Source: PURDUE UNIVERSITY submitted to
UTILIZATION AND FATE OF NUTRIENTS BY ANIMALS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0187690
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
IND010934
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2005
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2010
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Applegate, T. J.
Recipient Organization
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
WEST LAFAYETTE,IN 47907
Performing Department
ANIMAL SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
The accumulation of nutrients in soils and the threat to surface water quality that may result from nutrient losses in runoff, is a major challenge facing animal agriculture. An additional challenge facing animal agriculture is airborne emissions which continue to be a national issue. Strategies to modify animal diets through reduced feed inputs and improved nutrient utilization will be investigated. This project examines animal diet as a means to reduce manure volumes, manure nutrient content, as well as airborne emissions from livestock and poultry operations.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1330199101010%
3023210101025%
3023220101015%
3023230101025%
3023240101025%
Goals / Objectives
1) Determine optimal combinations of feedstuffs and feed additives to maximize nutrient utilization while assessing nutrient mass balance. 2) Determine the effect of diet modification on form and fate of nutrients in manure and air emissions
Project Methods
The following research approach is an expansion of a previous Hatch project. The previous project focused on the impact of phosphorus reduction in manure. The current project quantifies nutrient allocation based on feeding programs, as well as the impact of amino acid nutrition on ammonia and other gaseous emissions. Nutrient allocation will be determined in laying hens during a laying cycle when fed a range of dietary phosphorus (P). Laying hens fed four concentrations of dietary P. Excreta, egg, and feed samples will be quantitatively collected and analyzed for DM, N, Ca, P, K, Cu, Mn, Zn, S, Fe, and Mg. Balance of nutrients will be determined and used as comparison with the revised ASAE D384.1 manure characteristics standard. Nutrient allocation will be determined in male turkeys during a growing cycle when fed an industry diet versus that of a lowered nutrient diet. These studies will determine the level of nutrients in excreta and determine the apparent nutrient balance through mass and nutrient measurements in feed, litter, and whole-body composition when 1) a typical commercial diet or 2) a low P with exogenous phytase diet are fed to turkeys. Studies will be conducted to address practical feeding programs for phytases derived from E. coli and expressed in yeast. An ileal amino acid digestibility model will be implemented and standardized in poultry. Studies are planned to quantify endogenous losses of amino acids in broilers and turkey poults during the first three weeks of age, in order to establish a baseline protocol for correction of ileal digestible amino acids to a true digestible basis, b) determine the apparent and true digestibility from predominate feed ingredients in broilers and turkey poults with a new consensus protocol across nutrition laboratories. The influence of phytase source and industry phosphorus formulation practices on form and fate of phosphorus in manure will be determined. Studies with new E. coli-derived phytases will be conducted to determine: a) phytase activity throughout the digestive tract, b) activity in excreta, c) influence of dietary total phosphorus formulation on buffering capacity of diet and excreta moisture content. Previous research showed that moisture content is the largest influence on bacterial growth in litter/excreta/manure). The impact of formulation to a digestible amino acid basis and dietary supplementation zeolites and acidulants on excreta pH and reduction of ammonia and other gaseous emissions will be determined. Trials will be conducted in turkeys and laying hens whereby diets, that have been previously demonstrated to reduce nutrient excretion, will be fed and compared to control (industry) diets. A combination of dietary approaches to reduce ammonia emissions will be used, including reduced crude protein and amino acid supplementation, replacement of a portion of limestone with calcium sulfate (dietary acidulant), and supplementation of the diet with a proprietary clinoptilolite (zeolite). Emissions from birds fed these diets will be measured, including: ammonia, nitrous oxides, NOx, hydrogen sulfide, SOx, methane, CO2, and volatile organic carbons.

Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: To address dietary reduction strategies, a series of experiments were conducted to determine differences between endogenous amino acid loss bio-assays and differences in amino acid digestibilites between laying hens, cecetomized roosters, broilers and turkey poults as well as age differences in turkey poults and broiler chicks. This work was highlighted at a joint-symposium on digestible amino acids at the annual American Society of Animal Sciences and Poultry Science Association that Dr. Applegate organized and chaired. Further strategies to reduce nitrogen excretion were explored in turkeys encompassed the extent to which dietary supplemental amino acids and level of amino acid formulation impacted performance, meat yield, and nitrogen excretion from turkeys. In laying hens, nitrogen and other gaseous emissions were reduced in a strategy which encompassed reducing dietary crude protein and supplementation with a zeolite and replacement of a portion of dietary calcium with an acidogenic calcium source, calcium sulfate. Additional strategies of nitrogen excretion reductions were quantitatively evaluated crude protein reduction and implications on nutrient use efficiency with probiotics and aflatoxin contamination. PARTICIPANTS: Y. Pang, S.A. Adedokun, N. Horn, D. Karcher - Graduate students; Collaborators: W. Powers - Michigan State University, R. Angel - University of Maryland, College Park, O. Adeola - Purdue University, C. Parsons - University of Illinois, M. Lilburn - Ohio State University TARGET AUDIENCES: Animal nutritionists, poultry industry, feed ingredient companies PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Amino acid digestibility. When considering changing endogenous amino acid losses from young (5 day) to more mature (21 day) birds, losses were 3 and 2 times greater at the younger age for turkey poults and broiler chicks respectively. Thus, the apparent indigestibility of amino acids from different ingredients once attributed to a young bird, thus is largely due to a greater endogenous basal endogenous amino acid flow (per unit dry matter intake) versus older birds. Thus, standardization of amino acid digestibility should use age appropriate endogenous amino acid corrections. Development and implementation of a standardized ileal amino acid digestibility bio-assay in chicks and poults will allow diet formulation closer to the actual amino acid needs of the bird while minimizing excesses in nitrogen excretion. Comparisons of current amino acid digestibility bioassay using caecectomized roosters with that of a standardized ileal amino acid digestibility bio-assay in broilers has revealed differences in some (predominately byproduct ingredients), but not all feed ingredients analyzed. Further clarification of these differences will allow diet formulation closer to the actual amino acid needs of the bird while minimizing excesses in nitrogen excretion. Turkey mass balance and nitrogen excretion reduction. An experiment was conducted to determine the fate of phosphorus and nitrogen for turkeys fed two diets at three ages via mass balance based on nutrient composition and weight of consumed feed, carcass and litter. Values obtained in this trial were compared to the latest turkey excretion model developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. The ASABE standard over-estimated turkey excretion, nitrogen, and phosphorus by 15 and 9%. This study also is a first to estimate nitrogen volatilization for a complete production phase for turkeys. A subsequent study utilized a 2 by 2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine whether diets formulated with either 2 (Lys and Met) or 3 (Lys, Met, and Thr) supplemental amino acids (AA) to 100 or 110 percent of NRC (1994) AA recommendations would affect performance and nitrogen (N) excretion of turkey toms. These data suggest that diets containing AA formulations above NRC (1994) recommendations do not provide any additional performance or meat yield benefits, yet results in considerable increases in excreted N. In addition, formulation with 3 supplemental AA results in a sizeable reduction in N consumed and excreted. Combining dietary source reduction with a dietary acidogen for laying hens. A laying hen study demonstrated the potential of a 40 percent reduction in NH3 emissions when diets with reduced crude protein, a zeolite, and replacement of a portion of limestone with calcium sulfate. However, the 3- wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the modified compared with hens fed the control dietResults demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions.

Publications

  • Walsh, M.C., K. L. Saddoris, D. M. Sholly, R. B. Hinson, A. L. Sutton, T. J. Applegate, B. T. Richert, J. S. Radcliffe. 2007. A comparison of administration routes of direct fed microbials to nursery pigs, and the effects on growth performance and gut health. Livestock Sci. 108:254-257.
  • Pang, Y., and T.J. Applegate. 2007. Effects of dietary copper supplementation and copper source on digesta pH, calcium, zinc and copper complex size in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 86: 531-537. Wu, W., W. Powers, S. Bastyr, T.J. Applegate, C. Hale, III, and R. Angel. 2007. Nutrient retention and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet. Poult. Sci. 86: 684-690.
  • Applegate, T.J., P. Jaynes, W. Powers, and R. Angel. 2007. Effect of amino acid formulation and synthetic amino acid supplementation on turkey tom performance. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):153.
  • Adedokun, S.A., O. Adeola, C. M. Parsons, M. S. Lilburn, and T. J. Applegate. 2007. Methodology for endogenous flow estimates for standardization of digestible amino acids. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):395.
  • Adedokun, S.A., D. Karcher, and T.J. Applegate. 2007. Effects of dietary protein concentration and age on gut morphology, crude mucin, and sialic acid contents of ileal digesta of turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):151.
  • Wu, W., W. Powers, S. Bastyr, T.J. Applegate, C. Hale, III, and R. Angel. 2007. Effect of an acidifying diet combined with zeolite and slight crude protein reduction on air emissions from laying hens of different ages. Poult. Sci. 86:175-181.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T. J. Applegate. 2007 Comparison of endogenous ileal amino acid and nitrogen flow in broiler chicks and turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 86:1682-1689.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T. J. Applegate. 2007. Effect of age, method, and location on ileal endogenous amino acid and total amino acid flows in turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 86:1948-1954.
  • Angel, R., W. Powers, S. Bastyr, T. Applegate, and D. Hoehler. 2007. Impact of feeding reduced protein diets on performance, breast yields and nitrogen emissions in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):766.
  • Augspurger, N.R., S.D. Frankenbach, T.J. Applegate, J. Moritz, F. Ruch, and D.M. Webel. 2007. Coating for pellet stability does not adversely affect the phosphorus-releasing efficacy of an E. coli-derived phytase in young chickens. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):756.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O.Adeola, and T. J. Applegate. 2007. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of plant source ingredients in broiler chicks and turkey poults using a nitrogen-free or casein diet. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):731.
  • Horn, N.L, S.S. Donkin, T.J. Applegate, and O. Adeola. 2009. Intestinal mucin dynamics response of broiler chicks and white Pekin ducklings to dietary threonine. Poult. Sci. 88:1906-1914.
  • Wu-Haan, W., W. Powers, R. Angel, and T. J. Applegate. 2010. Dried grains plus solubles as a feed ingredient on air emissions and performance from laying hens. Poult. Sci. 89:1355-1359.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Three studies were conducted, wherein the first two determined differences in bioassay responses to amino acid digestibility in poultry. The third study evaluated the ability of a probiotic to compensate for an amino acid deficient diet when fed to laying hens. Study 1. This study was conducted to determine and compare endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow in broilers, laying hens, and caecectomised roosters fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) and highly digestible protein diet (HDP). Also, the EAA flows using three methods (fasted, NFD, or HDP) in precision-fed caecectomised roosters were compared. Study 2. This study determined the effect of bird type (broilers, laying hens, or caectomised roosters) on amino acid digestibility of 5 plant source and one animal source feedstuffs. The standardised amino acid digestibility (SAAD) were obtained by correcting apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) flow obtained from feeding a N-free diet (NFD) in broilers and laying hens or on fasted EAA flow from caectomised roosters. Study 3. An experiment was conducted to determine whether direct-fed microbial supplementation could alleviate a marginal amino acid (AA) deficiency in Hyline 36 laying hens from 33 to 44 wk-of-age. The experiment was a 2 by 4 factorial design with or without a commercial direct-fed microbial (Primilac; 1.36 kg /1000 kg) and 4 levels of AA formulation. Results of these studies have been published and presented at professional society meetings as well as at regional nutrition conferences. PARTICIPANTS: Undergraduate student - K. Prickel (Purdue University) Graduate students - Sunday Adetayo Adedokun, Catalina Troche, and Zhengyu Jiang (Purdue University) Collaboration from Carl Parsons (University of Illinois), Mike Lilburn (Ohio State University), and Layi Adeola (Purdue University), Roselina Angel (University of Maryland), Wendy Powers (Michigan State University), and Gerd Schatzmayr (Austria) TARGET AUDIENCES: Animal nutritionists, poultry industry, feed ingredient companies PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Study 1. The EAA flow was not different between broilers and laying hens when fed either the NFD or HDP diets. Endogenous amino acid flow in caecectomised roosters was 3.5 to 12-fold higher than for broilers and laying hens for both methods (NFD and HDP) of estimation. When caecectomised roosters were fasted or precision-fed (NFD or HDP), there was no difference in EAA flow between the NFD or HDP-precision-fed birds. However, flows from fasted roosters were lower than from roosters fed the NFD or HDP diet. Results from this study showed that EAA flow is method dependent. Total amino acid flow from fasted birds was 31% less than when a NFD was fed to caecectomised roosters. Study 2. The apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibilities were not different between broilers and roosters for 3 of the 6 feed ingredients. Broilers had higher apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibility than laying hens and roosters when fed the maize diet (canola meal, maize, and soybean meal). The apparent TAA digestibility were similar across bird types for the dark distillers' dried grain with solubles, but the apparent lysine digestibility was much lower in the caectomised roosters (15%) than the broilers (49%) and laying hens (43%). The standardised TAA digestibility values in roosters were higher than in broilers' for 3 of the 6 feed ingredients (canola meal, soybean meal, or meat and bone meal). There were no differences between broilers and roosters, however, in the standardised TAA digestibility values for maize, dark and light DDGS. Study 3. Egg characteristics (yolk, albumen, or shell proportions and yolk or albumen solids) were not affected by diet. Primilac supplementation had no effect on egg production or egg mass. However, Primilac supplementation reduced feed intake-to-egg mass ratio by 2.4% and 3.4% from 33 to 36 and 41 to 44 wk, respectively. Total eggs laid and egg mass were greatest when at least 14.4 g CP, 804 mg Lys, 382 mg Met, 601 mg TSAA, 502 mg Thr, and 609 mg Ile were consumed per hen per d from 33 to 44 wk-of-age. In conclusion, Primilac supplementation was not able to completely alleviate a marginal AA deficiency in laying hens but did improve feed intake-to-egg mass ratios during 8 wk of the 12 wk study.

Publications

  • Pang, Y., J.A. Patterson, and T.J. Applegate. 2009. The influence of copper concentration and source on ileal microbiota. Poult. Sci. 88:586-592.
  • Applegate, T.J., E. Onyango, R. Angel, and W.J. Powers. 2009. Effect of amino acid formulation and dietary probiotic supplementation on egg production and egg characteristics in laying hens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 18:552-561.
  • Applegate, T.J., G. Schatzmayr, K. Prickel, C. Troche, and Z. Jiang. 2009. Effect of aflatoxin culture on intestinal function and nutrient loss in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 88:1235-1241.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C.M. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T.J. Applegate. 2009. Comparison of amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients in broilers, laying hens, and caectomised roosters. Brit. Poult. Sci. 50:350-358.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C.M. Parsons, M.S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T.J. Applegate. 2009. Endogenous amino acid flow in broilers, laying hens and caectomised roosters. Brit. Poult. Sci. 50:359-365.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A 2 by 2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine whether diets formulated with either 2 (Lys and Met) or 3 (Lys, Met, and Thr) supplemental amino acids (AA) to 100% or 110% of NRC (1994) AA recommendations would affect performance and nitrogen (N) excretion of turkey toms. Diets with with two supplemental AA had 2.0, 1.5, 1.4, and 1.0 %-units more CP than diets containing three supplemental AA at 4 to 8, 8 to 12, 12 to 16, and 16 to 20 wk of age, respectively. Body weight, feed intake, feed/gain nor Pectoralis major yield was not affected by AA formulation or AA supplementation (average 20 wk BW = 20.7 kg). Nitrogen (N) intake was affected by diet with birds fed 100% NRC AA consuming 144 g (7.3%) less N, with $0.48 less feed cost/20 wk tom, than those fed 110% NRC AA. Similarly, birds fed 3 versus 2 supplemental AA consumed 154 g less feed N (8.4%) with $0.37 less feed cost/20 wk tom to 20 wk of age. These differences in N intake resulted in 0.8 kg more N in litter/pen (7%) in birds fed 100 % NRC AA versus those fed 110% NRC. Similarly, birds fed 3 vs 2 supplemental AA had 1.24 less N in litter/pen (10.8%). Another study determined the effect of bird type (broilers, laying hens, or caectomised roosters) on amino acid digestibility of 5 plant source and one animal source feedstuffs. The apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibilities were not different between broilers and roosters for 3 of the 6 feed ingredients. Broilers had higher apparent total amino acid (TAA) digestibility than laying hens and roosters when fed the maize diet (canola meal, maize, and soybean meal). The apparent TAA digestibility were similar across bird types for the dark distillers' dried grain with solubles, but the apparent lysine digestibility was much lower in the caectomised roosters (15%) than the broilers (49%) and laying hens (43%). The standardised TAA digestibility values in roosters were higher than in broilers' for 3 of the 6 feed ingredients (canola meal, soybean meal, or meat and bone meal). There were no differences between broilers and roosters, however, in the standardised TAA digestibility values for maize, dark and light DDGS. The standardised TAA digestibility values for laying hens were lower for maize, higher for meat and bone meal, but not different for the remaining ingredients when compared with broilers. PARTICIPANTS: S.A. Adedokun, C. Troche, Z. Jiang - Graduate students Partner Organizations Michigan State University, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Illinois, Urbana/Champagne, The Ohio State University TARGET AUDIENCES: Poultry industry and environmental regulators PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Experiments with turkey toms suggest that diets containing amino acid formulations above NRC (1994) recommendations do not provide any additional performance or meat yield benefits, yet results in considerable increases in excreted N. In addition, formulation with 3 supplemental AA results in a sizeable reduction in N consumed and excreted. Comparisons of current amino acid digestibility bioassay using caecectomized roosters with that of a standardized ileal amino acid digestibility bio-assay in broilers has revealed differences in some, but not all feed ingredients analyzed. Further clarification of these differences will allow diet formulation closer to the actual amino acid needs of the bird while minimizing excesses in nitrogen excretion.

Publications

  • White, R.A., J.H. Harrison, A. Sutton, T. Applegate, G. Erickson, R. Burns, and R. Koelsch. 2007. Five steps to the development and implementation of a feed management plan. Wash. St. Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/dairy/joeharrison/data/publications/5Step sofImplementation.pdf
  • Harrison, J.H, White, R.A., A. Sutton, T. Applegate, G. Erickson, R. Burns, and R. Koelsch. 2007An introduction to Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) feed management practice standard 592. Wash. St. Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/dairy/joeharrison/data/publications/592%2 0intro.pdf
  • Harrison, J.H., White, R.A., A. Sutton, T. Applegate, G. Erickson, R. Burns, R. Koelsch, and D. Wilks. 2008. Use of the dairy opportunity checklist in feed management plan development. Wash. St. Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/dairy/joeharrison/data/publications/OppLi stDairyfinal.pdf
  • Applegate, T.J., and R. Angel. 2008. Phosphorus requirements for poultry. Washington State Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/dairy/nutrient-management/data/publicatio ns/Phosphorus%20requirements%20for%20poultry-final%20jhh.pdf; AS-583-W Purdue Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/AS/AS-583-W.pdf
  • Applegate, T.J., and R. Angel. 2008. Variation in nutrient utilization by poultry and ingredient composition. Washington State Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/dairy/nutrient-management/data/publicatio ns/Variation%20in%20Nutrient%20utilization%20by%20Poultry-%20Ingredie nt%20Composition%20final.pdf. AS-585-W Purdue Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. . http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/AS/AS-585-W.pdf
  • Applegate, T.J., and R. Angel. 2008. Protein and amino acid requirements for poultry. Washington State Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/dairy/nutrient-management/data/publicatio ns/Protein%20and%20amino%20acid%20for%20poultry-final.pdf. AS-584-W Purdue Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/AS/AS-584-W.pdf
  • Applegate, T.J., B. Richert, A. Sutton, W. Powers, and R. Angel. 2008. Diet and feed management practices affect air quality from poultry and swine operations. Washington State Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/dairy/nutrient-management/data/publicatio ns/Air%20quality-%20feed%20management%20-%20final.pdf; AS-582-W Purdue Univ. Coop. Ext. Publ. http://www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/AS/AS-582-W.pdf
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T. J. Applegate. 2007. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal in broiler chicks and turkey poults using a nitrogen-free or casein diet. Poult. Sci. 86:2598-2607.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T. J. Applegate. 2007. Endogenous amino acid flow in broiler chicks is affected by the age of birds and method of estimation. Poult. Sci. 86:2590-2597.
  • Applegate, T.J., W.J. Powers, R. Angel, and D. Hoehler. 2008. Effect of amino acid formulation and acid supplementation on performance and nitrogen excretion in turkey toms. Poult. Sci. 87:514-520.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. M. Parsons, M. S. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T. J. Applegate. 2008. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of plant feedstuffs in broiler chickens and turkey poults using a nitrogen-free or casein diet. Poult. Sci. 87:2535-2548.
  • Applegate, T.J., C. Troche, Z. Jiang, and T. R. Johnson. 2008. Replacement of soybean meal with high-protein corn distillers grain in broiler diets. Poult. Sci. 87(Suppl. 1):28.
  • Adeodkun, S.A., O. Adeola, C. M. Parsons, M. S. Lilburn, and T. J. Applegate. 2008. Comparison of apparent and standardized amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients in cecectomized roosters, laying hens, and broilers. . Poult. Sci. 87(Suppl. 1):145.


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Apparent and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD), total amino acid (TAA), and N digestibility of 5 feed ingredients was determined in 5- and 21-d old broiler chicks and turkey poults. Two methods of endogenous standardization were used, a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) and a completely digestible protein (CDP, 10% casein). Ingredients included 2 samples of corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (light, L and dark, D DDGS), canola meal, corn, and soybean meal. Age had a significant effect on apparent ileal amino acid and N digestibility in broilers. Both standardization methods in chicks resulted in higher values relative to the apparent digestibility values. These results show that correcting for ileal endogenous amino acid resulted in higher digestibility values and both methods of standardization produced similar results in poults at d 5 and d 21 whereas SIAAD in broiler chicks was higher on d 21 (3.8% TAA) using a CDP method. Evaluation of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) was studied on nutrient retention in laying hens and compared 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed. Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet compared with hens fed the C diet. Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/ d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH3 over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3- wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals Y. Pang, S.A. Adedokun, D. Karcher - Graduate students Partner Organizations Michigan State University, University of Maryland, College Park, University of Illinois, Urbana/Champagne, The Ohio State University TARGET AUDIENCES: Presentation at American Society of Animal Science/Poultry Science Association Annual meeting symposium entitled "Lessons and Logistics of Application of Digestible Amino Acids in Diet Formulation"

Impacts
Development and implementation of a standardized ileal amino acid digestibility bio-assay in chicks and poults will allow diet formulation closer to the actual amino acid needs of the bird while minimizing excesses in nitrogen excretion. Emergency Planning and Community Rigyht-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) reporting requirement allow daily emissions of 100 pounds per day of NH3 and H2S from livestock and poultry operations. The current study demonstrates the potential of a 40% reduction in NH3 emissions, which likely will be the reporting requirement for laying hen operations.

Publications

  • Applegate, T.J., P. Jaynes, W. Powers, and R. Angel. 2007. Effect of amino acid formulation and synthetic amino acid supplementation on turkey tom performance. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):153.
  • Adedokun, S.A., O. Adeola, C. M. Parsons, M. S. Lilburn, and T. J. Applegate. 2007. Methodology for endogenous flow estimates for standardization of digestible amino acids. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):395.
  • Adedokun, S.A., D. Karcher, and T.J. Applegate. 2007. Effects of dietary protein concentration and age on gut morphology, crude mucin, and sialic acid contents of ileal digesta of turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):151.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T. J. Applegate. 2007. Effect of age, method, and location on ileal endogenous amino acid and total amino acid flows in turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 86:1948-1954.
  • Angel, R., W. Powers, S. Bastyr, T. Applegate, and D. Hoehler. 2007. Impact of feeding reduced protein diets on performance, breast yields and nitrogen emissions in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):766.
  • Augspurger, N.R., S.D. Frankenbach, T.J. Applegate, J. Moritz, F. Ruch, and D.M. Webel. 2007. Coating for pellet stability does not adversely affect the phosphorus-releasing efficacy of an E. coli-derived phytase in young chickens. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):756.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O.Adeola, and T. J. Applegate. 2007. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of plant source ingredients in broiler chicks and turkey poults using a nitrogen-free or casein diet. Poult. Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):731.
  • Wu, W., W. Powers, S. Bastyr, T.J. Applegate, C. Hale, III, and R. Angel. 2007. Effect of an acidifying diet combined with zeolite and slight crude protein reduction on air emissions from laying hens of different ages. Poult. Sci. 86:175-181.
  • Walsh, M.C., K. L. Saddoris, D. M. Sholly, R. B. Hinson, A. L. Sutton, T. J. Applegate, B. T. Richert, J. S. Radcliffe. 2007. A comparison of administration routes of direct fed microbials to nursery pigs, and the effects on growth performance and gut health. Livestock Sci. 108:254-257.
  • Pang, Y., and T.J. Applegate. 2007. Effects of dietary copper supplementation and copper source on digesta pH, calcium, zinc and copper complex size in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 86: 531-537. Wu, W., W. Powers, S. Bastyr, T.J. Applegate, C. Hale, III, and R. Angel. 2007. Nutrient retention and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet. Poult. Sci. 86: 684-690.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O. Adeola, T. J. Applegate. 2007 Comparison of endogenous ileal amino acid and nitrogen flow in broiler chicks and turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 86:1682-1689.


Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

Outputs
An experiment was conducted to determine the fate of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) for turkeys fed two diets at three ages via mass balance based on nutrient composition and weight of consumed feed, carcass and litter. Birds from four pens per diet were weighed and killed at 12, 15, and 18 wk of age for nutrient retention (in whole carcasses) and excretion (in litter) determinations. Mass of P excreted at 12, 15, and 18 wk of age was 37, 46, and 40 % more for birds fed an industry (I) diet versus birds fed low phosphorus (LP) diets. Phosphorus retained as percentage of P consumed was greater at 12, 15, and 18 wk for birds fed the LP diets (67.0, 63.8, and 53.8 %) than for birds fed the I diets (47.3, 44.0, and 32.8 %). Difference between P excretion as calculated from litter compared with feed intake less carcass retention was less than 5 % at 18 wk. The N retained averaged 90.7, 136.7, and 184.2 g/bird while N excreted averaged 377.6, 620.7, and 921.8 g/bird at 12, 15, and 18 wk of age, respectively. Total excreta production at 18 wk was not different between treatments and averaged 12.2 kg/bird. While there were no differences in BW, N excretion (g) and DM excretion (kg), P excretion (intake less carcass) was 201.3 g and 94.6 g, respectively for birds fed the I and LP diets. Additionally, with an 18 wk average litter DM of 78.0 % the calculated N volatilization at 18 wk was 427 and 405 g/bird for birds fed the I and LP diets, respectively (40 and 37 % of excreted N).

Impacts
Values obtained in this trial were compared to the latest turkey excretion model developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. The ASABE standard over-estimated turkey excretion, nitrogen, and phosphorus by 15 and 9%. This study also is a first to estimate nitrogen volatilization for a complete production phase for turkeys.

Publications

  • Pang, Y. and T.J. Applegate. 2006. Effects of copper source and concentration on in vitro phytate phosphorus hydrolysis by phytase. J. Ag. Food. Chem. 54:1792-1796.
  • Leytem, A.B., D.R. Smith, T.J. Applegate, and P.A. Thacker. 2006. The influence of manure phytic acid on phosphorus solubility in calcareous soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:1629-1638.
  • Adedokun, S.A., W. Powers, R. Angel, A. Mitchell and T.J. Applegate. 2006. Determination of nutrient mass balance in turkeys. Poultry Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):155-156.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O.Adeola, and T. J. Applegate. 2006. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal in broiler chicks using a nitrogen-free or casein diet. Poult. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):86.
  • Persia, M.E., E. Onyango, P. Jaynes, T. Parr and T.J. Applegate. 2006. Dietary phytate and phytase effects on laying hen performance, nutrient digestibility, mucin and VFA concentration. Poult. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):89.
  • Powers, W., R. Angel, S. Zamzow, and T. Applegate. 2006. Reducing broiler air emissions through diet. Poult. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):81.
  • Wu, W., W. Powers, S. Bastyr, T.J. Applegate, and R. Angel, 2006. Effect of diet on air emissions from laying hens of different ages. Poultry Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):156.
  • Angel, R., W. Powers, S. Bastyr, W. Wu, and T Applegate. 2006. Dietary modifications to reduce air emissions from broiler chickens. Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of Science. Pp. 460-463.
  • Powers, W., S. Bastyr, R. Angel, T. Applegate, and B. Kerr. 2005. Effects of reduced crude protein diets on gaseous emissions and swine performance. Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of Science. Pp. 15-17.
  • Wu, W., W. Powers, R. Angel, C. E. Hale III, and T. Applegate. 2006. Effect of diet on air emissions from laying hens of different ages. Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of Science. Pp. 1247-1249.
  • Adedokun, S.A., C. Parsons, M. Lilburn, O.Adeola, and T. J. Applegate. 2006. Comparison of endogenous ileal amino acid and total nitrogen flow in turkey poults and broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):85.
  • Angel, R., W. Powers, S. Zamzow, and T. Applegate. 2006. Dietary modifications to reduce nitrogen consumption and excretion in broilers. Poult. Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):25.
  • Karcher, D.M., C.L. Wyatt, and T.J. Applegate. 2006. Effect of dietary non-phytate phosphorus concentration and phytase source on production traits of Hy-line W98 laying hens. Poultry Sci. 85(Suppl. 1):154.


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
An experiment was conducted to determine the fate of fed nutrients through egg, excreta, and feed analysis when four concentrations of dietary phosphorus were ad libitum fed (0.16, 0.24, 0.32, and 0.40 percent non-phytate phosphorus; NPP) from 28 to 75 wk of age. The experiment was conducted with W-36 Hyline hens (average 28 wk BW equaled 1.62 kg) in individual cages (15 hens/ diet). Feed intake was determined and excreta and eggs were quantitatively collected during a 3 d total collection at 28, 44, 60, and 75 wk of age, lyophilized, and analyzed for DM, N, Ca, P, K, Cu, Mn, Zn, S, Fe, Al, Na, and Mg. Egg production, weight, and nutrient composition were unaffected by dietary NPP. Similarly, feed DM intake was unaffected by dietary NPP (average equaled 83.8 g DM/hen/d and 96.74 g DM/hen/d; 28 and 75 wk of age, respectively). Excreta DM was 16.45 and 21.71 g/hen/d at 28 and 75 wk of age, respectively. Excreta N was 887 and 1240 mg/hen/d at 28 and 75 wk of age, respectively. Dietary P intake, however, increased with increasing dietary NPP. At 28 wk of age, hens fed 0.16 percent NPP ate 0.277 g/hen/d vs. hens fed 0.40 percent NPP at 0.482 g/hen/d, resulting in 0.187 and 0.408 g P being excreted/hen/d (P les than 0.05). By 75 wk of age, hens fed 0.16 percent NPP ate 0.34 g/hen/d versus that of hens fed 0.40 percent NPP at 0.589 g/hen/d, thereby resulting in 0.277 and 0.406 g P excreted/hen/d (P les than 0.05). Excretion of Ca was unaffected by dietary NPP and averaged 1.35 and 1.85 g/hen/d at 28 and 75 wk, respectively. Excretion of K was unaffected by dietary NPP and averaged 0.533 and 0.61 g/hen/d at 28 and 75 wk, respectively. Excretion of S, Fe, Al, and Cu were the most notable minerals affected by dietary NPP and increased from 72.6, 14.1, 4.56, 0.87 mg/hen/d when fed 0.16 percent NPP to 88.3, 20.8, 11.62, and 0.97 mg/hen/d when fed 0.40 percent NPP, respectively (P less than 0.05). In conclusion, hens fed increasing NPP concentrations from 0.16 to 0.40 percent excreted 32 to 54 percent more P over the first cycle of egg production.

Impacts
Values obtained in this trial were compared to the latest laying hen model developed by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE; D384.1 Manure Composition and Characteristics Standard). The ASAE standard over-estimated laying hen excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus by 27, 34, and 19 percent, respectively from 28 to 75 wk of age.

Publications

  • Roberson, K.D., J.L. Kalbfleisch, W. Pan, T.J. Applegate, and D.S. Rosenstein. 2005. Comparison of wheat bran phytase and a commercially available phytase on turkey tom performance and litter phosphorus content. Intl. J. Poult. Sci. 4 (5): 244-249.
  • Applegate, T.J. 2004. Turkeys: Nutrition Management. in: Encyclopedia of Animal Science, Edit. W.G. Pond and A.W. Bell., Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY. Pg 850-852
  • Maguire, R.O., J.T. Sims, W.W. Saylor, B.L. Turner, R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate. 2004. Influence of phytase addition to poultry diets on phosphorus forms and solubility in litters and amended soils. J. Environ. Qual. 33:2306-2316.
  • Angel, R., W.J. Powers, T.J. Applegate, N.M. Tamim, and M. Christman. 2005.Influence of phytase on water-soluble phosphorus in poultry and swine manure. J. Environ. Qual. 34:563-751.
  • Maguire, R.O., J.T. Sims, and T.J. Applegate. 2005. Phytase supplementation and reduced phosphorus turkey diets reduce phosphorus loss in runoff following litter application. J. Environ. Qual. 34:359-369.
  • Thompson, K.L., Z. Kounev, J. Patterson, and T.J. Applegate. 2005. The effects of feeding oxy-halogenic and other antimicrobial compounds on performance and nutrient retention in broilers. Poultry. Sci. 84:238-247.
  • Rush, J.K., R. Angel, K.M. Banks, K.L. Thompson, and T.J. Applegate. 2005. Effect of dietary calcium and vitamin D3 on calcium and phosphorus retention in Pekin ducklings. Poultry. Sci. 84:561-570.
  • Applegate, T.J. 2005. The nutritional value of dehulled-degermed corn for broiler chickens and its impact on nutrient excretion. Poultry Sci. 84:742-747.
  • Angel, R., W.W. Saylor, A.S. Dhandu, W. Powers, and T.J. Applegate. 2005. Effect of dietary phosphorus, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on performance of broiler chickens grown in floor pens. Poultry Sci. 84:1031-1044
  • Powers, W.J., C.R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate. 2005. Air emissions in poultry production: current challenges and future directions. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 14:613-621.
  • Maguire, R.O., J.T. Sims, and T.J. Applegate. 2004. Supplementing phytase and decreasing phosphorus in turkey diets reduces phosphorus in litters and in runoff from amended soils. Agron. Abstr.
  • Applegate, T.J.. 2005. The nutritional value of dehulled-degermed corn for broiler chickens and its impact on nutrient excretion. Poultry Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):115.
  • Burkholder, K.M., T.J. Applegate, J.A. Patterson, 2005. Performance and intestinal characteristics of broilers fed salinomycin, fructooligosaccharides, probiotics and synbiotics. Poultry Sci. 84(Suppl. 1): 108.
  • Applegate, T.J., W. Powers, P. Jaynes, A. Storm, and M. Jeffrey. 2005. Effect of dietary phosphorus concentration on nutrient mass balance of laying hens. Poultry Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):80.


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/29/04

Outputs
Higher concentrations of copper (Cu) in the diet may decrease phytate phosphorus (PP) hydrolysis because of the chelation of Cu with the phytin molecule. Different sources of Cu may affect the activity of phytase at different pH conditions. Therefore, five Cu sources (Cu sulfate (Cu Sul), Cu chloride (Cu CL), tri-basic copper chloride (TBCC), Cu lysinate (Cu Lys) and Cu citrate (Cu CIT) ) were studied in vitro at pH 2.5, 5.5 and 6.5 to determine how Cu from each of these sources affects PP hydrolysis by phytase. Five Cu concentrations were used for these studies (0, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 ppm),. The values were expressed by the relative percentage of PP hydrolysis of the 0ppm Cu treatment from separate assays. At pH 2.5, PP hydrolysis was not readily inhibited. At pH 5.5, addition of either Cu Sul or Cu CL between 62.5 and 500 ppm inhibited PP hydrolysis from 23.1 to 78.0%, respectively (P<0.05). Increasing pH to 6.5 increased the extent of inhibition for Cu Sul and Cu CL treatments such that 62.5 ppm to 500 ppm caused a 89.8 to 95.4% inhibition, respectively (P<0.05). 500 ppm Cu from TBCC inhibited PP hydrolysis at pH 2.5, 5.5 and 6.5 by 0%, 13.4% and 51.5%, respectively (P<0.05). Cu Lys did not affect PP hydrolysis at both pH 2.5 and 5.5, however, increasing pH to 6.5 caused around 39.7 to 48.6% inhibition (P<0.05). Cu CIT did not affect PP hydrolysis at pH2.5, but it inhibited PP hydrolysis at pH5.5 (P<0.05). Increasing pH to 6.5 greatly increased the inhibition such that 500 ppm Cu inhibited PP hydrolysis by 92.1% (P<0.05). In conclusion, pH had an important effect on how Cu affects PP hydrolysis in that inhibition occurred much more at pH5.5 and pH6.5 than at pH2.5; Among five Cu sources, TBCC and Cu Lys and Cu CIT inhibited PP hydrolysis much less than Cu Sul and Cu CL. Phytate phosphorus (PP) is relatively unavailable to the duck and therefore the majority of the PP that is fed to ducks is excreted. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental phytase on the sparing effect of phosphorus (P) in Pekin ducks. Drakes were fed 0, 250, 500, 750, or 1000 U/kg phytase (6-15 d) from OptiPhos. Two reference diets were included that contained 500 U/kg from one of two commercial phytases (A and B) derived from Aspergillus and Peniophora. Four additional reference diets were also fed (6-15 d) with no supplemental phytase and increasing concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (0.22, 0.29, 0.36, or 0.43 %) to determine P equivalency values of phytase supplementation from improvements in bone mineralization (6 replicate cages per diet, 4 birds per cage). The nine phytase diets were formulated with 0.22 % nPP and 1.0 % calcium (Ca) (8 replicate cages per diet, 4 birds per cage). Supplementation with 500 U/kg of OptiPhos improved the P equivalency value based on body weight (BW) gain by 0.147 %. Supplementation with 500 U/kg of phytase B and OptiPhos improved the P equivalency value based on tibia ash (%) by 0.072, and 0.121 %, respectively. Supplementation with 500 U/kg of phytase B and OptiPhos improved the P equivalency value based on tibia ash weight by 0.06, and 0.068 %, respectively.

Impacts
The solubility differences between different Cu sources at different intestinal pH partially explains why copper sulfate, but not tri-basic copper chloride or copper lysinate, inhibits phosphorus utilization in the small intestine of poultry. Additionally, when apparent P retention was determined from excreta collected from ducks from 13 to 15 d of age, 500 U/kg of fungal phytase B and OptiPhos improved P retention by 0.048 and 0.092 percentage units, respectively.

Publications

  • Applegate, T.J., D.M. Webel, and X.G. Lei. 2003. Efficacy of E. coli Phytase expressed in yeast on phosphorus utilization and bone mineralization in turkey poults. Poultry Sci. 82:1726-1732.
  • Banks, K.M., K.L. Thompson, P. Jaynes, and T.J. Applegate. 2004. The effects of copper on the efficacy of phytase, growth, and phosphorus retention in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 83:1335-1341.
  • Banks, K.M., K.L. Thompson, J.K. Rush, and T.J. Applegate. 2004. The effects of copper source on phosphorus retention in broiler chicks and laying hens. Poultry Sci. 83:990-996.
  • Angel, R., W. Powers, and T.J. Applegate 2004. Air emissions in poultry production: current challenges and future directions. Poultry Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):123.
  • Applegate, T.J., and R. Angel. 2004. Use of mass balance techniques for nutrient excretion modeling. Poultry. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):402-403 - invited symposium paper.
  • Lilburn, M.S. and T.J. Applegate. 2004. Digestible phosphorus nutrition in broiler breeder pullets and hens. Poultry Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):S30.
  • Pang, Y. and T.J. Applegate. 2004. Effects of copper source and concentration on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis by phytase in vitro. Poultry Sci. 83 (Suppl. 1):107.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
Copper (Cu) is often added to broiler diets at therapeutic dosages due to its anti-microbial and growth promoting effects despite alleged chelation with and reduced utilization of phytate phosphorus (P). Therefore male broiler chicks were fed diets containing 0 and 250 ppm Cu from Cu sulfate (SUL), Cu citrate (CIT), Cu lysinate (LYS) and Cu Chloride (CL) sources from 9 to 22 d of age (8 pens/treatment, 6 birds/pen). Dietary concentrations of non-phytate P and calcium were formulated to be 0.2 and 0.7% respectively. Body weight gain was not significantly different between treatments (P>0.05). Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from Cu LYS resulted in chicks having greater toe and tibia ash weights (P<0.001) as compared to chicks fed Cu SUL, but was not significantly different from birds fed the Cu CL, Cu CIT and 0 ppm Cu diets. Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu SUL or Cu CIT reduced apparent P retention by 0.029 and 0.053 % of the diet, respectively (P&#8804;&#61472;0.05) as compared to 0 ppm diet; whereas the apparent P retention when 250 ppm Cu LYS or Cu CL was fed was not significantly different from the 0 ppm Cu diet (P>0.05). Supplementation with 250 ppm Cu from either Cu CIT or Cu SUL resulted in decreased apparent P retention. Supplementation with either 250 ppm Cu CL or Cu LYS, however, demonstrated improved apparent P retentions such that they were not different than the 0 ppm supplemental Cu diet. Higher concentrations of calcium (Ca) in the diet may decrease phytate-phosphorus hydrolysis because of the chelation of Ca with the phytin molecule. Therefore, 192 drakes were fed 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, or 1.2 % Ca from 7 to 17 d of age (6 birds/pen and 8 pens/treatment). Non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) was formulated to 0.4 %. Excreta was collected from 15 to 17 days of age and the tibia and middle toe from each foot was collected on 18 d of age. Mucosa was collected on 18 d of age from treatments with 0.6 and 1.2 % Ca for determination of intestinal phytase activity. Body weight gain was greatest when the ducklings were fed the 1.0 % Ca diet and significantly different from that of the 0.6% Ca (P < 0.05), but not significantly different than birds fed the 0.8 and 1.2 % Ca diet. Tibia ash percentage was not significantly affected by dietary Ca (P > 0.05). Toe ash percentage, however, was greater in birds fed 0.8% Ca diet as compared to the other three diets (P< 0.0001). Apparent phosphorus retention was not significantly affected by dietary Ca and averaged 46.35 % (P > 0.05). Specific phytase activity within brush border vesicles prepared from intestinal mucosa and vesicle Ca concentration was not significantly affected by dietary Ca (P >0.05). A positive correlation, however, was found between the Vmax and that of the Ca concentration within the vesicles (r=0.59, P< 0.02).

Impacts
Feeding poultry pharmacological doses of copper from copper sulfate can greatly reduce phosphorus utilization, but not if copper is supplied from copper chloride or copper lysinate. Additionally, maximization of duckling growth was observed when birds were fed 0.8 to 1.0% calcium, which in contrast to broilers, did not impact intestinal phytase activity or apparent phosphorus utilization.

Publications

  • Angel, R., T.J. Applegate, and S. Bastyr. 2003. Biological mass balance versus model based on mass balance approach. Intl. Symp. Animal, Ag. Food Proc. Wastes 9:303-309.
  • Applegate, T.J., L.P.V. Potturi, and R. Angel. 2003. Model for estimating poultry manure nutrient excretion: a mass balance approach. Intl. Symp. Animal, Ag. Food Proc. Wastes 9:296-302.
  • Applegate, T.J., R. Angel, and H.L. Classen, 2003. Effect of dietary calcium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, and bird strain on small intestinal phytase activity in broiler chickens. Poultry Sci. 82:1140-1148.
  • Applegate, T.J., B.C. Joern, D. L. Nussbaum-Wagler, and R. Angel, 2003. Water soluble phosphorus in fresh broiler litter is dependent upon phosphorus concentration fed but not on fungal phytase supplementation. Poultry Sci. 82:1024-1029.
  • Banks, K.M., K.L. Thompson, J.K. Rush, and T.J. Applegate. 2003. The effects of copper source on performance and phosphorus retention in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 82(Suppl. 1): 148.
  • Baxter, C.A., T.J. Applegate, and B.C. Joern. 2003. Simultaneous analysis of inositol phosphates, adenosine triphosphate and orthophosphate in environmental samples by ion chromatography. Intl. Organic Phosphorus Workshop.
  • Roberson, K.D., T.J. Applegate, J. Kalbfleisch, and W. Pan. 2003. Comparison of wheat bran phytase and a commercially available phytase on turkey tom performance and litter phosphorus content. Poultry Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):40.
  • Rush, J.K., R. Angel, K. Banks, K. Thompson, and T.J. Applegate. 2003. Effect of dietary calcium on intestinal phytase activity and phytate-phosphorus utilization in Pekin ducklings. Poultry Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):34.
  • Sedlak, M., Z. Chen, Y. Pang, T. Applegate, and N.W.Y. Ho. 2003. Genetic engineering of glucose/xylose co-fermenting Saccharomyces yeast for co-production of ethanol and various industrial enzymes. 25th Symp. Biotech. Fuels Chem.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
Supplemental dietary ionic compounds improve performance and nutrient retention in broilers The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two ionic mixtures (including chlorate, chlorite, chloride, borate, and other compounds) on broiler performance and nutrient retention. Male broilers were assigned to diets consisting of two nutrient densities (a normal diet and a low nutrient diet) and three ionic mixtures [no ion mixture (Control) or one of two formulations at 2 cc/pound of feed]. Birds fed a mixture of ionic salts were 67 grams heavier at 20 d of age. Additionally, birds fed the low nutrient diet retained 22.8% more phosphorus and 13.8% more nitrogen than birds fed the Control diet. Diet did not significantly affect intestinal morphology, but future studies will determine if these positive effects were due to changes in intestinal microflora. Pharmacological dietary levels of copper sulfate do not affect the efficacy of phytase but do substantially reduce phosphorus retention in broiler chicks. Copper (Cu) is often added to broiler diets as an anti-microbial despite potential negative interactions with, and reduced utilization of phytate phosphorus (P). Therefore, male chicks were fed 0, 1/2, 1, 2, or 3 lbs/ton Cu-sulfate in combination with 0 or 600 U/kg phytase. Supplementation with at least 2 lbs/ton Cu-sulfate greatly reduced BW gain, bone mineralization, and reduced P retention from 52.67% to 37.55%. Supplementation with 2 lb/ton Cu-sulfate and 600 U/kg phytase improved P retention to 48.16%, but was still much less than when 600 U/kg of phytase was added without Cu-sulfate supplementation (59.26%). Therefore, supplementation of at least 2 lbs/ton Cu-sulfate alone has detrimental affects on performance and P retention. Although Cu-sulfate reduces the amount of phosphorus retained, addition of 600 U of phytase/kg recovers a portion of the reduction attributed to Cu-sulfate supplementation. Phosphorus reduction in turkey litter by reducing dietary phosphorus and supplementing diets with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and phytase. An experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility of lowering phosphorus (P) levels when phytase and 25-OH D3 (HyD) are added alone and in combination in diets for turkeys. Male, Nicholas poults were fed one of nine diets consisting of an industry diet; an NRC diet; or a diet containing 83% of the NRC requirement. The Industry and NRC diets contained 0 or 600 FYT/kg phytase (P reduced 0.08%), 0 or 50 ug/kg 25-OH D3 (P reduced 0.03%), or a combination thereof. Birds fed the Industry and NRC diets (15 wk BW = 28.7 lb) were heavier from 0 to 15 weeks as compared with toms fed the Low P diet (15 wk BW = 26.2 lb). Reductions of dietary P when 600 FYT phytase/kg and/or 50 ug 25-OH D3/kg were added to the diet did not significantly affect tom performance at any point during the course of the experiment. When fed to P requirements and diets supplemented with phytase and 25-OH D3, litter phosphorus concentrations were reduced 42 percent versus birds fed a typical industry diet.

Impacts
Feeding turkeys a) more closely to their requirements, b) fungal phytase, and c) 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduces phosphorus in turkey litter by 42 percent, without negatively affecting the solubility of that phosphorus. For the 14 million turkeys reared in Indiana per year, this would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted by over 1000 tons per year. Additional improvements may be garnered with manipulation of gastro-intestinal microflora with supplementation of ionic compounds.

Publications

  • Applegate, T.J. and R. Angel. 2002. Vitamin D3 and D3 metabolites in poultry feeding programs. MD Nutrition Conf. Proc. 49:181-191.
  • Applegate, T.J., and M.S. Lilburn, 2002. Growth of the femur and tibia of a commercial broiler line. Poultry Sci. 81:1289-1294.
  • Applegate, T.J., and R. Angel. 2002. Dietary calcium concentration but not source, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol or broiler strain affects small intestinal phytase activity in broilers. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):12.
  • Applegate, T.J., and X.G. Lei. 2002. Efficacy of Phytex phytase on phosphorus utilization and bone mineralization in turkey poults. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):13.
  • Applegate, T.J., B.C. Joern, D.L. Nussbaum-Wagler, and R. Angel. 2002. Water soluble phosphorus in fresh broiler litter is dependent upon phosphorus concentration fed but not on supplemental phytase. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):12.
  • Ondracek, K.M., T.J. Applegate, Y.F. Pang, K.L. Thompson, and P. Jaynes. 2002. The effects of copper sulfate on the efficacy of phytase, growth, and phosphorus retention in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1): 11.
  • Thompson, K.L., T.J. Applegate, R. Angel, K. Ondracek, and P. Jaynes. 2002. Effect of phosphorus level, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (HyD), and phytase supplementation on performance of male turkeys from 0 to 18 weeks of age. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):13.
  • Thompson, K.L., T.J. Applegate, Z. Kounev, T.L. Lin, D.L. Schrader, and J. Patterson. 2002. Influence of supplemental dietary ionic compounds on performance and nutrient retention in broilers. Poultry Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):38.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
Dietary Calcium Effects Liberation of Phosphorus in the Small Intestine Differential responses to dietary calcium concentration across differing genetic strains were noted in two preliminary experiments on the activity or efficacy of intestinal phytase. A third experiment consisted of a 2 genetic strains of broilers (Hubbard-Peterson and Ross 308 male broilers) were fed diets with 0.9 or 0.4 % calcium from 7 to 21 d of age (pens/treatment, 8 birds/pen). Phytase activity within brush border vesicles prepared from small intestinal mucosa of birds fed 0.4% calcium was 5.36 nmol P released/mg protein/min greater than bird fed 0.9% Ca (P < 0.05). The additional intestinal phytase activity in broilers fed 0.4% vs 0.9% Ca allowed for an additional apparent ileal phytate-phosphorus (PP) hydrolysis of 11.9% (an additional 0.023% of dietary P; P > 0.05). Therefore, lowering of dietary calcium appears to improve the efficacy of PP hydrolysis in the gastro-intestinal tract of broilers. Supplementation with Phytase DOES NOT Affect Litter Soluble Phosphorus Another study determined the effects of different phosphorus feeding programs on total and soluble phosphorus excretion in broilers. Recently, fungal phytase supplementation to poultry diets has been accused of increasing the amount and proportion of soluble phytase in manures. Therefore, broilers were fed either an industry diet, an industry diet with supplemental phytase, a diet to more closely to the birds requirements with supplemental phytase, or a diet with low-phytate corn with supplemental phytase. Diet did not significantly affect broiler performance or bone mineralization throughout the study (P > 0.05). Industry diets resulted in the highest total phosphorus and soluble phosphorus content in litter (1.11 and 0.22% of DM, respectively) as compared with those fed low-phytate corn with supplemental phytase (0.64 and 0.12% of DM, respectively). Soluble phosphorus in litter from broilers fed supplemental phytase (averaging 0.13% of DM) was significantly lower than birds fed a typical industry diet (0.22% of DM). 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Enhances the Efficacy of Phytase An experiment was conducted to determine the non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) sparing effect when a fungal phytase was supplemented in combination with the vitamin D3 metabolite, 25-OH D3. The nPP sparing effect determined in this experiment for 500 FTU phytase/kg was 0.063%. A nPP sparing effect for 25-OH D3 when added at 70 ug/kg was not apparent, but increased the efficacy of phytase when 70 ug 25-OH D3/kg was added to 500 FTU phytase/kg to 0.099% nPP spared.

Impacts
Feeding more closely to their requirements, fungal phytase, and low phytate corn can reduce the phosphorus in broiler litter by 31 percent, without affecting the solubility of that phosphorus. For the 45 million broilers reared in Indiana per year, this would reduce the amount of phosphorus fed by nearly 200,000 tons per year. Additional improvements in phosphorus utilization by broilers and turkeys have been noted when fungal phytase is fed in conjunction with lowered amounts of calcium and the vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydoxycholecalciferol.

Publications

  • Angel, R.A., M. Christman, and T.J. Applegate. 2001. Phosphorus requirements for broilers and effect of phytase, citric acid, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on phosphorus availability for broilers and turkeys. Proc. MD Nutr. Conf. 48:(72-86).
  • Angel, R., and T.J. Applegate. 2001. Feeding strategies to reduce phosphorus output in broilers. Mid. Poultry Fed. Conv. Proc. Pg. 149-157.
  • Angel, R., A.S. Dhandu, T.J. Applegate, and M. Christman. 2001. Phosphorus sparing effect of phytase, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, and citric acid when fed to broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 133-134.
  • Angel, R., T.J. Applegate, M. Christman, and A.S. Dhandu. 2001. Non-phytate phosphorus sparing effect of phytase and citric acid when fed to poults. Poultry Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 134.