Source: PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD CHOICES AND NUTRITIONAL PATTERNS OF LIMITED RESOURCE AUDIENCES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0187825
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
PEN03813
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Feb 1, 2001
Project End Date
Dec 31, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Cason, K. L.
Recipient Organization
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
208 MUELLER LABORATORY
UNIVERSITY PARK,PA 16802
Performing Department
FOOD SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
The nutritional status and food security level of limited resource individuals and the relationships of individual, dietary, and environmental factors are not well understood. The project will explore the influences of socioeconomic and ecological factors on food and nutrient intake, food purchasing and preparation practices, and level of food security among limited resource audiences.
Animal Health Component
15%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
75%
Applied
15%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
7036020303050%
7036010303050%
Goals / Objectives
1. Identify food-related behaviors of limited resource individuals and determine their level of dietary. 2. Identify attitudes and beliefs of limited resource audiences regarding nutritional practices, food purchasing and preparation, food assistance participation and their perceived nutrition information needs. 3. Determine the relative impact of nutrition education on dietary adequacy and food-related behaviors. 4. Determine relationships among demographic variables and food choices and nutritional patterns of adults.
Project Methods
1. Create an inventory of existing data sets such as: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII), and the Food Security Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Data will also be obtained by conducting surveys with participants in the EFNEP and FSNEP programs in the state. These surveys will include: demographic surveys; 24-hour dietary recalls; food resource management, food preparation, and food security surveys. 2. Because each of the surveys has important limitations for describing food choices, reliance on any one of them is unwise. However, similar patterns observed in different surveys indicate important empirical relationships. Survey data can reveal broad differences across population groups, and these differences might help to target nutrition messages. This type of data, however, is not capable of providing insights on the diverse attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions that shape food and nutrition behaviors. Focus group data will be used to confirm and/or enrich the relationships derived from the quantitative data. The focus group research technique will be used to elicit views and in-depth information from representatives of a target audience in an atmosphere that encourages discussion of feelings, attitudes and perceptions about a specific topic. Focus group interview data will be analyzed to identify themes and sub-themes, which will be organized into a conceptual framework. The Ethnograph 5.0 software will be utilized to organize the themes and sub-themes. Behavior maps will be used to organize the data and identify nutrition behaviors and the factors influencing them. 3. The following records developed for the national EFNEP Reporting System (ERS Version 4.02, CSREES, Washington, DC) will be used pre and post-intervention: a) Adult Enrollment Form (Family Record), b) Homemaker's 24-Hour Recall, and c) EFNEP Survey (Behavior Checklist). The Adult Enrollment Form is used to collect demographic information such as age of participant, race, and place of residence. The 24-hour recall is a standard 24-hour dietary recall form used to record everything participants have eaten and drunk in the previous 24 hours. The EFNEP Survey is used to provide information about participants' nutrition, food safety, and food resource management behaviors. It consists of 10 questions using a Likert-type questionnaire where five response options for each statement range from Do not do to Always do. 4. Triangulate NHANES III and CSFII data, data from demographic surveys, 24-hour dietary recalls, food resource management, food preparation and food security surveys and focus group interview data. This data will be examined for important empirical relationships. Pennsylvania state-specific data will be compared to the national data to identify differences and similarities.

Progress 02/01/01 to 12/31/05

Outputs
The researcher utilized qualitative and quantitative to assess intake, food related behaviors, as well as attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions that shape food and nutrition behaviors. One component of the project involved the examination of dietary practices and food security level of migrant farm workers, including key informant interviews with migrant service providers, as well as surveys and focus group interviews with migrant farm workers and their families. The researcher also examined the effect of Food Stamps on the dietary intake of limited resource households by comparing dietary adequacy indicators of participants from Food Stamp households vs. non-Food Stamp households. The researcher assessed food intake and practice changes of Chinese Americans in Pennsylvania, examining how acculturation affects their food-related behavior changes. The researcher completed a study designed to assess soy acceptability and usage among limited resource adults residing in the state of Pennsylvania, and identifying perceived health benefits and the barriers to consumption. The researcher completed a study designed to assess the food safety knowledge and practices of low income adults. The researcher also utilized data from existing data sets, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) to examine the issue.

Impacts
The purpose of this research was to assess food-related behaviors of limited resource individuals and to determine if relationships exist among demographics, level of food security, dietary practices, food preparation patterns, and nutrient intake of those adults. The data suggest that diet-related diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, are the major health problems the migrant farm workers face. Contributory problems include lack of adequate housing and cooking facilities, poor food choices, limited availability of fruits and vegetables, and inadequate transportation. Population demographic analyses suggest that there are relatively few differences in intake of food groups, nutrients and food-related practices between Food Stamp and non-Food Stamp households. The soy study indicates that only 13% of participants reported consuming soyfoods. The major barriers to consumption were a lack of knowledge, cost, unavailability, and unappealing flavor and texture. Results of the food safety survey with limited resources adults indicate that risky food safety practices are common, namely temperature abuse, consuming high-risk foods and improper food storage and preparation. Results from the study of Chinese Americans indicate that since immigration, individuals increased consumption frequency of all seven food groups, and Western foods, and increased dietary diversity and variety, while decreasing intake of traditional Chinese foods. Information obtained from this research is being used to provide direction to nutrition education programs.

Publications

  • Wenrich, T.R. and Cason, K.L. 2003. Consumption and Perceptions of Soy Among Low Income Adults in Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Institute of Food Technologists. Chicago, IL, July. Accepted for Publication.
  • Cason, K.L., Cox, R., Wenrich, T. R., Poole, K. and Burney, J. 2003 Food Stamp And Non-Food Stamp Program Participants Show Similarly Positive Change With Nutrition Education. Proceedings of the International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, July. Accepted for Publication.
  • Cason, K.L., Cox, R., Wenrich, T., Burney, J., and Poole, K. 2003. Dietary adequacy indicators of homemakers from Food Stamp households vs. non-Food Stamp households post nutrition education intervention. Journal of the Nutrition Education and Behavior, 07/03. Accepted for Publication.
  • Lv, N. and Cason, K.L. 2003. Dietary Practices and Acculturation of Chinese Americans in Pennsylvania. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Accepted for Publication.
  • Lv, N. and Cason, K.L. 2003. Current Dietary Pattern and Acculturation of Chinese Americans in Pennsylvania. Accepted by Topics in Clinical Nutrition.
  • Lv, N. and Cason, K.L. 2003. Dietary Pattern and Acculturation of Chinese Americans in Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the American Dietetic Association. San Antonio, TX, October. Accepted for Publication.
  • Wenrich, T.R., Cason, K.L., Lv, N., and Kassab, C. 2003. Food safety knowledge and practices of limited resource adults in Pennsylvania. Food Protection Trends. 23(4): 326-335.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Began research with migrant farm workers by conducting key informant interviews with migrant service providers as well as survey and focus group interviews with migrant farm workers and their families. Continued the examination of the effect of Food Stamps on the dietary intake of households by comparing dietary adequacy indicators of participants from Food Stamp households vs. non-Food Stamp households. Began data collection and entry for the examination of food practice changes of Chinese Americans in Pennsylvania, assessing how acculturation affects their food behavior changes, including dietary patterns and food safety behaviors changes. Completed data collection and analysis for the study designed to assess soy acceptability and usage among limited resource women residing in the state of Pennsylvania, and identifying perceived health benefits and the barriers to consumption. Completed data collection and analysis for the project assessing the food safety knowledge and practices of low income adults. Continued data analysis using existing data sets, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII). Conducted focus group interviews addressing attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions that shape food and nutrition behaviors.

Impacts
The purpose of this research is to assess nutrition and food related behaviors of limited resource individuals and to determine if relationships exist among demographic variables and the level of food security, dietary practices, food purchasing and preparation patterns, and nutrient intake of those adults. Preliminary data suggests that nutrition and diet-related diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and anemia, as the number one health problem the migrant farm workers and their families face. Contributory problems included lack of adequate housing and cooking facilities, poor food choices or habits, limited availability of fruits and vegetables, lack of fluoridated water, and inadequate transportation. Population demographic analyses suggest that there are relatively few differences in intake of food groups, nutrients and food-related practices between Food Stamp and non-Food Stamp households. Results of the soy study (n=353) indicate that only 13% of participants reported currently consuming soyfoods. The most frequently consumed soyfoods were soy sauce, soymilk, soy cheese, and liquid nutrition drinks. The major barriers to soy consumption were a lack of knowledge, cost, unavailability, and unappealing flavor and texture. Results of the food safety survey indicate that risky food safety practices are common among the low income population, namely temperature abuse, consumption of high-risk foods and improper food storage and preparation. Information obtained from this research is being used to provide direction to nutrition education programs

Publications

  • Cason, K. L., Cox,R., Burney,J., Poole, K., and Wenrich, K. 2002. Do Food Stamps Without Nutrition Education Improve the Nutrient Intake of Participants? Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 17(4): 74-82.
  • Cason, K. L., Scholl, J. F., and Kassab, C. 2002. A Comparison of Program Delivery Methods for Low Income Nutrition Audiences. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 17(4): 63-73.
  • Cason, K. L., Scholl, J., Heald, J. W., and Harrington, C. 2002. Sensational SuperCupboards. Journal of Extension, 40(5). On-line publication. (This can be found at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2002october/iw3.shtml)


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
The researcher acquired funding from the PSU Children, Youth and Families Consortium for the development of a collaborative research group to address health and nutrition needs of migrant farm workers. The researcher will work with the group to develop proposals, to be submitted for external funding. The researcher examined the effect of Food Stamps on the dietary intake of households by comparing dietary adequacy indicators of homemakers from Food Stamp households vs. non-Food Stamp households. The researcher assessed the impact of EFNEP education on dietary adequacy and food-related behaviors of participants; and compared the impact of nutrition education on dietary adequacy and food-related behaviors of EFNEP participants reached through individual, group, or SuperCupboard methods. The researcher began preliminary work with a study designed to examine food practice changes of Chinese Americans in Pennsylvania, assessing how acculturation affects their food behavior changes, including dietary patterns and food safety behaviors changes. The researcher began work with a study designed to assess soy acceptability and usage among limited resource women residing in the state of Pennsylvania, and identifying perceived health benefits and the barriers to consumption. The researcher began data collection on a project to assess the food safety knowledge and practices of low income adults. The researcher began data analysis using existing data sets, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII). The researcher developed a focus group interview guide, which will be used in 2002 to provide insights on the diverse attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions that shape food and nutrition behaviors. The purpose of this research is to assess dietary adequacy indicators and food related behaviors of limited resource individuals and determine if relationships exist among demographic variables, such as, race, educational attainment, work status, place of residence, and number of children in the household, of low incomes adults receiving food stamps and the level of food security, dietary practices, food purchasing and preparation patterns, and nutrient intake of those adults. Findings from this study suggest relatively few differences in intake of food groups and selected nutrients between Food Stamp and non-Food Stamp households. Results from this study suggest that a significant percentage of graduates in EFNEP make desirable changes in behaviors that involve nutrition, food safety and food resource management practices. This study also suggests that the collaborative, learner-centered method of teaching (one-on-one) is the most effective in eliciting educational program impact. Information obtained from this research is being used to provide direction to the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP).

Impacts
Providing information on the relationship of socioeconomic and other factors to nutrient intake and food security is basic to improving the health and well-being of low income individuals and families. Information obtained from this study may provide direction to the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), the Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program (FSNEP), and other nutrition education programs for more effective educational programming.

Publications

  • Cason, K.L. 2001. Food Purchasing Patterns of Food Stamp Recipients. Proceedings of Society for Nutrition Education Annual Meeting. Oakland, CA. July. p.47.
  • Cason, K.L. 2001. Does Participation in Food Stamps Improve the Level of Food Security of Recipients? Proceedings of Society for Nutrition Education Annual Meeting. Oakland, CA. July. p.53.