Source: MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV submitted to
COLD HARDINESS, ASEXUAL PROPAGATION, AND PERFORMANCE OF PECAN SELECTIONS AND CULTIVARS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0188649
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MIS-121020
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2001
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2006
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Matta, F. B.
Recipient Organization
MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV
(N/A)
MISSISSIPPI STATE,MS 39762
Performing Department
PLANT & SOIL SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
Adult pecan wood is difficult to root. Late spring freezes damage the pecan crop. Pecan trees are succeptible to insects and diseases, especially pecan scab. This project examines propagation techniques that will facilitate rooting of adult pecan wood, identifies cold hardy varieties that will tolerate late spring freezes, and identifies pecan selections and varieties resistant to insects and disease, especially pecan scab.
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
90%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2041211106080%
2031211106010%
2051211106010%
Goals / Objectives
1. Evaluate the effects of girdling, banding, container design, and propagation media on rooting and survival of adult pecan cuttings. 2. Examine histological sections of pecan cuttings to determine the extent of vascular connection of root initials. 3. Enhance cutting survival by day length, fertilizer and light manipulation. 4. Determine the effect of plant growth regulators on acclimation and deacclimation patterns of various pecan selection and cultivars. 5. Study overall performance of pecan selections and cultivars including insect and disease resistance.
Project Methods
Twelve year old grafted pecan trees will be used in this study. Over-all performance (yield, nut quality, cold hardiness and insect and disease resistance) will be monitored. Effect of cultivar and growth regulator treatments on acclimation and deacclimation of pecan trees will be determined by Differential Thermal Analysis, and viability tests. Histological studies under the microscope will be conducted to determine the extent of vascular connection of root initials. Adult pecan cuttings will be girdled and banded with black, potted in various containers containing specific rooting media and rooted under mist. Rooted cuttings will be grown in the greenhouse under different fertilizer regimes, light-levels, and day length to determine cutting survival.

Progress 07/01/01 to 06/30/06

Outputs
Drought in August, September and October resulted in stick tights, a reduced crop, and poor nut filling of all cultivars. Yield comparisons were not possible due to low yields.

Impacts
Growers will be able to propagate pecan trees in a rapid and efficient manner. Clonal rootstocks may be developed leading to uniform, consistent production and thus, increase profits for growers. Growers can select scab resistant varieties and increase yield and nut quality to receive better price for the crop. Breeding for cold hardiness will increase overall adaptability of trees and result in increased production.

Publications

  • Jover, P. and F. B. Matta. 2006. Harvest time and storage condition effect germination, moisture, abscisic acid, and indoleacetic acid in pecan. HortScience 41(5): 1235-1237.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Pecan scab ratings indicated that Cheyenne, Choctaw and Shoshoni had a high incidence of scab. Cape Fear, Chickasaw and Choctaw. High winds of Hurricane Katrina and Rita resulted in some limb breakage and a complete loss of all cultivars.

Impacts
Growers will be able to propagate pecan trees in a rapid and efficient manner. Clonal rootstocks may be developed leading to uniform, consistent production and thus, increased profits for growers. Growers can select scab resistant varieties and increase yield and nut quality to receive better price for the crop. Breeding for cold hardiness will increase overall adaptability of trees and result in increased production.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/30/04

Outputs
Seasonal changes in total lipids and cold hardiness of 'Jackson', 'Owens', and 'Hughes' were determined using gas chromatography and differential thermal analysis. The predominant fatty acids in pecan shoots were palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic(18:2), and linolenic (18:3). Degrees of unsaturation peaked in December due to the rise in linoleic and linolenic acids. In studies on the anatomy of root formation and rooting of semi-hardwood pecan cuttings the following was observed; banding increased rooting percentage of cutting. Girdling plus banding of shoots enhanced the banding effects. Rooting of cuttings was greater in vermiculite compared to styrofoam blocks. Adventitisus roots originated outside the cambuim and their connection to the system of the parent axis were observed three months in rooting media.

Impacts
Growers will be able to propagate pecan trees in a rapid and efficient manner. Clonal rootstocks may be developed leading to uniform, consistent production and thus, increased profits for growers. Growers can select scab resistant varieties and increase yield and nut quality to receive better price for the crop. Breeding for cold hardiness will increase over-all adaptability of trees and result in increased production.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
This research was conducted to compare hardiness among three pecan cultivars. Desirable, Jackson and Owens growing under Mississippi condition and to determine the relationship between fatty acid levels and cold hardiness of pecan shoots. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests were used to determine cold hardiness. Pecan stems were collected from September to March in 2002 and 2003 to determine cold acclimation and deacclimation. Fatty acid composition of pecan stems during this time period was determined by gas chromatography. DTA indicated that pecan stems acclimated in October and deacclimated in March. Total percentage of fatty acid significantly increased during cold acclimation and there was a shift in the fatty acid composition to more unsaturated fatty acids. The percentage of linoleic fatty acids increased, while the percentage of palmitic and stearic fatty acids decreased. The correlation between unsaturated fatty acids and cold hardiness suggests that unsaturated fatty acid may play a role in membrane fliudity.

Impacts
Growers will be able to propagate pecan trees in a rapid and efficient manner. Growers can select scab resistant varieties and increase yield and nut quality to receive better price for the crop. Breeding for cold hardiness will increase over-all adaptability of trees and result in increased production.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Evaluation of pecan selections and cultivars at Crystal Springs, MS indicated that kernal grade number 1 did not differ among the selections and cultivars tested. However, Hughes had 10% of Number 2 grade kernels compared to the remaining entries which range from 5.5 to 10%. Choctaw had a greater percentage of number 3 grade kernels compared to the other selections anc cultivars. Percentage of number 3 grade kernels did not differ among the remaining entries. Hughes had a total kernel percentage of 45.8 and greater than Choctaw with 32.5 percent. Total kernel percentage did not differ among the remaining entries including Choctaw. Choctaw produced 72 nuts per pound compared to the range of 38 to 56 for the remaining entries. Percentage leaf scab ratings were 27, 48, 53, 67 and 81 for Jenkins 2, Jenkins, Jenkins 4, Forkert and Jenkins 3, respectively. Percentage nut scab ratings were 9, 16, 62, 92 and 95 for Jenkins 2, Jenkins, Jenkins 4, Forkert and Jenkins 3.

Impacts
Growers will be able to propagate pecan trees in a rapid and efficient manner. Growers can select scab resistant varieties and increase yield and nut quality to receive better price for the crop. Breeding for cold hardiness will increase over-all adaptability of trees and result in increase production.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Exclusion of light increased rooting of pecan cultivars, Choctaw, Shoshoni, and Pawnee. Shoshoni cuttings exhibited the highest rooting percentage, 50 percent, when a combination of etiolation and girdling was imposed. Etiolation and girdling resulted in rooting percentages of 25 percent and 45 percent for Choctaw and Pawnee, respectively. Collection date also affected rooting; better rooting was achieved when cuttings were collected in June, compared to cuttings collected in May. Season changes in total liprids and cold hardiness of `Jackson', `Owens' and `Hughes' pecans were determined. The predominant fatty acids were palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2), and linolenic (18:3). Degree of unsaturation peaked in December, a month of maximum hardiness, due to rise in linoleic and linolenic acids. In 'Jackson' and 'Owens', its degree of unsaturation decreased to its lowest level in January: however, this was not observed in 'Hughes'.

Impacts
Growers will be able to propagate pecan trees in a rapid and efficient manner. Growers can select scab resistant varieties and increase yield and nut quality to receive better price for the crop. Breeding for cold hardiness will increase over-all adaptability of trees and result in increase production.

Publications

  • Cade, J. C. 2001. The relationship between fatty acid content and pecan cold hardiness. M. S. Thesis. Mississippi State University.