Source: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI submitted to
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Accession No.
Grant No.
Project No.
Proposal No.
Multistate No.
Program Code
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2000
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2006
Grant Year
Project Director
Dwyer, J. P.
Recipient Organization
Performing Department
Non Technical Summary
BMP's are needed to protect water quality. This study is designed to determine sound management of riparian buffer strips. Trees reduce the impacts of floods on levee systems, and this project seeks to understand these impacts. Landowners need information on the effects management regimes have on tree growth and product yield. This project looks at the role of disease, age, diameter, and management on product output.
Animal Health Component
Research Effort Categories

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
Goals / Objectives
The implementation and effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMP's) on non-industrial private forest lands in Missouri. The objectives for this project are; 1) to determine if non-industrial forest-land owners (NIPF) are currently using voluntary BMP's, and, if not, why, 2) to evaluate implementation of BMP's on NIPF lands, and 3) To develop best management regimes for SMZ's (streamside management zones) on NIPF lands. The role of riparian woody corridors in levee protection. The objectives are; 1) to determine if the primary levees that did not fail had a wider woody corridor than levees that did fail, 2) to determine the minimum woody corridor width where levee failure is reduced, and 3) to discover other morphological and spatial riverine factors which may significantly affect levee stability. Effects of tree and stand characteristics on the product recovery and economics of single-tree selection, long-rotation hardwood management for specific habitat types in the Great Lakes region. The objectives are; 1) to relate tree and stand characteristics and habitat type to lumber yield and grade in northern hardwoods managed by the single-tree selection method, and 2) to determine the relationships between decay development in select northern hardwood species and tree age/diameter and habitat type, and its influence on lumber yield and grade, 3) to determine the relationship between tree age, tree diameter, tree growth/site factors, and habitat type and heartwood-sapwood proportions in logs and lumber for four northern hardwood species managed in a single-tree selection method, and 4) determine the economic value associated with growing large diameter northern hardwoods using single-tree selection methods in the Great Lakes region.
Project Methods
The objectives for the first project will involve the following approaches; 1) The Dillman method will be used to conduct landowner surveys to determine if landowners use BMP's, and if not, why, 2) harvest sites across the state will be identified at the watershed level and randomly located blocks (three miles square) will serve as the basic sampling unit with stratification based on land use, and 3) The Riparian Ecosystem Assessment and Management Project (REAM) is a long-term study designed to collect and synthesize information on many aspect of riparian ecosystems in northern Missouri. The approach for the second project is to use Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quads (DOQQ's) at 1:12000 scale as the base maps for levee and forest coverages, as they have been geometrically corrected for positional accuracy. Uncorrected 1:7920 scale aerial photographs taken in the Fall of 1993 are being used to help in levee break location and mapping. An independent data base containing levee damage information will be constructed from interpretation and measurement of parameters on the digital orthodquads. The approach for the third project will involve the following tasks; 1) The initial task will involve choosing the study sites and sample trees. Data will be collected on sample trees, stand characteristics and site conditions, 2) trees will selected from stands that have known and similar management/disturbance histories, 3) felling crew will be trained to harvest and buck sample trees in a manner that maximizes yield and grade of logs, 4) standardized sawmill breakdown will be preformed on each log, numbering the boards from each log, and 5) market values will be assigned to lumber products and an economic analyses will be conducted to determine stand value for an array of markets.

Progress 07/01/00 to 06/30/06

OUTPUTS: An internal report was generated from data collected on state lands managed by the Missouri Department of Conservation. This report outlined the results of an in-depth audit of harvest operations on state lands. This report was presented to the Missouri Department of Conservation and was disseminated to their field foresters for their review. In terms of forest productivity a regional report was developed that show the current status of timber resources in the North Central United States. This regional report was published by the USDA Forest Service and made available on-line and to interested parties through their publication outlets. Additionally, a study was completed that monitored the harvest impacts on the Missouri Forest Ecosystem Project. This information was reported in a forestry journal. PARTICIPANTS: The primary organizations involved in this project was the Missouri Department of Conservation and the United State Forest Service. As a result of this project the Missouri Department of Conservation is developing a set of best management practices for the harvesting of biomass. The thrust of the report on the North Central Region has generated an interest in forming a Missouri Forest Resource Advisory Council to deal with forest issue which impact on the sustainability of the resource. TARGET AUDIENCES: Practicing field foresters, land managers, and timberland owners. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Additional data is needed in the area of hydrology and the impacts of forest management practices on the physical hydrology of Missouri. Information will need to be gathered on the effectiveness of new best management practices on biomass harvests.

The results of the Best Management Practice survey was the identification of activities that could potentially impact the environment. The most important activities involved in ameliorating potential adverse impacts include streamside management zones, location and frequency of water bars, and location of logging roads and skid trails. The outcome was that foresters became more aware of these activities in their pre-harvest planning efforts so that adverse impacts to soil erosion and water quality would be minimized. The Forest Productivity Study was important in answering the question: How much wood do we consume? The answer is 73 cubic feet of new wood per capita, and with increasing population this will lead to an increasing demand for wood products. The second question: Are we currently overharvesting our forests? The simple answer is no. Over the past 50 years the total volume of wood in the Central Hardwood Region's forests has increased because growth has consistently exceeded harvest. The final question: What is a sustainable balance among timber growth, harvest and consumption? In other words, in the North Central Region could we produce a volume of wood equivalent to our proportion of the Nation's timberland - about 14 percent ppf the national total? Currently, we grow 10 percent of the Nation's wood and harvest 7 percent of the Nation's wood. A number of strategies are presented but we need to be more concerned about the impacts of the application of management practices leading to sustainable forests and the transfer of of environmental, social, and economic impacts to other regions. The final project dealing with harvest impacts revealed that individual-tree selection did show: (1) higher levels of surface area skidder impact; (2) higher percentage of leave trees with one or more bole wounds; (3) higher number of bole wounds; and (4) higher percentage of leave trees impacted by skidder damage. This study showed that good pre-harvest planning and layout which includes the skidder operator(s) will reduce the area impacted by skidding to less than 12 percent. Also, the probability of a bole wound to a residual tree can be reduced to less than 5 percent if skid trails are kept 30 feet or more from the leave tree.


  • Dwyer, John P., Dey, D.C., Walter, W.D., and Jensen, R.G. 2004. Harvest impacts in uneven-aged and even-aged Missouri Ozark Forests. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 21(4):187-193.
  • Shifley, Stephen R., Sullivan, N.H. 2002. The status of timber resources in the North Central United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-228. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, North Central Research Station. 47 p.

Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Northern red oak trees with diameters from 20.0- to 24.0-inches can be produced in 90-100 years on Menominee Tribal Lands. These diameters yield the greatest volume of high-value products. One of the practical recommendations to come from this study is to shorten target rotation lengths to less than 100 years, as a result, significant financial gains can be realized. In another study oak decline has been a chronic problem sinces the 1970's in the oak dominated forests of the Missouri Ozarks. From the data collected from this replicated, 14-year study we found that improvement harvests did not miitgate oak decline, however, they did not make oak decline worse and had the benefits of (1)increasing the growth of the residual stand and (2)providing a means for recovering merchantable timber volume that otherwise would be lost to mortality. We also found that even the absence of intervention (improvement harvest), some individual red oaks had the ability to partially restore lost foliage and maintain moderate tree diameter growth. In another study our efforts to identify the 'best' cottonwood clones moved from determining total green biomass weight, moisture content, and specific gravity to a flood tolerance laboratory where cuttings were rooted and planted in a randomized complete block design experiment with 4 treatments - control, 3-week flowing, 5-week flowing, and 5-week stagnant. Data from this study desgined to evaluate survival, growth, and yield of cottonwood subjected to various flooding treatments is currently being processed. In another study we used trees 1.5 in. dbh and larger from the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP), and we have adapted the widely available Landscape Management System (LMS) and Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) software to make long-term simulations using even and uneven-aged silvicultural management systems. Our results show that in the Missouri Ozarks even-aged and uneven-aged management silvicultural systems yield long-term (100 years) economic outcomes that are not statistically different.

The impacts from the Northern red oak study on future forest management is significant because high volume and value northern red oak can be grown over a much shorter timeframe than is currently being done. The Oak Decline study is important because there are few studies that have experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of harvesting or other practices for mitigating oak decline. Our efforts to find the most productive and flood-tolerant clones of cottonwood will result in the development of future biomass stocks which can be used to generate energy for the future. This project could result in the creation of hundreds of jobs in the biomass conversion industry as well as offer landowners in the Missouri River floodplain the opportunity to generate net returns to the whole farm. The results of the long-term economic simulations of even and uneven-aged management systems does reinforce the need for land managers or landowners to consider aesthetics, non-traditional forest products, and other non-market values in their decision matrix.


  • Dwyer, J.P. and J.M. Kabrick, J.J. Wetteroff. 2006. Do improvement harvests mitigate oak decline in Missouri Ozark forests? Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. Accepted for publication.
  • Dwyer, J.P. and D.C. Dey. 2006. Product recovery from tree grade 1 northern red oak on Menominee Tribal Lands. in:proceedings 15th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. February 27 - March 1, 2006. Sponsored by the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries. Knoxville, TN.
  • Treiman, T., J.Dwyer, and D. Larsen. 2005. Long-term economic simulation: Even-aged and Uneven-aged examples from the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP). Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 22(1):42-47.

Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

This study summarizes logging and felling damage that resulted from the harvest of silvicultural treatments on a large landscape-scale experiment in southern Missouri. This is study is part of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP). The treatments included even-aged, uneven-aged, and no management. Although damage levels to bole and crown of leave trees was low for all treatments, the individual-tree selection (uneven-aged) treatment did show:(1)higher levels of surface area skidder impact;(2)higher percentage of leave trees with one or more bole wounds;(3)higher number of bole wounds;(4)higher percentage of wounded trees in the dominant and co-dominant crown classes; and (5)the highest percentage of leave trees impact by logging activity. Pre-harvest planning that involves the layout and discussion with the skidder operator(s) will reduce the area impacted by skidding to less than 12%. The probability of a bole wound to a residual tree can be reduced to less than 5% if skid trails are kept 30 feet or more from the leave tree. A study was also conducted of forest landowners along the Missouri River to see if they would be interested in adopting reforestation practices on their lands. Results show that landowners who already have forested land, have already interacted with forestry agencies, and are of middle age are the most likely to adopt reforestation practices. Such landowners may enroll up to 13 percent of Missouri River flood plain land. A set of a priori logistic models were developed that might explain a landowner's decision to enroll in a hypothetical flood plain reforestation cost-share program. These models include demographic, knowledge and current behavior variables. In another study we investigated changes in soil organic carbon concentration and quantity following selection harvesting in the Missouri Ozarks. Timber harvesting operations are known to influence the physical properties of forest soils, especially soil density. However, changes in soil chemistry also may occur as a result of perturbation. Two selection harvests were monitored, one using conventional log skidders, and one using draft animals, to look at the change in soil organic carbon (SOC) 9 to 12 months following harvest operations. Bulk density changes also were measured, so that changes in SOC quantity could be determined. Soil compaction in both primary and secondary skid trails for both harvesting systems was observed, but the extent of soil disturbance differed by a factor of three between the systems. Carbon concentrations were not different between skid trails and control areas on either site when surface and subsurface horizons were considered, but carbon content was higher in the subsurface horizons of the animal skidded site. SOC quantities increased negligibly in the skid trails of both sites, which was likely due to decomposition of logging slash materials in contact with scarified soil. Higher bulk densities and lower rock contents in skid trails compared with controls may also have contributed to the increased carbon content per unit volume, since coarse fragments accounted for 20 to 40% of sample volume on both sites.

To minimize residual impacts of logging damage to the tree and soil, the number and spatial extent of skid trails needed to extract logs can be reduced by carefully pre-planning the location of these skid trails at the time the trees are marked for harvest. Forest landowners along the Missouri River are most likely to enroll their lands in forestry cost-share programs if they already have trees on their land, have worked with a resource agency in the past, and have a management plan for their lands. With cost-share programs that support the development of forest management plans thousands of acres of land along the Missouri River could be put under forest management which would generate potential revenue, products, jobs, and protect the vegetation and soil along the Missouri River. Advantages of using mules versus rubber-tired skidders are not related to the magnitude of disturbance. Rather, the extent of disturbance was reduced by nearly one-third with the use of animal skidding. An additional benefit observed on the animal-skidded site was a reduction in the extent and severity of damage to residual trees. If future studies support the hypothesis that reduced site scarification also reduces CO2 efflux, then the prospects for forest landowners to earn more credit for sequestering carbon with the use of animal skidding would be a financially attractive incentive to adopt such low intensity harvesting operations.


  • Dwyer, J.P., D.C. Dey, W.D. Walter, and R.G. Jensen. 2004. Harvest impacts in uneven-aged and even-aged Missouri Ozark forests. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. Vo. 21(4), pp 187-193.
  • Treiman, T. and J.P. Dwyer. 2004. Will landowners adopt reforestation practices? - Answers from the Missouri River flood plain. In proc. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. United States Forest Service, General Technical Report NE-316, pp 288-296.
  • Ficklin, R.L., J.P. Dwyer and R. D. Hammer. 2004. Changes in soil organic carbon concentration and quantity following selection harvesting. In proc. 14th Central Hardwood Forest Conference. United States Forest Service, General Technical Report NE-316, pp 217-223.

Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Investigations into the relationships between levee damage and woody corridor along a 353-mile segment of the Missouri River are completed. Results indicated that woody corridors between riverbanks and primary levees played a significant role in the reduction or prevention of flood-related damage to levees. Forty-one percent of levee failures in the segment occurred in areas with no woody corridor, while 74 percent and 83 percent of failures occurred where woody corridor widths were less than 300 and 500 feet, respectively. Median failure lengths with woody corridor present were 50.3 percent shorter than median failure lengths with no woody corridor present. Levees without failure had significantly wider woody corridor widths that levees that failed.

The federal government could potentially save millions of dollars through management of floodplain forests, as they are responsible for 80 percent of the repari costs of levees in the PL84-99 program.


  • Allen, Stephen B., John P. Dwyer, Douglas C. Wallace, and Elizabeth A. Cook. 2003. Missouri river flood of 1993: Role of woody corridor width in levee protection. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Vol. 39, No. 4, 11p.

Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

During the reporting period a field study was conducted on Missouri Department of Conservation lands and on private lands managed by the Department as well. The purpose of this project is two-fold; 1) use the current Missouri Department of Conservation BMP auditing procedure to work out any problems with the methodology, and 2) develop a report outlining compliance with BMP's on state and private lands in Missouri. Initially, the sites were randomly chosen from a list of tracts that had been harvested within the past year. The Missouri Department of Conservation made available maps and other information about each of the sites. The field work is now complete and the data will be summarized in the future.

The Missouri Department of Conservation is interested in knowing if their auditing procedures are workable in the field. The information from the survey will also help determine if lands managed by the Department of Conservation are following BMP's.


  • No publications reported this period

Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

An exhaustive literature search is currently being done on Best Management Practices. The Missouri Department of Conservation will be contacted to determine if there is sufficient forestry activity acres in order to monitor for Best Management Practices. If there is sufficient acreage available and there is an interest to have a third-party audit of these acres then a random sample of activity-acres will be selected for monitoring using Best Management Practice Guidelines.

The evaluation and assessment of forestry BMP's on state-owned land will help develop and perfect BMP Guidelines and monitoring procedures. These guidelines will be available for voluntary compliance by non-industrial private forest landowners. The compliance with BMP's will result in minimal soil erosion and protection of water quality.


  • No publications reported this period

Progress 01/02/00 to 12/31/00

This project is in its initial stages of development. Principal investigators are meeting with a state advisory group to determine the focus of research efforts in the area of Best Management Practices.



  • No publications reported this period