Source: AUBURN UNIVERSITY submitted to
WATER QUALITY ISSUES IN POULTRY PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0187698
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ALA015-022
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
W-195
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2000
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Blake, J. P.
Recipient Organization
AUBURN UNIVERSITY
108 M. WHITE SMITH HALL
AUBURN,AL 36849
Performing Department
POULTRY SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
Water quality is a health issue in many parts of the US and world, and it is just as important to poultry production and processing, since water quality can affect poultry health and performance. This project will be the only regional project dedicated to the role of water quality issues in poultry production.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
40332991160100%
Knowledge Area
403 - Waste Disposal, Recycling, and Reuse;

Subject Of Investigation
3299 - Poultry, general/other;

Field Of Science
1160 - Pathology;
Goals / Objectives
Objective 1: Develop Methods for Proper managemant and Recycling of Poultry Production and Processing Waste to Improve Water Quality. 1A: Evaluate management and recycling techniques for poultry waste as either a fertilizer, feed, or fuel to protect water quality. 1B: Evaluate management and recycling techniques for poultry mortalities to protect water quality. 1C: Evaluate management and recycling techniques for by-products of hatcheries, poultry meat processing and egg processing to reduce water usage and protect quality. Objective 2: Determine Water Quality Factors That Affect Poultry Performance and Market Product Quality 2A: Determine the effects of naturally occuring water inclusions on poultry performance, health, and product quality. 2B: Determine the effects of drinking water additives on poultry performance, health, and product quality. 2C: Identify additives or contaminants in processing water that affect poultry product quality.
Project Methods
1A. 1B. 1. Methods for the disposal of poultry carcasses include incineration, composting, and conversion into a usable feed ingredient. Due to the emergence of newer incineration technologies, there is a need to investigate the economics and efficiencies of new equipment presently on the market (Blake-AL). Also, composting has been adopted in many of the poultry producing states, but there is a need to consider techniques that will define the process and the use of the composted material for its full value as a fertilizer. Several participants have proposed to consider various aspects related to poultry carcass composting (Watkins and Moore-AR; Carr-MD; Blake and Hess-AL; Carey-TX; Noll-MN; Ritz-GA). Other methods that offer the pickup of dead birds and the transport of the carcasses to a rendering facility in an environmentally friendly manner are also worthy of further investigations (Blake and Hess-AL; Noll-MN; Carey-TX; Ritz-GA). 2. The recycling of poultry carcasses into a usable feed ingredient also offers potential. Methods for the pickup and transportation of the dead birds requires consideration from a disease and economic viewpoint. A thorough microbiological and nutritional evaluation of the product will be completed to determine its value as a feed ingredient. Methods for the preservation of poultry carcasses prior to processing, as well as methods for processing require further investigation (Blake and Hess-AL; Carey-TX; Noll-MN). Methods for the large scale processing of daily mortalities from several integrated companies are being employed in Alabama. 2A. 1. Since geographic differences in water quality may exist, research to quantify the effect of water inclusions on poultry health and performance will be conducted in several locations. All results will be correlated with poultry production parameters from the participating states that will be surveyed. 2B. 1. Several stations located in geographically different climatic areas will conduct research and field trials to evaluate the effect of different water treatments on the performance of broiler chickens (Watkins-AR; Zimmerman-MD; Carr-MD; Hess and Blake-A:).

Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/05

Outputs
This project was finalized in 2005 with a positive impact on poultry waste management and the resulting safeguard of water quality through improved land stewardship. During the past few years, broiler producers have refined the methods for in-house litter composting between flocks with the intent of using this technique to reduce disease risk and increase performance. The research investigated temperature generation and its effect on bacterial numbers in litter composted by several methods. As a result, the poultry producer can reuse litter and cleanout the poultry house at a time most convenient to utilize litter nutrients for plant production. Poultry producers in Alabama and nationwide have begun to adopt methods for the in-house composting of litter between flock placements. Performance of broilers reared on sand is equal to those reared on conventional bedding materials, even after 20 plus flocks. Sand is an acceptable bedding material for broilers and an economical alternative for poultry producers. Use of sand as a bedding material has received tremendous interest, statewide and nationally. Sand litter may be of interest to those developing golf greens or producing sod commercially. This may allow poultry producers to earn increased income from sand litter at cleanout, in addition to moving a portion of Alabama's poultry litter away from traditional farming lands. A project was finalized which assessed the feasibility of an integrated ethanol and poultry production (IPEP) system that uses poultry litter as an alternative source of process energy for corn/ethanol production. The poultry litter ash that results from the combustion of broiler litter has potential for use as a phosphorus supplement for use in poultry diets, and has greater value in this respect as compared to its fertilizer value. Results indicated that the complete substitution of dicalcium phosphate with poultry litter ash failed to compromise growth rate, feed consumption or feed efficiency in market age broilers. Composting is a very sound approach to mortality disposal; however, poor management of composting equipment has led to a number of problems, including attracting insects and predators, producing noxious odors, incomplete composting, and generating a surplus of compost materials on many farms. Research based findings have been used in the educational training of poultry producers to make them aware of methods they need to be following for proper composting of poultry mortalities. Improvements were identified concerning the loading rate and efficiency of operation for broiler producers engaged in rearing large size birds and with multiple houses (four or more). Recent technological advances in incinerator design and new generation refractory materials have made incineration appear to be a cost-effective method of dead bird disposal for poultry growers. Results indicated that while these differences in efficiency and cost represent wide variability in specific model design and operation, it is apparent that recent technological advances are quite attractive relative to traditional alternatives for carcass disposal.

Impacts
Research conducted has focused on immediate needs of the poultry industry. With the termination of this project, the long-term impact of methods and alternatives that promote the environmentally safe disposal of poultry farm wastes in a commercial environment have been approached.

Publications

  • Blake, J. P., 2005. Methods and Technologies for Handling Mortality Issues. Worlds Poult. Sci. J. 60:489-499
  • Hess, J. B., K. S. Macklin, J. P. Blake, and T. Lavergne, 2005. Managing Broiler Litter for Bird Health and Performance. 5 pp. In: MPF Speaker Manual, Midwest Poultry Federation Convention, St. Paul, MN.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2005. Water Quality Issues in Poultry Production and Processing. AD-421 Progress Report. For: CSREES, Washington, DC
  • Hess, J. B. and J. P. Blake, 2005. Alabama State Report. Water Quality Issues in Poultry Production and Processing. For: W-195 Annual Meeting, Fort Worth, TX 4 pp.
  • Blake, J. P., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, R. A. Norton, K. S. Macklin, and E. A. Guertal, 2005. Alternative Litter Technologies in Alabama. For: Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM), Montgomery, AL. 4 pp.
  • Blake, J. P., J. B. Hess, and S. F. Bilgili, 2005. Nutritional Value of Poultry Litter Ash Fed to Broiler Chickens. Final Report For: T. R. Miles technical Consultants, Portland, OR. 30 pp.
  • Donald, J. O. and J. P. Blake, 2005. Tips on installation and use of incinerators. Poultry Times Supplement, 05/23/2005, pp. 3A-4A.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2005. Direct substitution of dicalcium phosphate with poultry litter ash in broiler diets. Poultry Sci. 84:63 (Abstract #127).
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2005. Nutritional value of poultry litter ash fed to broiler chickens. Poultry Sci. 84:63 (Abstract #126).


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Work continued during the 2003-2004 period on a number of projects designed to impact poultry waste management and safeguard water quality through improved land stewardship. Performance of broilers reared on sand is equal to those reared on conventional bedding materials, even after 20+ flocks. Sand is an acceptable bedding material for broilers and an economical alternative for poultry producers. Use of sand as a bedding material has received tremendous interest, statewide and nationally. Sand litter may be of interest to those developing golf greens or producing sod commercially. This may allow poultry producers to earn increased income from sand litter at cleanout, in addition to moving a portion of Alabama's poultry litter away from traditional farming lands. During the past few years, broiler producers have refined the methods for in-house litter composting between flocks with the intent of using this technique to reduce disease risk and increase performance. Recent work investigated temperature generation and its effect on bacterial numbers in litter composted by several methods. Pine shavings litter reached a higher temperature and composted more fully than sand litter. This technique also allows the poultry producer to reuse litter and cleanout the poultry house at a time when it is most convenient to utilize the litter nutrients for plant production. A project was initiated that assesses the feasibility of an integrated ethanol and poultry production (IPEP) system that uses poultry litter as an alternative source of process energy for corn/ethanol production. The poultry litter ash that results from the combustion of broiler litter has potential for use as a phosphorus supplement for use in poultry diets, and has greater value in this respect as compared to its fertilizer value. Preliminary results indicate that the complete substitution of dicalcium phosphate with poultry litter ash failed to compromise growth rate, feed consumption or feed efficiency in market age broilers. As a result, poultry litter ash has value as a phosphorus supplement in poultry feeds. Composting is a very sound approach to mortality disposal; however, poor management of composting equipment has led to a number of problems, including attracting insects and predators, producing noxious odors, incomplete composting, and generating a surplus of compost materials on many farms. The stationary composter concept improves loading rate and efficiency of operation for broiler producers engaged in rearing large size birds and with multiple houses (four or more). Recent technological advances in incinerator design and new generation refractory materials have made incineration appear to be a cost-effective method of dead bird disposal for poultry growers. Results indicated that while these differences in efficiency and cost represent wide variability in specific model design and operation, it is apparent that recent technological advances are quite attractive relative to traditional alternatives for carcass disposal.

Impacts
Research conducted has focused on immediate needs of the poultry industry. Published research has dealt with methods that will promote the environmentally safe disposal of poultry farm wastes. As a result, Auburn University has gained national and international reputation for its research in poultry waste management.

Publications

  • Blake, J. P., 2004. Methods and technologies for handling mortality losses. 8 pp. In: Proceedings XXII World's Poultry Congress, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Blake, J. P., 2004. Environmental priorities: Being a good neighbor. Proceedings Pheasants 2004, McFarlane Pheasant Farm, Janesville, WI. 8 pp.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2004. AD-421 Annual Progress Report. For: CSREES, Washington, DC
  • Hess, J. B. and J. P. Blake, 2004. Annual State Report for Alabama. For: W-195 Annual Meeting, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 4 pp.
  • Hess, J. B., S. F. Bilgili, M. K. Eckman, J. P. Blake, R. A. Norton, and E. Guertal, 2004. Project #552: Field Adaptation of Sand as a Litter Source for Broilers. Final Report for US Poultry and Egg Association, Tucker, GA. 13 pp.
  • Guertal, E. A., J. B. Hess, J. P. Blake, S. F. Bilgili, R. A. Norton, and K. S. Macklin, 2004. Poultry litter sand as a source for putting green construction. ASA/CSSA/SSSA Abstracts.
  • Bowers, B. D., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, M. K. Eckman, and E. A. Guertal, 2003. Nutrient buildup in sand litter houses. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 12:522-525.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2004. Litter Treatment Options. 5 pp In: Proceedings 2004 Georgia Poultry Conference, Athens, GA.
  • Macklin, K. S., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and R. A. Norton, 2004. Bacterial counts associated with composting litter between flocks. pp 177-180. In: Proceedings National Poultry Waste Management Symposium, Memphis, TN.
  • Blake, J. P., 2004. Doing what is right for the environment. pp. 1-5 In: Proceedings 27th Technical Turkey Conference, Manchester, England.
  • Bilgili, S. F., J. B. Hess, J. P. Blake, M. K. Eckman, R. A. Norton, K. S. Macklin, E. A. Guertal, 2004. Rearing broilers on sand: A result demonstration project. 4 pp. In: Proceedings XXII World's Poultry Congress, Istanbul, Turkey.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Work continued during the 2002-2003 period on a number of projects designed to impact poultry waste management and safeguard water quality through improved land stewardship. Continued sampling of sand litter nutrient levels gave a better picture of how this alternative litter source might be used on a larger scale in the broiler industry. In short, although using sand litter permits cleanout to be delayed for four to five years, the resulting level of litter available at that time would require quite a lot of land for spreading. Sand litter would, therefore, potentially be useful for someone who wishes to sell litter only occasionally. Brian Bowers completed his Masters thesis on this subject and two papers have been submitted for publication. Ken Macklin has lead attempts to monitor temperature and bacterial numbers in litter composted by several methods. These are small pen studies that should complement the work being done in Louisiana. Although composting worked better in windrowed pine shavings litter if covered, the logistics of covering windrows in a 500 foot house would be prohibitive. Pine shavings litter reached a higher temperature and composted more fully than the sand litter. Drs. Blake and Simpson (Ag Economics) completed an economic comparison of several types of poultry mortality incinerators. Units on both broiler and broiler breeder farms were tested. Significant differences in the cost of incineration were recorded between types of incinerators. Dr. Blake also participated in a number of CAFO/AFO and Certified Waste Vendor training programs within the State.

Impacts
Research conducted has focused on immediate needs of the poultry industry. Published research has dealt with methods that will promote the environmentally safe disposal of poultry farm wastes. As a result, Auburn University has gained national and international reputation for its research in poultry waste management.

Publications

  • Blake, J. P., 2002. Sustainable Poultry Production. pp. 32-33. In: Proceedings Sustainable Agriculture in Alabama Symposium, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University,
  • Downs, K. M., J. B. Hess, J. P. Blake, R. A. Norton, A. Kalinowski, A. Corzo, and C. M. Parsons, 2003. Suitability of a degydrated poultry mortality-soybean meal product for use in broiler chicken diets. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 12:222-228.
  • Bowers, B. D., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and M. K. Eckman, 2003. Measuring sand litter temperatures during brooding. J. Appl. Poultr. Res. 12:271-274.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2003. Progress Report:Water Quality Issues in Poultry Production and Processing. AD-421 Progress Report. For: CSREES, Washington, DC
  • Hess, J. B. and J. P. Blake, 2003. Alabama State Report. Water Quality Issues in Poultry Production and Processing. For: W-195 Annual Meeting, Ocean City, MD. 4 pp.
  • Hess, J. B., S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and M. K. Eckman, 2003. Progress Report: Field adaptation of sand as a litter source for broilers. For: US Poultry and Egg Association, Tucker, GA. 2 pp.
  • Blake, J. P., 2003. How good is your dead poultry compost. pp. 2-3 In: Current Concepts in Broiler Production, Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, AL. Spring 2003.
  • Blake, J. P., 2003. How well are you composting? Poultry Digest Online, Watt Poultry. Vol. 3, No. 8. 2 pp.
  • Bowers, B. D., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and M. K. Eckman, 2003. The nutrient level buildup in sand litter. Poultry Digest Online, Watt Poultry. Vol. 3, No. 6. 3 pp.
  • Blake, J. P., 2003. Disposal of Hatcher By-products. Wildlife Harvest 34(5):62-65.
  • Blake, J. P., 2003. Composting Dead Birds. Wildlife Harvest 34(4):46-50.
  • Blake, J. P., 2003. Evaluating the Cost of Incineration. Wildlife Harvest 34(3):44-45.
  • Macklin, K. S., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, M. K. Eckman, J. P. Blake, and R. A. Norton, 2003. Addition of water to composted pine shavings and sand litter and effects on bacterial counts. Poultry Sci. 81(1):57.
  • Macklin, K. S., M. A. Davis, J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, M. K. Eckman, J. P. Blake, and R. A. Norton, 2003. Effects of composting pine shaving and sand litter on bacterial counts. Poultry Sci. 81(1):125.
  • Bowers, B.D., 2002. Litter temperature and nutrient buildup in sand litter. Thesis completed 12/02.
  • Macklin, K.S., R.A. Norton, J.B. Hess, S.F. Bilgili, M.K. Eckman, J.P. Blake, C. Wang, M. Noble and J.T. Krehling, 2002. Bacteria levels associated with pine shavings and sand when used as poultry litter. Poultry Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):133-134.
  • Hess, J.B., S.F. Bilgili, J.P. Blake and M.K. Eckman, 2003. Studies on the use of alternative litter sources for broilers. Zootechnica International, Jan. 2003, pp. 42-45.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
The objectives of this project was to 1) evaluate management and recycling techniques for poultry waste as either a fertilizer, feed, or fuel to protect water quality; 2) evaluate management and recycling techniques for poultry mortalities to protect water quality; 3) introduce a poultry farm tree planting program; and 4) evaluate local water quality standards for comparison to national standards. Poultry producers are required to follow a Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP) and Best Management Practices (BMPs) as a result of the AFO (Animal Feeding Operations) and CAFO (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations) regulations. All Animal Feeding Operations are required to maintain records to ensure that manure from a producer's flock can be spread at acceptable rates on available land following their CNMP and BMPs. Any individual transporting litter off-farm must also be a Certified Animal Waste Vendor. Through various training programs, poultry growers in Alabama are now prepared to deal with the current AFO/CAFO regulations. The use of sand as a bedding material is being aggressively tested for its long-term suitability. More than ten commercial broiler houses are currently under test using sand as a bedding material. Preliminary results indicate that sand can be used as an alternative bedding material, it is economical, and it offers some distinct advantages over traditional bedding materials derived from wood products. The use of litter treatments by the poultry industry in Alabama has become a routine management practice. In general, commercial litter treatments aid in the reduction of ammonia volatilization, phosphorus runoff, and pathogenic microorganisms. Producers require information concerning the usage, efficacy, and application of litter treatments in order to make appropriate decisions concerning their use. Several extension publications were developed to fulfill their current needs. Due to the emergence of newer incineration technologies, there is a need to investigate the economics and efficiencies of new equipment presently on the market. Planting trees around the perimeter of poultry houses provides a visual screen, vegetative filter, windbreak and demonstrates the continual commitment of the poultry grower to implement a voluntary tree-planting program as part of his ongoing commitment to be a good neighbor and environmental steward. Educational materials are being developed to initiate a tree-planting program for poultry producers. Initially this program will target areas of urban encroachment, which makes maintaining good relations with neighbors a greater challenge. Planting trees around poultry farms offers many environmental benefits and presents a positive image. Water quality is a health issue in many parts of the US and world, and it is just as important to poultry production and processing, since water quality can affect poultry health and performance. An extension publication citing differences in water quality was developed as a reference for poultry producers in Alabama.

Impacts
Research conducted has focused on immediate needs of the poultry industry. A cooperative research program has involved faculty from the Departments of Poultry Science, Animal and Dairy Sciences, Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Agronomy, and Biosystems Engineering. Published research has dealt with methods that will promote the environmentally safe disposal of poultry farm wastes. As a result, Auburn University has gained national and international reputation for its research in poultry waste management.

Publications

  • Blake, J. P., E. H. Simpson, and J. O. Donald, 2002. Poultry waste management and utilization in the Tennessee river basin. Final Report. October, 2002. For: Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Montgomery, AL. 64 pp.
  • Simpson, E. H., J. P. Blake, J. O. Donald, and R. A. Norton, 2002. Incineration for disposal of poultry mortalities. p. 1 In: Current Concepts in Broiler Production, Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, AL. Fall Issue.
  • Simpson, E. H., J. P. Blake, J. O. Donald, and R. A. Norton, 2002. Dead bird incineration costs. p. 2 In: The Scoop on Litter. Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, AL. Fall Issue.
  • Hess, J. B., J. P. Blake, and K. M. Tilt, 2002. Planting trees around poultry houses. The Alabama Poultry Monthly 2(9):14. September.
  • Bowers, B. D., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and M. K. Eckman, 2002. Nutrient buildup in sand litter over time. Poultry Sci. 80(1):53.
  • Bowers, B. D., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and M. K. Eckman, 2002. Sand litter temperatures during brooding. Poultry Sci. 80(1):124-125.
  • Patterson, P. H., J. P. Blake, and K. D. Roberson, 2002. Proceedings 2002 National Poultry Waste Management Symposium. National Poultry Waste Management Symposium Committee, Auburn University, AL. 398 pp.
  • Blake, J. P., E. H. Simpson, J. O. Donald, and R. A. Norton, 2002. Economic evaluation of incineration as a method for dead bird disposal. pp. 281-288. In: Proceedings 2002 National Poultry Waste Management Symposium. National Poultry Waste Management Symposium Committee, Auburn University, AL.
  • Bowers, B. D., J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and M. K. Eckman, 2002. Nutrient level buildup in sand litter. pp. 289-294. In: Proceedings 2002 National Poultry Waste Management Symposium. National Poultry Waste Management Symposium Committee, Auburn University, AL.
  • Hess, J.B., M.K. Eckman, S.F. Bilgili, J.P. Blake, B.D. Bowers, R.A. Norton, K.S. Macklin and E. Guertal, 2002. Thoughts on sand as litter. 5pp In: Arkansas Poultry Symposium Proceedings, Springdale, AR.
  • Blake, J. P., and J. B. Hess, 2002. Alabama Issues. 4 pp. In: W-195 Annual Report: Water Quality Issues in Poultry Production and Processing.
  • Macklin, K. S., R. A. Norton, J. B. Hess, S. F. Bilgili, M. K. Eckman, J. P. Blake, C. Wang, M. Noble, and J. T. Krehling, 2002. Bacterial levels associated with pine shavings and sand when used as poultry litter. Poultry Sci. 80(1):133-134.
  • Simpson, E. H., J. P. Blake, J. O. Donald, and R. A. Norton, 2002. Evaluation of incineration for disposal of poultry mortalities. Poultry Sci. 80(1): 6.
  • Blake, J. P., 2001. Book review. Handbook of Poultry Feed from Waste Processing and Use. Poultry Sci. 80:380.
  • Blake, J. P., 2001. Poultry waste by-products. In: Abstracts Southern Region Extension Water Quality Conference, 1 p. Southern Region Water Quality Program, Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Gulf Shores, AL.
  • Blake, J. P., E. H. Simpson, and J. O. Donald, 2001. Poultry waste management and utilization in the Tennessee river basin. October, 2001 update. For: Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Montgomery, AL. 8 pp.
  • Bilgili, S. F., J. B. Hess, M. K. Eckman, and J. P. Blake, 2001. Potential opportunities with a sand-based litter. The Poultry Informed Professional. May, 2001. Issue 49. Department of Avian Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. pp. 1-4.
  • Hess, J. B., M. K. Eckman, S. F. Bilgili, and J. P. Blake, 2001. Sand research continues in the field. Current Concepts in Broiler Production., Fall 2001. p. 1.
  • Bilgili, S. F., J. B. Hess, M. K. Eckman, and J. P. Blake, 2001. Broilers on sand. (In Russian).
  • Bilgili, S. F., J. B. Hess, M. K. Eckman, and J. P. Blake, 2001. Sand as a bedding material in broiler production. (In Russian).
  • Blake, J. P., 2001. Dead bird disposal a challenge to poultry growers. Poultry Times 47(26):10.
  • Hess, J. B., J. P. Blake, R. A. Norton, K. M. Downs, A. Kalinowski, and A. Corzo, 2001. Dehydrated poultry meal as a replacement for soybean meal in broiler diets. Poultry Sci. 80(1): 325.
  • Hess, J. B., J. P. Blake, R. A. Norton, and C. M. Parsons, 2001. Nutritional profile of dehydrated poultry meal as a feed ingredient. Poultry Sci. 80:1029.
  • Norton, R. A., J. B. Hess, J. P. Blake, and K. S. Macklin, 2001. Microbiological safety of a dehydrated poultry meal product. Poultry Sci. 80:1047.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
The objectives of this project was to 1)evaluate management and recycling techniques for poultry waste as either a fertilizer, feed, or fuel to protect water quality and 2)evaluate management and recycling techniques for poultry mortalities to protect water quality. The impending CAFO and AFO regulations have a tremendous impact on the on-farm usage of poultry manures and Alabama has been the first state to prohibit the spreading of poultry manures from November 15 to February 15, since crops are not actively growing during this time period. The resulting ADEM regulation has prompted the poultry industry to investigate alternates. Several composting projects were initiated to support the winter-time cleanout and subsequent storage of breeder manure. The resulting product may be used in alternative markets after composting. Also the use of sand as a bedding material is being agressively tested for its long-term suitability. More than ten commercial broiler houses are currently under test using sand as a bedding material. Preliminary results indicate that sand can be used as an alternative bedding material, it is economical, and it offers some distinct advantages over traditional bedding materials derived from wood products. Methods for the disposal of poultry carcasses include incineration, composting, and conversion into a usable feed ingredient. Due to the emergence of newer incineration technologies, there is a need to investigate the economics and efficiencies of new equipment presently on the market. Also, composting has been adopted in many of the poultry producing states, but there is a need to consider techniques that will define the process and the use of the composted material for its full value as a fertilizer. Several participants have proposed to consider various aspects related to poultry carcass composting. Other methods that offer the pickup of dead birds and the transport of the carcasses to a rendering facility in an environmentally friendly manner are also worthy of further investigations. The recycling of poultry carcasses into a usable feed ingredient also offers potential. Methods for the pickup and transportation of the dead birds requires consideration from a disease and economic viewpoint. A thorough microbiological and nutritional evaluation of the product will be completed to determine its value as a feed ingredient. Methods for the preservation of poultry carcasses prior to processing, as well as methods for processing require further investigation. Methods for the large scale processing of daily mortalities from several integrated companies are being employed in Alabama.

Impacts
Research conducted has focused on immediate needs of the poultry industry. A cooperative research program has involved faculty from the Departments of Poultry Science, Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy, Horticulture, Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology and Animal and Dairy Sciences. Published research has dealt with methods that will promote the environmentally safe disposal of poultry farm wastes. As a result, Auburn University has gained national and international reputation for its research in poultry waste management.

Publications

  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2001. Evaluating water quality for poultry. Circular ANR-1201. Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, AL. 4 pp.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2001. Litter treatments for poultry. Circular ANR-1199. Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, AL. 4 pp.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2001. Aluminum sulfate as a litter treatment. Circular ANR-1202. Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, AL. 2 pp.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2001. Sodium Bisulfate (PLT) as a litter treatment. Circular ANR-1208. Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, AL. 2 pp.
  • Blake, J. P. and J. B. Hess, 2001. Poultry Guard as a litter amendment. Circular ANR-1209. Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn University, AL. 2 pp.
  • Hess, J. B., J. P. Blake, S. F. Bilgili, M. K. Eckman, and R. A. Norton, 2001. Research efforts to reduce land applied nutrients from poultry operations. In: Program 1st Annual Alabama Groundwater Conference, 2 pp. Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Montgomery, AL.
  • Hess, J. B., M. K. Eckman, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and E. Guertal, 2001. Update on sand research. In: Program 2001 Poultry Production and Health Seminar, 2 pp. US Poultry and Egg Association, Memphis, TN.
  • Blake, J. P., E. H. Simpson, and J. O. Donald, 2001. Poultry waste management and utilization in the Tennessee river basin. October, 2001 update. For: Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Montgomery, AL. 8 pp.
  • Hess, J. B., M. K. Eckman, S. F. Bilgili, J. P. Blake, and E. Guertal, 2001. Field adaptation of sand as litter source for broilers. For: US Poultry and Egg Association, Tucker, GA.
  • Blake, J. P., E. H. Simpson, and J. O. Donald, 2000. Poultry waste management and utilization in the Tennessee river basin. March, 2001 update. For: Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Montgomery, AL. 6 pp.
  • Blake, J.P. and P.H. Patterson (editors), 2000. Proceedings 2000 National Poultry Waste Management Symposium. National Poultry Waste Management Symposium Committee, Auburn University, AL. 420 pp.
  • Blake, J.P., 2000. Managing and reprocessing of poultry by-products. In: Proceedings XI National Veterinary Medicine Congress, pp. 103-109. XI National Veterinary Medicine Congress, Santiago, Chile.
  • Biligili, S.F., J.B. Hess, M.K. Eckman and J.P. Blake, 2000. Potential opportunities with a sand based litter. In: Proceedings 2000 National Poultry Waste Management Symposium, pp. 102-110. National Poultry Waste Management Symposium Committee, Auburn University, AL.
  • Hess, J.B., R.A. Norton and J.P. Blake, 2000. Dehydrated poultry meal produced from farm mortalities. In: Proceedings 2000 National Poultry Waste Management Symposium, pp. 246-251. National Poultry Waste Management Symposium Committee, Auburn University, AL.
  • Blake, J.P., 2000. Perspectives on Poultry Waste Management. In: 2000 Proceedings for the Mississippi Water Resources Conference, pp. 43-50. Mississippi Water Resources Conference, Raymond, MS.
  • Blake, J.P., R.M. Roden, J.T. Scott and D.E. Conner, 2000. Fermentation as a method for carcass disposal. In: Proceedings of the 49th Western Poultry Disease Conference, pp. 71-75. Western Poultry Disease Conference, Sacramento, CA.
  • Blake, J.P., 2000. Hatchery by-product disposal. Current Concepts in Broiler Production. Winter 2000. pp. 2-3.
  • Blake, J.P., 2000. Proper management can reduce effect on environment. Poultry Times 47(15): 16-17.