Progress 04/01/01 to 09/30/05
J.E. Wyatt retired on April 30, 2004. No further research has been conducted on this project.
No further research has been conducted on this project.
- No publications reported this period
Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04
A tomato variety trial was conducted in 2004 at Jackson, TN to identify indeterminate cultivars suitable for West Tennessee growing conditions and to evaluate the performance of an alternative staking system. Twenty tomato cultivars entered by four participating seed companies were evaluated. New Girl F1 and Early Cascade F1 had the highest yields of small tomatoes early in the season and overall). Heirloom cultivars with high yields of small fruit were Super Sioux, Persimmon, Wisconsin 55, Nyagous, and Micado Violettor. The highest yields of extra-large fruit in the early season were produced by Birloque and Persimmon. Total yields throughout the season were highest with Estiva F1, Birloque, Boludo, PX 015120056, and Daniela F1. Of the heirloom cultivars, Super Sioux, Persimmon, and Trophy had the highest yields. None of the heirlooms cultivars were competitive in overall production with the best hybrids. This gap in yield between hybrid and heirloom cultivars may be
explained in part by the lack of virus resistance in the heirlooms. In contrast, the heirlooms Persimmon and Cherokee Purple had some resistance to early blight (Alternaria solani) compared to other cultivars. Several of the heirloom cultivars also fared well in the blind taste test. Evaluating the taste properties of tomatoes based on consumer preference is complicated by each tasters subjective definition of a good tomato, but a few clear favorites emerged in our survey. Peron Sprayless, Trophy, and Micado Violettor were given the highest marks and elicited the most praise, including requests to reveal the identities of these cultivars so that seed could be purchased for home gardens. In a sweet potato variety trial, Beauregard, Vardeman and Jewel produced over 28,000 kg/ha No. 1 sweet potatoes, compared with 23, 665 kg/ha for LA EXP B14 and only 8,000 kg/ha for Centennial. Beauregard and LA EXP B14 each produced over 27,000 kg/ha jumbos, more than three time that of the other
varieties, making these the highest yielding varieties.
Tomato production is increasing in importance as a horticultural enterprise in Tennessee. Much of the reason for growth is due to tobacco, feed grain, and cotton producers pursuing opportunities for diversification and profitability. Data from this trial will be used by producers in West Tennessee to more wisely select adapted cultivars which also have customer appeal.
- No publications reported this period
Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03
Fourteen pumpkin cultivars and hybrids were grown at Ames Plantation. Big Rock was the highest yielding hybrid with a total yield of 115.8 Mgha-1. Gold Metal had the highest number of large pumpkins (7666 fruitha-1 >6.8 kg) and the highest percentage of orange fruit (87%). Pik-A-Pie and Mystic Plus had the highest numbers of fruit <4.5 kg with 21,500 and 18,800 fruitha-1, respectively. Several types of indeterminate tomato cultivars and hybrids were tested for adaptation to production in West Tennessee. Mean fruit weight ranged from 360 (Brandy Boy) to 56 (Fourth of July) grams per fruit. Fourth of July was the earliest cultivar with 124,000 mature fruitha-1 produced in the first three harvests. Daniela produced the highest total yield in the study with 59 Mgha-1. Estiva and Brandy Boy produced the highest yields of large and extra large fruit, respectively. Pod characteristics of 11 okra cultivars and hybrids were measured. Force required to remove pods from the
plant was significantly less on Star of David and Silver Queen than on other cultivars. Pod shear force was least on Star of David at 4, 5, and 6 days after anthesis, indicating these pods retained edible quality for a longer period than those from other cultivars. Clemson Spineless and Clemson Spineless 80 produced pods which required the most shear force, indicating greater toughness of pods of these cultivars at 4 through 7 days after anthesis. North and South produced the highest yields in the study with 11.7 Mgha-1 of marketable fruit. Non-significant correlations of pod weight and pod length with pod shear force in Clemson Spineless and North and South suggests that it may be possible to select okra lines that produce pods which remain tender for longer periods after flowering. Two plantings of sweet corn hybrids were made at Ames Plantation, with su and se hybrids planted April 10 and sh2 hybrids planted May 10. In the su/se study, Incredible had the highest kernel percentage
(36.5%) when adjusted to 72% moisture and Excalibur produced the highest yield of cut corn with 6600 kgha-1. In the sh2 study, an experimental hybrid, 9381178 had the highest kernel percentage (42.1%) when adjusted to 72% moisture and Max produced the highest yield of cut corn with 9500 kgha-1.
Indeterminate tomatoes tend to be less adapted to shipping to distant markets due to softness of the fruit as it matures. For this reason, growers of indeterminate tomatoes generally sell their product through direct marketing outlets, such as roadside stands, on-farm sales, or farmers markets. Most home gardeners grow indeterminate types because the plants produce fruit over a long period in West Tennessee, generally from mid-June until frost. Testing indeterminate tomatoes in West Tennessee for adaptation, yield, and fruit quality resulted in identification of tomato cultivars and hybrids with several desirable characteristics, such as fruit size. Different hybrids were found to produce a range of average fruit sizes from two ounces to 12 ounces, giving growers a wide choice in the type and size of tomatoes they can grow to fit the available markets or for their personal use.
- Wyatt, Jim E., Emily W. Gatch, and Craig H. Canaday. 2003. Effects of foliar fertilizers on fungicide efficacy on pumpkins. Vegetable Initiative Internet Report. http://bioengr.ag.utk.edu/Extension/ExtProg/Vegetable/year/VegInitRep ort02/19effects_of_foliar_fertilizers_on.htm
- Wyatt, Jim E., Emily W. Gatch, and Craig H. Canaday. 2003 Evaluation of zucchini summer squash hybrids for mechanical harvest. Vegetable Initiative Internet Report. http://bioengr.ag.utk.edu/Extension/ExtProg/Vegetable/year/VegInitRep ort02/22evaluation_of_zucchini_summer.htm
- Wyatt, Jim E., Emily W. Gatch, Mitchell V. Hatchett, and Craig H. Canaday. 2003. Greenhouse production of off-season, hydroponic strawberries. Vegetable Initiative Internet Report. http://bioengr.ag.utk.edu/Extension/ExtProg/Vegetable/year/VegInitRep ort02/24greenhouse_production_of_off.htm
- Wyatt, Jim E., Pat Brawley, Robert M. Hayes, and Craig H. Canaday. 2003. Weed control efficacy and crop damage by carfentrazone-ethel (Aim) herbicide on sweet corn. Vegetable Initiative Internet Report. http://bioengr.ag.utk.edu/Extension/ExtProg/Vegetable/year/VegInitRep ort02/9weed_control_efficacy_and_crop_d.htm
- Wyatt, Jim E., Emily W. Gatch, and Mitchell V. Hatchett. 2003. Cultural methods for production of hydroponic strawberries. HortScience 38(5):792
- Cushman, Kent., Michael Kenty, David Ingram William Evans, James Wyatt, Craig Canaday, and R. Allen Straw. 2003. Management approach and fungicide combinations affect foliar diseases and yield of pumpkin in the Southeastern USA. HortScience 38(5):806
Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02
No-tillage tomatoes were grown with cover crops of hairy vetch, wheat stubble, and grain sorghum and compared with conventional tillage plots for late summer/fall production. No significant differences were found between conventional cultivation methods and use of hairy vetch or wheat stubble as cover crops. Tomatoes grown in plots with grain sorghum were not as vigorous and produced significantly lower tomato yields than any other cover crop treatment. Early season yields were significantly higher for Sunsation than for Mt Fresh while late season yields were higher for Mt. Fresh than for Sunsation. Total yields were not significantly different between the two hybrids. A test was conducted to determine if pruning treatments on tomatoes are effective in increasing earliness and fruit size. Mt Fresh tomato plants were pruned to a single stem and either four or eight flower clusters were allowed to develop to maturity. These treatments were compared to conventional
tomato production practices with plants pruned to two main stems and no flower clusters removed. Plants pruned to one stem and flowers removed produced significantly fewer and smaller fruit than plants grown using conventional methods. Seedlings of Mt Fresh and Heatmaster tomatoes were exposed to 35C temperature for 96 hours and then placed in growth chambers at day/night temperatures of either 20/20C or 35/20C. The 35C heat exposure treatment in the 20/20C chamber caused a three-day delay in flowering but had no effect on number of flowers or fruit produced in the first or second cluster or total number of fruit. In the 35/20C chamber, the heat treatment had no effect on days to first flower or number of flowers produced in the first or second cluster. No fruit matured in the 35/20C chamber due to the extreme day temperatures during fruit set. A study was conducted on okra to determine the effects of plant spacing and nitrogen rates on production of immature pods as a fresh
vegetable, mature seeds for oil, and stalks for biomass/bioenergy/biofiber in order to better utilize all parts of the okra plant. Clemson Spineless okra was grown at in-row spacings of either 24 or 48 cm and nitrogen rates of 44.8, 89.6, 134.4 or 179.2 kgha-1. Green pods were harvested for four weeks after which plants were allowed to produce dry pods which were harvested for seed. Stalks were cut after being killed by frost. Plants at the 24 cm spacing yielded significantly more marketable pods than at 48 cm spacing. Fertility rates had no effect on edible pod yields. Dry seed are being shelled and yield is estimated at about 1.5 Tha-1. Biomass yield is estimated at about 6 Tha-1. Lima beans were grown either in plots cultivated immediately before planting or in plots cultivated six weeks prior to planting (stale seedbed). Weed control in the stale seedbed plots was accomplished with glyphosate herbicide. No significant differences were found between conventional and stale seedbed
plots for shelled bean yield.
Two tomato hybrids, Mountain Fresh and Sunsation, were grown during the late summer/early fall season in no-till culture in cover crops of either wheat stubble, hairy vetch, or grain sorghum. Tomatoes grown in wheat stubble or hairy vetch cover crops had about the same yields as tomatoes grown with conventional cultivation methods. In general, plots with grain sorghum as a cover crop had significantly lower yields of marketable tomatoes. Fresh-pod yield of okra was higher when in-row spacing was 24 cm between plants compared with plants at 48 cm between plants. Okra yields at a nitrogen rate of 44.8 kgha-1 was equivalent to applying nitrogen at 179.2 kgha-1. It may be feasible to utilize more products of the okra plant than just the edible pods by harvesting seed for use as an oil crop and the dry stalks for use in the manufacture of paper or as a combustible fuel source. Lima beans can be grown using no-tillage cultural methods similar to those used for soybeans or
corn. Yields of shelled beans were approximately the same whether plants were grown in conventional tillage (disking and harrowing immediately before planting or if tillage occurred six weeks prior to planting (stale seedbed). Weed control was accomplished with a burn-down herbicide and a pre-emergence application of metolachlor (Dual) herbicide.
- Wyatt, Jim E., and Craig H. Canaday. 2002. Selection in snap bean breeding lines for Romano-type characters, WTES. In 2001 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 10-12.
- Canaday, Craig H. Canaday and Kent Cushman. 2002. CoRoN enhancement of pumpkin fungicides: Effects on Foliar Diseases, WTES. In 2001 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 97-104.
- Wyatt, Jim E., and Craig H. Canaday. 2002. Scheduling harvest of summer squash to maximize once-over yield, WTES. In 2000 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 113-119. Canaday, Craig H., Jim E. Wyatt and Don D. Tyler. 2002. Effects of different fertilizers and continuous no-till production on diseases growth and yield of staked tomato. In 2000 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 130-139.
- Wyatt, Jim E., and Craig H. Canaday. 2002. Maximizing yield of mechanically harvested summer squash. Proceedings XXVIth International Horticultural Congress & Exhibition. S25-P42.
- Wyatt, Jim E. 2002. Effects of several biostimulants on emergence and yield of two snap bean cultivars, 2001, WTES. In 2001 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 6-9.
Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01
No-tillage tomatoes were grown with cover crops of hairy vetch, wheat stubble, and foxtail millet and compared with conventional tillage plots for late summer/fall production. In general, no significant differences were found between conventional cultivation methods and use of hairy vetch or wheat stubble as cover crops. Tomatoes grown in plots with foxtail millet grew slowly or died, probably due to a nutrient imbalance or to allelopathic effects. Early season yields were significantly higher for Sunsation hybrid than for Mt Fresh while late season and total yields were higher for Mt. Fresh than for Sunsation. Several formulations of two biostimulants were tested on Romano 942 and Hystyle snap beans. Biostimulant treatments had no effect on seedling emergence or number of damaged seedlings in the study. There were no interactions between cultivars and biostimulant treatments. Treatment with Focus 15G had the highest yield in the study, producing 560 to 1120 kgha-1
more pods than any other biostimulant treatment and about 784 kgha-1 more than the untreated control. Summer squash were planted at in-row spacings of 23, 30, 38 and 46 cm on rows 76 cm apart and picked to simulate once-over harvesting of all fruit at either three or six days after 50% of plants in a plot had produced a pistillate flower. The 23 cm spacing produced the highest fruit yields, about 13900 kgha-1. Yield of marketable fruit averaged 8290 kgha-1 when harvested at 3 days after 50% of plants had female flowers; at 6 days, the average marketable yield was 11870 kgha-1. A six-day delay in harvest also caused a significant increase in the amount of overmature fruit which would require disposal in a mechanical harvesting operation. A slow release foliar fertilizer, CoRoN, was tested in combination with several fungicides on pumpkins to determine if there are synergistic effects between fertilizer and fungicide which would effect fungicide efficacy. Application of Quadris produced
significantly higher numbers and weight of marketable pumpkins per hectare than application of any other fungicide. Equus, Aliette and Foliar Phosphite produced significantly higher fruit numbers and weight per hectare than Armicarb 100 or water. Addition of CoRoN to the fungicide spray treatments had no effect on pumpkin yield. Fungicides or CoRoN had no effect on the number of rotted or misshapen fruit per hectare.
A slow release foliar fertilizer, CoRoN, was tested in combination with several fungicides on pumpkins to determine if there are synergistic effects which would effect fungicide efficacy. Quadris produced significantly higher numbers and weight of marketable pumpkins per hectare than application of any other fungicide. Addition of CoRoN to the fungicide spray treatments had no effect on pumpkin yield. Several formulations of two biostimulants, Launch and Focus, were tested on ?Romano 942? and ?Hystyle? snap beans. Except for the first day of emergence, no differences were found between cultivars in plant stands and biostimulant treatments had no effect on seedling emergence. Plots treated with Focus 15G had the highest yields in the study with both cultivars and merits further investigation as a material to enhance snap bean yield. Two tomato hybrids, ?Mountain Fresh? and ?Sunsation?, were grown during the late summer/early fall season in no-till culture in either
wheat stubble, hairy vetch, or foxtail millet. Tomatoes grown in wheat stubble or hairy vetch cover crops had about the same yields late large, late extra large and total fruit as tomatoes grown with conventional cultivation methods. Foxtail millet caused tomatoes to develop slowly due to nutrient imbalances or allelopathic effects.
- Wyatt, Jim E., Don D. Tyler, Craig H Canaday, and Don D. Howard. 2001. Tillage and fertilizer placement effects on staked tomatoes were inconsistent. HortTechnology. 11(4):575-580.
- Wyatt, Jim. 2001. Alteration of sex expression in summer squash by gibberellic acid, West Tennessee Experiment Station, 2000. In 2000 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 144-145.
- Canaday, Craig H., Jim E. Wyatt, and Don D. Tyler. 2001. Effects of different fertilizers and continuous no-till production on diseases, growth, and yield of staked tomato, West Tennessee Experiment Station, 2000. In 2000 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 168-174.
- Wyatt, Jim E., Craig H. Canaday, Donald D. Tyler, and Gary L. Lentz. 2001. Performance of no-till tomatoes, West Tennessee Experiment Station, 2000. In 2000 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 179-181.
- Wyatt, Jim E., and Craig H. Canaday. 2001. Testing tomato hybrids for heat tolerance at West Tennessee Experiment Station, 2000. In 2000 University of Tennessee Vegetable Initiative Progress Report. p. 188-190. Wyatt, Jim. 2001. Tennessee transplant production utilizing the float system. In Proceedings of the Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Jan 30-Feb1, 2001. Hershey, PA. p. 1-2. (Invited)
- Wyatt, Jim E., Craig H. Canaday, Donald D. Tyler, and Gary L. Lentz. 2001. Tennessee staked tomato production: No-till and conventional tillage cropping systems. In Proceedings of the Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention. Jan 30-Feb1, 2001. Hershey, PA. p. 61-62. (Invited)
- Wyatt, Jim E. 2001. Gibberellic acid alters sex expression in summer squash. HortScience. 36(3):539.