between walking speed and forage ingestion on EE, heart rate (HR), and their ratio. Alfalfa hay was fed at a maintenance level of intake. EE:HR was lowest among treatments (P < 0.05) for 0 m/s (6.26, 6.54, 6.58, and 6.56 (kJ/(kg BW0.75 x day)/(beats/min) for 0, 0.14, 0.28, and 0.42 m/s, respectively). In another trial, EE and HR were first determined while standing, followed by measures when walking at 0.07, 0.14 or 0.21 m/s at a +5% slope; measurements also occurred while consuming 50% of the daily allocation of forage when standing or walking at the different speeds immediately after measures without forage ingestion. EE due to walking ranked (P < 0.05) 0 < 0.07 < 0.14 and 0.21 m/s (-0.3, 3.4, 4.8 and 5.9 kJ/(kg BW0.75 x h)). Conversely, EE attributable to forage consumption F was lower (P < 0.05) for 0 than for 0.07 and 0.21 m/s (9.0, 10.7, 10.3, and 10.7 kJ/(kg BW0.75 x h) for 0, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21 m/s, respectively). In summary, these results suggest potential use of HR to predict EE while grazing. Forage consumption increased EE to a greater extent than walking and may lessen effects of walking and walking speed on the grazing activity energy cost.

Impacts
Goat enterprises are important components of many farms and farming systems in the US, particularly small and resource-poor units. In addition, there are growing numbers of farms where sales of goats or goat products provide the great majority of income and also large operations have added goats to more conventional production systems to benefit from unique feeding habits of goats. Therefore, this project can lead to improvements in goat management practices and production systems for increased levels and efficiencies of goat productivity, accompanied by greater increased profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products.

Publications

  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., AIKEN, G.E., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., KREHBIEL, C.R., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T., DAWSON, L.J., JOHNSON, Z.B. AND KIESLER, D.H. 2006. Performance by goats and sheep consuming a concentrate-based diet subsequent to grazing of grass/forb pastures at different stocking rates. Small Rum. Res. 66:92-101.
  • ASMARE, A., PUCHALA, R., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2006. Change in energy expenditure by meat goats with varying levels of feed intake near maintenance and below.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
An experiment was conducted with six Boer x Spanish wethers to determine effects of different lengths of access to pasture with moderate to high mass of forage of high nutritive value on energy expenditure (EE), recovered energy (RE), metabolizable energy (ME) intake, and grazing activities. Wethers grazed a 0.7 ha pasture of cool season forages in the fall/winter period for 4 (1200 to 1600 h), 8 (0800 to 1600 h), or 24 h for at least 18 d. Forage samples averaged 22% crude protein and 39% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). EE was greatest (P < 0.05) for 24 h of pasture access (4.96, 5.13, and 6.19 MJ/d), although RE was similar among treatments (0.88, 2.16, and 1.57 MJ/d for 4, 8, and 12 h, respectively; SE = 0.361). Intake of ME was greater (P < 0.05) for 8 and 24 h vs 4 h (5.84, 7.30, and 7.76 MJ/d for 4, 8, and 24 h, respectively). As length of pasture access increased, number of steps (2.51, 4.57, and 6.41 x 1000), time spent ruminating (4.42, 6.33, and 7.28 h), and time eating (3.77, 6.35, and 7.24 h) increased (P < 0.05) and idle time (15.81, 11.32, and 9.48 h) decreased (P < 0.05), whereas time lying was greater (P < 0.05) for 4 and 8 vs 24 h (8.39, 8.25, and 6.66 h for 4, 8, and 24 h, respectively). In conclusion, with moderate to high mass of forage of high nutritive value, limited pasture access of a minimal length could yield performance by growing meat goats at least comparable to that with continuous access. Objectives of another study were to evaluate effects of the condensed tannin (CT)-containing forage sericea lespedeza (SL; 15.2% CT) on fecal egg count (FEC), larval development, worm burden, and immune response compared with a crabgrass/Kentucky 31 tall fescue forage (CTF) low in CT (0.32% CT) in grazing Angora does and their kids. One treatment entailed grazing SL from April 25 to July 15, with a second treatment of CTF grazing during the same period. Does of the third treatment grazed SL for 2 weeks and then CTF for 2 weeks, followed by alternating between the two pastures every 2 weeks (rotational; RoT). Tracer kids grazed for final 60 d before determining worm burden. The FEC for SL and ROT was lower (P < 0.05) than for CTF (145, 329, and 894 eggs/g, respectively). The FEC for kids was lower (P < 0.05) for SL than for ROT and CTF (550, 2757, and 3600 eggs/g, respectively). Total fecal egg output (3.3, 6.0, and 26.9 x 105 eggs/day, respectively) and larval development (242, 263, and 792 larvae/10 g, respectively) were lower (P < 0.05) for SL and ROT than for CTF. Tracers grazing on SL had lower total worm burdens than ROT and CTF (P < 0.05). Immune response was higher (P < 0.05) for SL (4.9 mm) and ROT (6.0 mm) than for CTF (3.0 mm) at 12 h after injection of phytohemagglutinin. Packed cell volume in does was higher (P < 0.05) for SL and ROT than for CTF (27, 26, and 23%, respectively). In summary, grazing CT forages reduced FEC, larval development, and worm burden, and also appeared to enhance immune response. The CT-containing forage SL reduced gastro-intestinal parasite infections of Angora does and kids.

Impacts
Goat enterprises are important components of many farms and farming systems in the US, particularly small and resource-poor units. In addition, there are growing numbers of farms where sales of goats or goat products provide the great majority of income and also large operations have added goats to more conventional production systems to benefit from unique feeding habits of goats. Therefore, this project can lead to improvements in goat management practices and production systems for increased levels and efficiencies of goat productivity, accompanied by greater increased profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products.

Publications

  • ASMARE, A., PATRA, A.K., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., GIPSON, T.A., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2005. Postweaning performance by crossbred Boer kids consuming pelletized alfalfa subsequent to grazing at different stocking rates. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):277. Abstr.
  • ASMARE, A., PUCHALA, R., PATRA, A.K., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2005. Change in energy expenditure by meat goats with varying levels of feed intake. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):278. Abstr.
  • HART, S.P., JOSEPH, J., GOETSCH, A.L. AND BROKAW, J. 2005. A comparison of herbicide, goats, and mowing for control of woody vegetation species. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):277. Abstr.
  • GIPSON, T.A., DAWSON, L.J. AND SAHLU, T. 2005. Residual feed intake in a meat goat performance test. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):152. Abstr.
  • PUCHALA, R., PIERZYNOWSKI, S.G., GOETSCH, A.L. AND SAHLU, T. 2005. 2005. Effects of insulin administered to a perfused area of skin on mohair growth in Angora goats. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):153. Abstr.
  • PUCHALA, R., TOVAR-LUNA, I., GOETSCH, A.L. AND SAHLU, T. 2005. The relationship between heart rate and energy expenditure in growing crossbred Boer and Spanish wethers. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 2):19. Abstr.
  • TOVAR-LUNA, I., GOETSCH, A.L., PUCHALA, R., SAHLU, T., HART, S.P. AND JOHNSON, Z.B. 2005. Energy utilization by lactating Alpine goats: dietary concentrate level and stage of lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 2):18. Abstr.
  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., AIKEN, G.E., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., KREHBIEL, C.R., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T., DAWSON, L.J. AND JOHNSON, Z.B. 2005. Grazing behavior and energy expenditure by sheep and goats grazing at different stocking rates. Oklahoma Research Day. University of Central Oklahoma, p 112. Abstr.
  • ASMARE, A., PATRA, A.K., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., GIPSON, T.A., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2005. Postweaning performance by crossbred Boer kids consuming pelletized alfalfa subsequent to grazing at different stocking rates. Oklahoma Research Day. University of Central Oklahoma, p 112-113. Abstr.
  • ASMARE, A., PUCHALA, R., PATRA, A.K., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2005. Change in energy expenditure by meat goats with varying levels of feed intake. Oklahoma Research Day. University of Central Oklahoma, p 113. Abstr.
  • HART, S.P., JOSEPH, J., GOETSCH, A.L. AND BROKAW, J. 2005. A comparison of herbicide, goats, and mowing for control of woody vegetation species. Oklahoma Research Day. University of Central Oklahoma, p 111. Abstr.
  • PUCHALA, R., PIERZYNOWSKI, S., GOETSCH, A.L. AND SAHLU, T. 2005. Effects of insulin on mohair growth in Angora goats. Oklahoma Research Day. University of Central Oklahoma, p 111. Abstr.
  • WULIJI, T., GOETSCH, A., SALU, T., PUCHALA, R., DAWSON, L.J. AND GIPSON, T.A. 2005. Administration of melatonin and bromocryptine effects on hair follicle activity and follicle characteristics in Spanish goats. Oklahoma Research Day. University of Central Oklahoma, p 115. Abstr.
  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., AIKEN, G.E., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., KREHBIEL, C.R., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T., DAWSON, L.J., JOHNSON, Z.B. AND GIPSON, T.A. 2005. Grazing behavior and energy expenditure by sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forb pastures at three stocking rates. Small Rum. Res. 59: 191-201.
  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., AIKEN, G.E., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., KREHBIEL, C.R., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T., DAWSON, L.J., JOHNSON, Z.B. AND GIPSON, T.A. 2005. Performance and forage selectivity of sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forb pastures at three stocking rates. Small Rum. Res. 59: 203-215.
  • BANSKALIEVA, V., PUCHALA, R., GOETSCH, A.L., LUO, J. AND SAHLU, T. 2005. Effects of ruminally protected betaine and choline on net flux of nutrients across the portal-drained viscera and liver of meat goat wethers consuming diets differing in protein concentration. Small Rum. Res. 57: 193-202.
  • BERHAN, T., PUCHALA, R., SAHLU, T., MERKEL, R.C. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2005. Effects of length of pasture access on energy use by growing meat goats. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 28: 1-7.
  • GIPSON, T.A. 2005. Book Review: Biostatistics for Animal Science. Small Rum. Res. 57: 287-288.
  • MIN, B.R., HART, S.P., SAHLU, T. AND SATTER, L.D. 2005. The effect of diets on milk production and composition, and on lactation curves in pastured dairy goats. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 2604-2615.
  • MIN, B.R., HART, S.P., MILLER, D., TOMITA, G., LOETZ, E. AND SAHLU, T. 2005. The effect of grazing forage containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal parasite infection and milk composition in Angora does. Vet. Parasit. 130: 105-113.
  • SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2005. A foresight on goat research. Small Rum. Res. 60: 7-12.
  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., AIKEN, G.E., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., KREHBIEL, C.R., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T., DAWSON, L.J. AND JOHNSON, Z.B. 2005. Grazing behavior and energy expenditure by sheep and goats co-grazing grass/forb pastures at three stocking rates. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1): 276-277. Abstr.
  • ANIMUT, G.A., GOETSCH, A.L., AIKEN, G.E., PUCHALA, R., DETWEILER, G., KREHBIEL, C.R., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T., DAWSON, L.J. AND JOHNSON, Z.B. 2005. Performance by goats and sheep consuming a 65 pct concentrate diet subsequent to co- grazing of grass/forb pastures at different stocking rates. J. Anim. Sci. 83(Suppl. 2): 18. Abstr.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Eight yearling Spanish wethers were used in a study, consuming basal diets of wheat straw treated (ammoniated) with urea or untreated supplemented with soybean meal or broiler litter. Supplements were a ground corn-based and fed at 0.64% body weight, corn plus soybean meal at 0.25% body weight, and corn plus 0.5 or 1.0% body weight of broiler litter. Presumably because of extensive nitrogen recycling, including nitrogen from mobilized tissue, which prevented impact on extent of wheat straw digestion, change in digestible organic matter intake appeared primarily because of nutrients provided by soybean meal and broiler litter without substitution for wheat straw intake. However, with prolonged feeding of untreated crop residues, limited tissue nitrogen available for recycling might be conducive to impact of supplemental nitrogen on intake and ruminal digestion. Ammoniated crop residues and concentrate supplements high in ruminally degraded nitrogen can be employed together when high nutritional planes are desired. A relatively high level of broiler litter to supplement untreated wheat straw, in addition to a moderate level of supplemental concentrate, may be necessary to achieve digestible organic matter intake comparable to that with ammoniated wheat straw and a moderate level of concentrate supplement. A study with 36 meat goat wethers (3/4 Spanish and 1/4 Boer), born in the previous spring or fall, were used to determine effects of ad libitum consumption of different quality diets and age on early subsequent growth while grazing wheat forage. The experiment was 14 weeks long, with 9 weeks in the winter consuming prairie hay supplemented with 0.125% body weight of soybean meal, alfalfa pellets, or a 70% concentrate diet, and 5 weeks in the spring grazing wheat forage. An obvious period of adaptation to grazing of wheat forage after consuming ad libitum different diets on pasture in the winter was not apparent. The nature of diets consumed ad libitum did not impact subsequent growth, regardless of age, when grazing wheat forage. Objectives of another trial were to determine effects of dietary crude protein (CP) level (13 or 19%) and source of supplemental protein on growth performance of weaned Boer x Spanish wether goats. Diets were 70% concentrate, had a ratio of ruminally degraded intake protein (DIP) to total digestible nutrients (TDN) of at least 0.09 and were formulated to maximize ruminally undegraded protein from supplemental protein sources. Results of the experiment suggest that the dietary CP requirement of growing Boer crossbred wethers consuming a high concentrate diet is no greater than 13% and that a DIP:TDN ratio of 0.09 is adequate. Supplemental protein sources differing in amino acid profile may not impact DM intake or ADG with high concentrate diets at least 13% in CP.

Impacts
Goat enterprises are important components of many farms and farming systems in the US, particularly small and resource-poor units. In addition, there are growing numbers of farms where sales of goats or goat products provide the great majority of income and also large operations have added goats to more conventional production systems to benefit from unique feeding habits of goats. Therefore, this project can lead to improvements in goat management practices and production systems for increased levels and efficiencies of goat productivity, accompanied by greater increased profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products.

Publications

  • GOETSCH, A.L., GIPSON, T.A., DETWEILER, G., MERKEL, R.C. AND SAHLU, T. 2004. Effects of the number of yearling Boer crossbred wethers per automated feeding system on feed intake, feeding behavior, and growth performance. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1): 356-357. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., GIPSON, T.A., DETWEILER, G., MERKEL, R.C. AND SAHLU, T. 2004. Effects of the number of yearling Boer crossbred wethers per automated feeding system on feed intake, feeding behavior, and growth performance. Oklahoma Research Day for Regional Universities. University of Central Oklahoma, p 49-50. Abstr.
  • HART, S.P., JOSEPH, J. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2004. Goats for vegetation management: animal performance and carrying capacity. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1): 357. Abstr.
  • HART, S.P., JOSEPH, J. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2004. Goats for vegetation management: animal performance and carrying capacity. Oklahoma Research Day for Regional Universities. University of Central Oklahoma, p 55. Abstr.
  • LOOPER, M.L., MERKEL, R.C., LOETZ, E.R., GOETSCH, A.L., DAWSON, L.J., BURKE, J.M. AND FLORES, R. 2004. Influence of progesterone on sychronization and pregnancy rate of Alpine does. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 2): 357. Abstr.
  • TAMIR, B., MERKEL, R.C., GIPSON, T.A. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2004. Effect of breed and litter size on yield of milk, milk fat, and milk protein in Boer x Spanish and Spanish does. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1): 357. Abstr.
  • TAMIR, B., MERKEL, R.C., GIPSON, T.A. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2004. Effect of breed and litter size on yield of milk, milk fat, and milk protein in Boer x Spanish and Spanish does. Oklahoma Research Day for Regional Universities. University of Central Oklahoma, p 48-49. Abstr.
  • ZENG, S.S., SORYAL, K.A., FEKADU, B.A., TESFAI, K. AND BAH, B. 2004. Effects of goat breed and stage of lactation on yield, sensory quality, and fatty acid concentration of soft cheese. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1): 392. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L. AND GIPSON, T.A. 2004. Web-based goat nutrient requirement calculation system: usage notes and some examples. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Goat Field Day. pp 51-73. Langston University, Langston, OK.
  • LUO, J., GOETSCH, A.L., MOORE, J.E., JOHNSON, Z.B., SAHLU, T., FERRELL, C.L., GALYEAN, M.L. AND OWENS, F.N. 2004. Prediction of endogenous urinary nitrogen of goats. Small Rum. Res. 53: 293-308.
  • LUO, J., GOETSCH, A.L., NSAHLAI, I.V., JOHNSON, Z.B., SAHLU, T., MOORE, J.E., FERRELL,C.L., GALYEAN, M.L. AND OWENS, F.N. 2004. Maintenance energy needs of goats: predictions based on observations of heat and recovered energy. Small Rum. Res. 53: 221-230.
  • JOEMAT, R., GOETSCH, A.L., HORN, G.W., SAHLU, T., PUCHALA, R., MIN, B.R. AND LUO, J. 2004. Growth of yearling meat goat doelings with changing plane of nutrition. Small Rum. Res. 52: 127-135.
  • MEKASHA, Y., MERKEL, R.C., GOETSCH, A.L., SAHLU, T. AND TESFAI, K. 2004. Effects of method of offering broiler litter and level of prairie hay on growth of Boer x Spanish wethers. Small Rum. Res. 55: 123-134.
  • MIN, B.R., POMROY, W.E., HART, S.P. AND SAHLU, T. 2004. The effect of short-term consumption of a forge containing condensed tannins on gastrointestinal nematode parasite infections in grazing wether goats. Small Rum. Res. 51: 279-284.
  • SORYAL, K.A., ZENG, S.S., MIN, B.R. AND HART, S.P. 2004. Effect of feeding treatments and lactation stages on composition and organoleptic quality of goat milk Domiati cheese. Small Rum. Res. 52: 109-116.
  • SORYAL, K.A., ZENG, S.S., MIN, B.R., HART, S.P. AND BEYENE, F.A. 2004. Effect of feeding systems on composition of goat milk and yield of Domiati cheese. Small Rum. Res. 54: 121-129.
  • SOTO-NAVARRO, S., GOETSCH, A.L., SAHLU, T. AND CAMERON, M. 2004. Effects of supplemental protein source and level on growth performance of Boer crossbred wethers. Small Rum. Res. 51: 101-116.
  • URGE, M., MERKEL, R.C., SAHLU, T., ANIMUT, G. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2004. Growth performance by Alpine, Angora, Boer and Spanish wether goats consuming 50 or 75 pct concentrate diets. Small Rum. Res. 55: 149-158.
  • GIPSON, T.A., SAHLU, T. AND DAWSON, L.J. 2004. Effects of age and weight at entry on final rankings of average daily gain and feed efficiency in performance-tested young meat bucks. Oklahoma Research Day for Regional Universities. University of Central Oklahoma, p 48. Abstr.
  • GIPSON, T.A., SAHLU, T., VILLAQUIRAN, M., JOSEPH, J., MERKEL, R.C. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2004. Use of global positioning system collars to monitor spatial-temporal movements of grazing goats and sheep and their guardian dog. Oklahoma Research Day for Regional Universities. University of Central Oklahoma, p 66. Abstr.
  • ABEBE, G., MERKEL, R.C., ANIMUT, G., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2004. Effects of ammoniation of wheat straw and supplementation with soybean meal or broiler litter on feed intake and digestion in yearling Spanish wether goats. Small Rum. Res. 51: 37-46.
  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., ESTELL, R.E., MERKEL, R.C., DAWSON, L.J., SAHLU, T. AND PUCHALA, R. 2004. Effects of method of exposure to Eastern red cedar foliage on cedar consumption by Boer crossbred wether goats. Small Rum. Res. 54: 197-212.
  • NSAHLAI, I.V., GOETSCH, A.L., LUO, J., MOORE, J.E., JOHNSON, Z.B., SAHLU, T., FERRELL, C.L., GALYEAN, M.L. AND OWENS, F.N. 2004. Metabolizable protein requirements of lactating goats. Small Rum. Res. 53: 327-328.
  • SAHLU, T., GOETSCH, A.L., LUO, J., NSAHLAI, I.V., MOORE, J.E., GALYEAN, M.L., OWENS, F.N., FERRELL, C.L. AND JOHNSON, Z.B. 2004. Energy and protein requirements: developed equations, other considerations, and future research to improve them. Small Rum. Res. 53: 191-200.
  • LUO, J., GOETSCH, A.L., NSAHLAI, I.V. AND SAHLU, T. 2004. Metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance and gain of growing goats. J. Anim. Sci.82(Suppl. 2): 30. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., GIPSON, T.A., SAHLU, T. AND MERKEL, R.C. 2004. Nutrient requirements of goats: web-based calculator. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 2): 30. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., GIPSON, T.A., SAHLU, T. AND MERKEL, R.C. 2004. Nutrient requirements of goats: web-based calculator. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Goats. International Goat Association. p 245. Pretoria, South Africa.
  • LUO, J., GOETSCH, A.L., NSAHAI, I.V., MOORE, J.E., GALYEAN, M.L., FERRELL, C.L., JOHNSON, Z.B., SAHLU, T. AND OWENS, F.N. 2004. Metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance and gain of growing goats. Small Rum. Res. 53: 309-204.
  • LUO, J., GOETSCH, A.L., NSAHLAI, I.V., MOORE, J.E., GALYEAN, M.L., JOHNSON, Z.B., SAHLU, T., FERRELL, C.L. AND OWENS, F.N. 2004. Prediction of voluntary intake by lactating, Angora, growing and mature goats. Small Rum. Res. 53: 357-378.
  • LUO, J., GOETSCH, A.L., NSAHLAI, I.V., SAHLU, T., FERRELL, C.L.,OWENS, F.N., GALYEAN, M.L., MOORE, J.E. AND JOHNSON, Z.B. 2004. Prediction of metabolizable energy and protein requirements for maintenance, gain and fiber growth of Angora goats. Small Rum. Res. 53: 339-356.
  • LUO, J., GOETSCH, A.L., SAHLU, T., NSAHLAI, I.V., JOHNSON, Z.B., MOORE, J.E., GALYEAN, M.L., OWENS, F.N. AND FERRELL, C.L. 2004. Prediction of metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance and gain of preweaning, growing and mature goats. Small Rum. Res. 53: 309-328.
  • MOORE, J.E., GOETSCH, A.L., LUO, J., OWENS, F.N., GALYEAN, M.L., JOHNSON, Z.B., SAHLU, T. AND FERRELL, C.L. 2004. Prediction of fecal crude protein excretion in goats. Small Rum. Res. 53: 275-292.
  • NSAHAI, I.V., GOETSCH, A.L., LUO, J., MOORE, J.E., JOHNSON, Z.B., SAHLU, T., FERRELL, C.L., GALYEAN, M.L. AND OWENS, F.N. 2004. Energy requirements for lactation in goats. Small Rum. Res. 53: 253-274.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
An experiment was conducted to determine effects of frequency of supplementation with soybean meal on performance of Angora does consuming low quality forage in late gestation and early lactation with single- or twin-kid litters. Angora does consuming low quality forage, with single- or twin-kid litters, were used in a 120-day experiment. Prairie hay (5.1% crude protein) was consumed ad libitum without soybean meal (SBM), or SBM was offered at an average daily rate of 0.125 percent body weight (BW) every 1, 4, or 8 days. Results of this experiment indicated that Angora does in late gestation and early lactation consuming low quality forage can be supplemented with protein from SBM as infrequently as once every 4 days without adversely affecting BW. Less frequent supplementation, such as once every 8 days, may be as effective as supplementation daily or every 4 days with moderate nutrient requirements of late gestation. However, in early lactation with elevated nutritional demands, supplementation once every 8 days can increase BW loss compared with more frequent supplementation, although nutrient needs as impacted by litter size in this study did not influence BW response to supplementation frequency. Does with 2- vs 1-kid litters mobilized tissue energy reserves to provide nutrients for increased needs for gestation and lactation rather than to lessen mohair fiber growth. Skin and fiber characteristics were not influenced by infrequent supplementation, except for an improvement in fiber growth rate in the second half of the experiment with daily supplementation compared with no supplementation or supplementation every 4 days. This finding, along with lower BW for supplementation every 9 vs 1 and 4 days, suggest a need for frequent supplementation, such as daily, to maintain BW and stimulate fiber production when nutrient demands of Angoras are high during lactation. Growing Spanish wethers and doelings consumed ad libitum diets differing in quality continuously for 18 weeks or with an increase in quality after 9 weeks. Urea space (US), shrunk BW (SBW), and chemical composition of the whole body were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the experiment. In addition, at the beginning of the experiment the same determinations were made with two yearling Boer x Spanish doelings that had consumed a high quality diet ad libitum for 12 weeks. SBW accounted for most variation in body composition of growing goats of this experiment. Nonetheless, small improvements in explained variability resulted from inclusion of US in equations for water and fat. Equations yielding best prediction of body composition of weaned goats were: water (kg) = 1.274 + (0.1546 x US, kg) + (0.5782 x SBW, kg) - (0.0043 x SBW2, kg); fat (kg) = -0.921 - (0.1520 x US, kg) + (0.1564 x SBW, kg) + (0.0064 x SBW2, kg); protein (percent water) = 34.696 - (0.1175 x predicted water, percent); and ash (percent water) = 0.0448 x predicted water, percent.

Impacts
Goat enterprises are important components of many farms and farming systems in the US, particularly small and resource-poor units. In addition, there are growing numbers of farms where sales of goats or goat products provide the great majority of income and also large operations have added goats to more conventional production systems to benefit from unique feeding habits of goats. Therefore, this project can lead to improvements in goat management practices and production systems for increased levels and efficiencies of goat productivity, accompanied by greater increased profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products.

Publications

  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., MERKEL, R.C., DETWEILER, G., DAWSON, L.J., PUCHALA, R., SAHLU, T. AND ESTELL, R.A. 2003. Effects of method of exposure of crossbred Boer wether goats to Eastern red cedar foliage on cedar consumption. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1): 324-325. Abstr.
  • ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L., MERKEL, R.C., DETWEILER, G., DAWSON, L.J., PUCHALA, R., SAHLU, T. AND ESTELL, R.E. 2003. Effects of method of exposure of cross-bred Boer wether goats to Eastern red cedar foliage on cedar consumption. Proceedings of the Research Day for Regional Universities. pp 73-74. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G., SAHLU, T., HAYES, J. AND PUCHALA, R. 2003. Effects of separate offering of forage and concentrate on feed intake and growth of Alpine doelings. Small Rum. Res. 48: 209-216.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G., SAHLU, T., PUCHALA, R., MERKEL, R.C. AND SOTO-NAVARRO, S. 2003. Effects of diet quality and age of meat goat wethers on early subsequent growth while grazing wheat forage. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1): 326. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G., SAHLU, T., PUCHALA, R., MERKEL, R.C. AND SOTO-NAVARRO, S. 2003. Effects of diet quality and age of meat goat wethers on early subsequent growth while grazing wheat forage. Proceedings of the Research Day for Regional Universities. p 86. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK. Abstr.
  • HART, S.P., POMROY, W. AND GIPSON, T.A. 2003. Evaluation of goat eye mucous membrane scoring for determination of the need for anthelmintic treatment. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1): 329.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Effects of condensed tannin-containing, Serica lespedeza (SL; 5.2 percent condensed tannins (CT)), on fecal egg count (FEC; eggs/g), rate of larva development (RLD), adult worm burden (AWB), and immune response (IMR) were compared with those of a control forage (CF; crabgrass/tall fescue; 0.2 percent CT) in grazing Angora does and kids. Results suggested that CT in forages can reduce contamination of pastures with infective larvae; grazing CT forages reduced FEC, RLD, and AWB, and also appeared to enhance IMR. Yearling meat goat doelings, Boer x Spanish (BS) and Spanish (S), were used in a 16-wk experiment to determine effects on growth of length of nutrient restriction and level of supplementation during realimentation. Maintaining an adequate plane of nutrition for steady growth and development appears more important for BS than for S yearling doelings, with the former possibly requiring longer periods of realimentation than previous nutrient restriction regardless of level of concentrate supplementation. Meat goat wethers (3/4 Spanish and 1/4 Boer), born in the previous Spring or Fall (initial age of 2.5 mo and 13 +/- 0.8 kg), were used to determine effects of ad libitum consumption of different quality diets and age on early subsequent growth while grazing wheat forage. The nature of the diet consumed ad libitum did not impact subsequent growth by 3/4 Spanish wethers, regardless of age, when grazing wheat forage. Effects on present and future consumption of Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) foliage (CF) by goats of stepwise increases in dietary level of CF compared with a constant relatively high level and subsequent availability of low-quality forage were determined. Gradual increases in dietary level of CF deserve further research as a potential means of elevating present and future CF consumption, with attention also directed to type and level of other feedstuffs offered. Spanish wether and doeling kids were used to determine influences of different quality diets consumed continuously or after a lower quality diet on characteristics of growth. Results indicated that the nature of the diet consumed by young Spanish goats can impact current and subsequent rate and composition of BW gain. Alpine, Angora, Boer [87.5 percent], and Spanish wether goats were used to determine differences in growth performance with consumption of a 75 percent concentrate diet for 24 weeks or for 12 weeks subsequent to 12 weeks of feeding a 50 percent concentrate diet. Findings included that a moderate vs high dietary concentrate level did not impact differences among Alpine, Angora, Boer, and Spanish wether goats in growth performance. A study was conducted to evaluate eye mucous membrane color (EMMC) as an indicator of the need for anthelmintic treatment. Scoring EMMC with a chart correctly identified most animals needing anthelmintic treatment, but included a significant proportion not requiring treatment.

Impacts
Goat enterprises are important components of many farms and farming systems in the US, particularly small and resource-poor units. In addition, there are growing numbers of farms where sales of goats or goat products provide the great majority of income and also large perations have added goats to more conventional production systems to benefit from unique feeding habits of goats. Therefore, this project can lead to improvements in goat management practices and production systems for increased levels and efficiencies of goat productivity, accompanied by greater increased profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products.

Publications

  • POMROY, W.E., HART, S.P. AND MIN, B.R. 2002. Rotational grazing as a parasite management tool for goats. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 193-194. Abstr.
  • POMROY, W.E., HART, S.P. AND MIN, B.R. 2002. Titration efficacy of ivermectin and moxidectin against an ivermectin-resistant Haemonchus contortus derived from goats in the field. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 2): 30. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G., HAYES, J., PUCHALA, R. AND SAHLU, T. 2002. Effects of ad libitum consumption of concentrate and forage offered separately or mixed on growth of Alpine doelings. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 294. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G., HAYES, J., PUCHALA, R. AND SAHLU, T. 2002. Effects of ad libitum consumption of concentrate and forage offered separately or mixed on growth of Alpine doelings. Proc. Research Day for Regional Universities. p 75. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G. AND SAHLU, T. 2002. Performance effects of preweaning concentrate supplementation of meat goats. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 21: 25-34.
  • MEKASHA, Y., MERKEL, R.C., GOETSCH, A.L., SAHLU, T. AND TESFAI, K. 2002. Effects of method of offering broiler litter and level of prairie hay intake on growth of Boer x Spanish wethers. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 294. Abstr.
  • MEKASHA, Y., MERKEL, R.C., GOETSCH, A.L., SAHLU, T. AND TESFAI, K. 2002. Effects of method of offering broiler litter and level of prairie hay intake on growth of Boer x Spanish wethers. Proc. Research Day for Regional Universities. pp 84-85. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond. Abstr.
  • MERKEL, R.C., GOETSCH, A.L., MOSELEY, M., BLACKWELL, R. AND CURTIS, T. 2002. Variation in browse nutrient content in western Oklahoma throughout the growing season. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 295. Abstr.
  • MERKEL, R.C., GOETSCH, A.L., MOSELEY, M., BLACKWELL, R. AND CURTIS, T. 2002. Variation in browse nutrient content in western Oklahoma throughout the growing season. Proc. Research Day for Regional Universities. pp 79-80. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond. Abstr.
  • MIN, B.R., POMROY, W., HART, S.P. AND SAHLU, T. 2002. Effect of forage condensed tannins on gastrointestinal parasite infection in grazing wether goats. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 31-32. Abstr.
  • ANIMUT, G., MERKEL, R.C., ABEBE, G., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2002. Effects of level of broiler litter in diets containing wheat straw on performance of Alpine doelings. Small Rum. Res. 44: 125-134.
  • GENANDOY, H., SAHLU, T., DAVIS, J., WANG, R.J., HART, S.P., PUCHALA, R. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2002. Effects of different feeding methods on growth and harvest traits of Alpine kids raised for cabrito. Small Rum. Res. 44: 81-87.
  • GIPSON, T.A. AND MCKINNEY, T. 2002. Adjustment factors for fat, protein, and somatic cell count for goat milk using different species-specific calibration standards. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 293. Abstr.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Forty-four young Alpine doelings were used in a 16-wk experiment to determine how separate free-choice offering of concentrate and forage (wheat hay, 14.2% CP and 34.1% ADF) affect performance compared with consumption of different mixed diets. Results indicated that separate free-choice offering appears promising as a simple means of achieving high ADG and efficient feed utilization by Alpine doelings, and restricted offering of concentrate with separate free access to forage can yield ADG and ADG:DM intake similar to ad libitum consumption of a mixed diet providing a comparable dietary concentrate level. In another experiment, 34 young Boer x Spanish wethers were used in a 12-wk experiment to determine effects of ad libitum consumption of broiler litter alone or mixed with corn (60% litter) and of ad libitum vs restricted prairie hay intake on feed intake and growth performance. Offering litter alone free-choice increased ADG by Boer cross goats when consuming hay ad libitum but not with hay intake restricted to 1% BW. A lower ADG:DM intake ratio for ad libitum hay and litter alone compared with restricted hay and the litter-corn mixture indicates less efficient utilization of hay than corn, although similar ADG reflects compensation via greater hay intake. Mixing corn with litter increased ADG similarly with both ad libitum and restricted hay intake. In conclusion, depending on production goals and availability of high-quality feedstuffs such as cereal grains, free-choice consumption of litter may be a simple and useful method of supplementing low-quality forage. A parasitology study indicated that a short-duration, long-rest-period, rotational grazing system on tallgrass native range can effectively control internal parasites in goats, but the presence of trees in pastures can increase parasite infestation. The objective of another trial concerning internal parasites was to titrate the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) dewormers using variable dose rates of both anthelmintics against an IVM-resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus. Results indicated that IVM-resistance is present in H. contortus at IVM doses as high as 0.8 mg/kg but a dose as low as 0.1 mg/kg of the formulation of MOX used was effective. The survival of Trichostrongylus at 0.4 mg IVM/kg suggests the emergence of IVM resistance in this parasite as well.

Impacts
Goat enterprises are important components of many farms and farming systems in the US, particularly small and resource-poor units. In addition, there are growing numbers of farms where sales of goats or goat products provide the great majority of income and also large operations have added goats to more conventional production systems to benefit from unique feeding habits of goats. Therefore, this project can lead to improvements in goat management practices and production systems for increased levels and efficiencies of goat productivity, accompanied by greater profitability from goat production and lower costs to consumers of goat products.

Publications

  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G., SAHLU, T., PUCHALA, R. AND DAWSON, L.J. 2001. Dairy goat performance with different dietary concentrate levels in late lactation. Small Rum. Res. 41:117-235.
  • NEGESSE, T., MERKEL, R.C., TOLERA, A., GOETSCH, A.L., SAHLU, T., PUCHALA, R., GIPSON, T.A. AND DAWSON, L.J. 2001. Feed intake and growth by Spanish and Boer x Spanish doelings consuming diets with different levels of broiler litter. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 1):448. Abstr.
  • NEGESSE, T., MERKEL, R.C., TOLERA, A., GOETSCH, A.L., SAHLU, T., PUCHALA, R., GIPSON, T.A. AND DAWSON, L.J. 2001. Feed intake and growth by Spanish and Boer x Spanish doelings consuming diets with different levels of broiler litter. Proc. Research Day for Regional Universities. p 77. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond. Abstr.
  • ABEBE, G., MERKEL, R., ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L. AND SAHLU, T. 2001. Effects of urea treatment of straw and dietary broiler litter on feed intake and digestion in Spanish wethers. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 1):448. Abstr.
  • ABEBE, G., MERKEL, R.C., ANIMUT, G., GOETSCH, A.L. AND SAHLU, T. 2001. Effects of urea treatment of straw and dietary broiler litter on feed intake and digestion in Spanish wethers. Proc. Research Day for Regional Universities. p 57. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond. Abstr.
  • BROWN-CROWDER, I.E., HART, S.P., CAMERON, M., SAHLU, T. AND GOETSCH, A.L. 2001. Effects of dietary tallow level on performance of Alpine does in early lactation. Small Rum. Res. 39:233-242.
  • GIPSON, T.A. AND WIGGANS, G.R. 2001. Modeling extended lactation curves in dairy goats using grafted polynomials. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 1):450. Abstr.
  • GIPSON, T.A. AND WIGGANS, G.R. 2001. Modeling extended lactation curves in dairy goats using grafted polynomials. Proc. Research Day for Regional Universities. p 66. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G., SAHLU, T. AND DAWSON, L.J. 2001. Effects of different management practices on preweaning and early postweaning growth of Alpine kids. Small Rum. Res. 41:109-116.
  • GOETSCH, A.L. DETWEILER, G. AND SAHLU, T. 2001. Effects of preweaning concentrate supplementation on performance of meat goats. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 2, Southern Section):449-450. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G. AND SAHLU, T. 2001. Effects of preweaning concentrate supplementation on performance of meat goats. Proc. Research Day for Regional Universities. p 67. University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond. Abstr.
  • GOETSCH, A.L., DETWEILER, G., SAHLU, T. AND DAWSON, L.J. 2001. Effects of milk feeding regimes on performance of artificially reared Alpine kids. J. Anim. Sci. 79(Suppl. 2, Southern Section):30. Abstr.