Source: AUBURN UNIVERSITY submitted to
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN POND AQUACULTURE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0187552
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ALA09-039
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2000
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2006
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Boyd, C. E.
Recipient Organization
AUBURN UNIVERSITY
108 M. WHITE SMITH HALL
AUBURN,AL 36849
Performing Department
FISHERIES & ALLIED AQUACULTURE
Non Technical Summary
Channel catfish farming produces effluents that can cause pollution of surface water, and methods for preventing or mitigating negative environmental impacts of catfish farming are needed. This project will examine the use of best management practices (BMPs) as the basis for a system of environmental management in catfish farming. Hopefully, implementation of BMPs can be the main feature of future governmental regulations related to effluents.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1333710107050%
1333710205050%
Knowledge Area
133 - Pollution Prevention and Mitigation;

Subject Of Investigation
3710 - Catfish;

Field Of Science
1070 - Ecology; 2050 - Hydrology;
Goals / Objectives
1. Conduct studies on sedimentation, bottom soil characteristics, and water quality needed for formulating better management practices. 2. Develop systems of best management practices (BMPS) for conducting pond aquaculture that can be used to prevent or mitigate adverse environmental impacts. 3. Develop an environmental audit procedure that can be used by aquaculturists to identify negative environmental impacts that may result from production activities. 4. Conduct monitoring programs to verify the efficiency of BMPs and correct any deficiencies that are noted.
Project Methods
Laboratory and pond studies will be conducted to determine the settling characteristics of suspended particles in catfish pond waters. The reduction in concentrations of total suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and biochemical oxygen demand concentrations associated with removal of different size classes of particles will be determined. These studies will be used to ascertain if sedimentation is a practical means of improving catfish pond effluent quality. An environmental audit will be conducted to identify environmental problems on catfish farms. Results of this audit will be used to determine problems that should be addressed with best management practices (BMPs). A system of BMPs will be formulated for use on catfish ponds in Alabama. Farmers will be encouraged to adopt the BMPs, and an effluent monitoring program will be conducted to determine if water quality improves as a result of implementation of BMPS.

Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/06

Outputs
An environmental assessment of aquaculture farms in Alabama was made, and water quality was monitored of streams receiving catfish farm effluents. The studies suggested that the discharge of nutrients, organic matter, and suspended solids from aquaculture facilities could lead to pollution of receiving waters. The use of sodium chloride as a pond treatment to prevent "brown-blood" disease of catfish does not present a risk of stream salinization. Copper sulfate use to control algae responsible for off-flavor in catfish is not an environmental risk if treatment rates do not exceed 1 or 2 mg/L and water is not discharged for 72 hours following application. Treatment of effluent in sedimentation ponds would require more land space than available on most catfish farms. Best management practices (BMPs) to lessen pollution loads by reducing the volume and improving the quality of effluents and to prevent other adverse environmental impacts were developed through a collaborative process with fish farmers and other stakeholders.

Impacts
The Alabama aquaculture BMPs were posted on the USDA NRCS website. They are expected to be the main feature in the aquaculture effluent rule that the Alabama Department of Environmental Management must develop in response to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's federal effluent rule. Several organizations are considering 'eco-label' certification of channel catfish and other aquaculture species. The BMPs are expected to be used in one or more of the certification programs.

Publications

  • Boyd, C.E. 2006. Global shrimp OP survey results and recommendations, p. 2-6. In: C.E. Boyd, D.E. Jory, and G.W. Chamberlain (eds.), Operating Procedures for Shrimp Farming. Global Aquaculture Alliance, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Boyd, C.E., D.E. Jory, and G.W. Chamberlain (eds.). 2006. Operating Procedures for Shrimp Farming. Global Aquaculture Alliance, St. Louis, Missouri. 169 pp.
  • Jackson, C. and C.E. Boyd. 2006. Effluent water quality, p. 106-112. In: C.E. Boyd, D.E. Jory, and G.W. Chamberlain (eds.). Operating Procedures for Shrimp Farming. Global Aquaculture Alliance, St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Boyd, C.E., K. Corpron, E. Bernard, and P. Pensang. 2006. Estimates of bottom soil and effluent load of phosphorus at a semi-intensive marine shrimp farm. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 37:41-47.
  • Silapajarn, O. and C.E. Boyd. 2006. Copper adsorption capacity of pond bottom soils. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 18(2):85-92.
  • Yuvanatemiya, V. and C.E. Boyd. 2006. Physical and chemical changes in aquaculture pond bottom soil resulting from sediment removal. Aquacultural Engineering 35:199-205.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
The water quality monitoring program for Big Prairie Creek was completed. Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand, and chloride increased downstream of the catfish farming area, but the stream complies with water quality criteria for its classification level. Water quality monitoring of the stream at the Auburn University Fisheries Research Unit has not revealed major impacts of aquaculture effluents on water quality. Many catfish farms with watershed ponds discharge more than the 30 allowable days per year. A definition of excess runoff is being developed at the request of the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM) for use in determining whether or not an individual farm that discharges more than 30 days per year must apply for an NPDES permit. Stream monitoring in the vicinity of shrimp farms supplied by saline well water revealed that chloride concentration sometimes exceeded the ADEM "in stream" limit of 230 mg/L.

Impacts
This project is being conducted with collaboration of the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM), and the findings will be a major source of information for use by ADEM in developing a rule for Alabama aquaculture effluents. The World Wildlife Fund is working with Alabama catfish farmers on an eco-certification program and the findings of this project also are being used in that effort.

Publications

  • Boyd, C.E. 2005. Water use in aquaculture. World Aquaculture 36(3):12-15 and 70.
  • Boyd, C.E., A.A. McNevin, J. Clay, and H.M. Johnson. 2005 Certification issues for some common aquaculture species. Reviews in Fisheries Science 13:1-49.
  • Silapajarn, O. and C.E. Boyd. 2005. Effects of channel catfish farming on water quality and flow in an Alabama stream. Reviews in Fisheries Science 13:109-140.
  • Wudtisin, W. and C. E. Boyd. 2005. Determination of the phosphorus fertilization rate for bluegill ponds using regression analysis. Aquaculture Research 36:593-599.
  • Xinglong, J. and C.E. Boyd. 2005. Measurement of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand without sample dilution or bacterial and nutrient enhancement. Aquacultural Engineering 33:250-257.
  • Silapajarn, K., O. Silapajarn, and C.E. Boyd. 2005. Evaluation of lime requirement procedures and liming materials for aquaculture ponds in Thailand. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 17:77-88.
  • Davis, D.A., C.E. Boyd, D.B. Rouse, and I.P. Saoud. 2005. Effects of potassium, magnesium and age on acclimation of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae to inland saline well-water in west Alabama. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 36(3):416-419.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2005. LC50 calculations help predict toxicity. Global Aquaculture Advocate 8(1):84 and 87.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2005. Copper treatments control phytoplankton. Global Aquaculture Advocate 8(2):69-70.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2005. Ground water and wells. Global Aquaculture Advocate 8(3):62-63.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2005. Estimating water volumes in aquaculture. Global Aquaculture Advocate 8(4):70-71.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2005. Measuring water flow. Global Aquaculture Advocate 8(5):76-77.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Best management practices for inland culture of marine shrimp, tilapia culture, culture of fingerling sportfish and ornamental fish, cage culture, crawfish culture, and culture of fish in flow-through systems were finalized, approved by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM), and posted on the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service Alabama website. Water quality monitoring to assess the influence of catfish farming on Big Prairie Creek continued, and a stream water quality monitoring program was initiated on the Auburn University Fisheries Research Unit.

Impacts
The findings of this project are central to the development of BMPs for Alabama aquaculture. These BMPs will be the main feature of effluent regulations to be developed by ADEM. The results also were used by USEPA in developing a draft rule for aquaculture effluents at the federal level.

Publications

  • Silapajarn, O., C. E. Boyd, K. Silapajarn, and P. L. Chaney. 2004. Effects of channel catfish farming on water quality in Big Prairie Creek, West-central Alabama. Special Report No. 2 for Alabama Catfish Producers, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, 51 p.
  • Boyd, C. E., C. A. Boyd, J. Chappell, R. Hulcher, P. Oakes, and D. B. Rouse. 2004. Additional best management practices for Alabama aquaculture. Special Report No. 3, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, 27 p.
  • Silapajarn, K., C. E. Boyd, and O. Silapajarn. 2004. Physical and chemical characteristics of pond water and bottom soil in channel catfish ponds in west-central Alabama. Bulletin 655, Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, 44 p.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2004. Pond hydrology, p. 196-214. In: C. S. Tucker and J. A. Hargreaves (eds.), Biology and Culture of Channel Catfish. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Boyd, C. E. and J. A. Hargreaves. 2004. Environmental issues, p. 634-657. In: C. S. Tucker and J. A. Hargreaves (eds.), Biology and Culture of Channel Catfish. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • McNevin, A. and C. E. Boyd. 2004. Copper concentrations in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus ponds treated with copper sulfate. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 35:16-24.
  • McNevin, A., C. E. Boyd, O. Silapajarn, and K. Silapajarn. 2004. Ionic supplementation of pond waters for inland culture of marine shrimp. Journal of World Aquaculture Society 35:460-467.
  • Queiroz, J. F., G. Nicolella, C. W. Wood, and C. E. Boyd. 2004. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds. Scientia Agricula 61:469-475.
  • Silapajarn, K., C. E. Boyd, and O Silapajarn. 2004. An improved method for determining the fineness value of agricultural limestone for aquaculture. North American Journal of Aquaculture 66:113-118.
  • Thunjai, T., C. E. Boyd, and M. Boonyaratpalin. 2004. Bottom soil quality in tilapia ponds of different age in Thailand. Aquaculture Research 35:698-705.
  • Thunjai, T., C. E. Boyd, and M. Boonyaratpalin. 2004. Quality of liming materials used in aquaculture in Thailand. Aquaculture International 12:161-168.
  • Ozbay, G., and C. E. Boyd. 2004. Treatment of channel catfish pond effluents in sedimentation basins. World Aquaculture 35(3):10-13.
  • Rowan, M., A. Gross, and C. E. Boyd. 2004. Effects of alum on the quality of aquaculture effluents in settling ponds. Bamidgeh 56(3):166-175.
  • Watten, B. J., C. E. Boyd, M. F. Schwartz, S. T. Summerfelt, and B. L. Brazil. 2004. Feasibility of measuring dissolved carbon dioxide based on head space partial pressures. Aquacultural Engineering 30:83-101.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2004. Secchi disk visibility: correct measurement, interpretation. Global Aquaculture Advocate 7(1):66-67.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2004. Probiotics enhancement of soil, water quality examined. Global Aquaculture Advocate 7(2):32-33.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2004. Feeding affects pond water quality. Global Aquaculture Advocate 7(3):29-30.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2004. Overview: mechanical pond aeration. Global Aquaculture Advocate 7(4):59-60.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2004. Sediment microbiology, management. Global Aquaculture Advocate 7(5):56-58.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
The best management practices (BMP) manual for Alabama channel catfish farming was completed and published. At the request of the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM), BMP sheets for use in preventing negative environmental impacts of other kinds of aquaculture in Alabama are being prepared. These sheets will include the following: tilapia, bait and ornamental fish, trout, inland shrimp culture, cage culture, and possibly alligator farming. Also at the request of ADEM, water quality monitoring of Big Prairie Creek and selected tributaries is continuing.

Impacts
The findings of this project are central to the development of BMPs for Alabama aquaculture. These BMPs will be the main feature of effluent regulations to be developed by ADEM. The results also were used by USEPA in developing a draft rule for aquaculture effluents at the federal level.

Publications

  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Alternate measurement of biochemical oxygen demand. Global Aquaculture Advocate 6(6):10-11.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Applying effluent standards to small-scale farms. Global Aquaculture Advocate 6(3):8-10.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Aquaculture effluent management at the farm level. In: C. S. Lee and P. O'Bryen (eds.), Management of Aquaculture Effluents. Aquaculture 226:101-112.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Bottom soil and water quality management in shrimp ponds. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 13(1/2):11-33.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Chemical fertilizers in pond aquaculture. Global Aquaculture Advocate 6(3):74-75.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. EPA drafts effluent guidelines for U.S. aquaculture. Global Aquaculture Advocate 6(1):57-58.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Environmental management in marine shrimp farming, p. 229-239. In: B. Couteaux, Z. Kasprzyk, and E. Ranaivoson (eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Responsible Crustacean Culture. Centre d'Information Technique et Economique, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 3-5 December 2002.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Mineral salts correct imbalances in culture water. Global Aquaculture Advocate 6(4):56-57.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Off-flavor in pond-cultured marine shrimp, p. 45-53. In: A. M. Rimando and K. K. Schrader (eds.), Off-Flavors in Aquaculture. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Organic matter in pond bottom sediment. Global Aquaculture Advocate 6(2):76-77.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. The status of codes of practice in aquaculture. World Aquaculture 34(2):63-66.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2003. Zeolite ineffective as pond treatment. Global Aquaculture Advocate 6(6):33-34.
  • Boyd, C. E., J. F. Queiroz, G. N. Whitis, R. Hulcher, P. Oakes, J. Carlisle, D. Odom, Jr., M. M. Nelson, and W. G. Hemstreet. 2003. Best management practices for channel catfish farming in Alabama. Special Report 1, Alabama Catfish Producers, Montgomery, Alabama. 39 pp.
  • Boyd, C. E. and T. Thunjai. 2003. Concentrations of major ions in waters of inland shrimp farms in China, Ecuador, Thailand, and the United States. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34:524-532.
  • Gomes, F. and C. E. Boyd. 2003. Dry matter, ash, and elemental compositon of farm-cultured black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. World Aquaculture 34(4):61-63.
  • Ozbay, G. and C. E. Boyd. 2003. Particle size fractions in pond effluents. World Aquaculture 34(4):56-59.
  • Ozbay, G. and C. E. Boyd. 2003. U.S. study finds turbidity useful in TSS, ISS estimates. Global Aquaculture Advocate 6(4):58-60.
  • Tavares, L. H. S. and C. E. Boyd. 2003. Possible effects of sodium chloride on quality of effluents from Alabama channel catfish ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34:217-222.
  • Tepe, Y. and C. E. Boyd. 2003. A reassessment of nitrogen fertilization for sunfish ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34:505-511.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
No evidence of surface or ground water contamination was found in vicinities of farms for inland culture of marine shrimp in low-salinity water. A study of the Big Prairie Creek in Hale County Alabama considered concentrations of nutrients, suspended solids, and biochemical oxygen demand in upstream reaches not affected by channel catfish farm effluents and in downstream reaches receiving catfish farm effluents. There were only slight increases in concentration of these potential pollutants between upstream and downstream stations. Measurements of chloride concentrations in channel catfish ponds treated with sodium chloride to prevent nitrite toxicity did not exceed 200 mg/L. The Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM) has an in-stream chloride standard of 230 mg/L, thus even small streams should not violate the ADEM standard as the result of pond effluents. Copper sulfate added to catfish ponds at low concentration (0.25 to 1.0 mg/L) did not cause elevated copper concentrations for more than 72 hours.

Impacts
The findings on inland shrimp ponds will be used in developing BMPs for preventing soil and water salinization from this new activity in Alabama. The information related to catfish farming will be used to support the validity of BMPs developed last year for preventing pollution of streams by catfish pond effluents.

Publications

  • Tepe, Y. and C.E. Boyd. 2002. Nitrogen fertilization of golden shiner ponds. North American Journal of Aquaculture 64:284-289.
  • Tucker, C.S., C.E. Boyd, and J.A. Hargreaves. 2002. Characterization and management of effluents from warmwater aquaculture ponds, p. 35-76. In: J.R. Tomasso (ed.), Aquaculture and the Environment in the United States. U.S. Aquaculture Society, A Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Soil and water quality considerations in shrimp farming, p. 1-30. In: M.C. Haws and C.E. Boyd (eds.), Methods for Improving Shrimp Farming in Central America. USDA Hurricane Mitch Reconstruction Project. UCA University Press, Managua, Nicaragua.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Mangroves and coastal aquaculture, p. 145-157. In: R.R. Stickney and J.P. McVey (eds.), Responsible Marine Aquaculture. CABI Publishing, Oxon, United Kingdom.
  • Gautier, D., C.E. Boyd, and R.T. Lovell. 2002. Sampling channel catfish ponds for pre-harvest off-flavor detection. Aquacultural Engineering 26:205-213.
  • Hargreaves, J. A., C.E. Boyd, and C.S. Tucker. 2002. Water budgets for aquaculture production, p. 9-34. In: J. R. Tomasso (ed.), Aquaculture and the Environment in the United States. U.S. Aquaculture Society, A Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
  • Tepe, Y. and C.E. Boyd. 2002. Sediment quality in Arkansas bait minnow ponds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 33:221-232.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Management practices for reducing the environmental impacts of shrimp farming, p. 265-292. In: M.C. Haws and C.E. Boyd (eds.), Methods for Improving Shrimp Farming in Central Americaa. USDA Hurrican Mitch Reconstruction Project. UCA University Press, Managua, Nicaragua.
  • Boyd, C.E., C.W. Wood, and T. Thunjai. 2002. Aquaculture and bottom soil quality management. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 41 p.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Specific conductance: alternative salinity measurement. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(1):70-71.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Anion-cation balance: cross-check for reliability of ion analyses. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(2):74-75.
  • Tookwinas, S., S. Dirakkait, W. Prompou, C. Boyd, and R. Shaw. 2002. Thailand: Operating guidelines for marine shrimp farms. SEAFDEC Aquaculture Asia 24(1):1-2 and 13-15.
  • Boyd, C.E., T. Thunjai, and M. Boonyaratpalin. 2002. Dissolved salts in waters for inland, low-salinity shrimp culture. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(3):40-45.
  • Boyd, C. E. 2002. Understanding pond pH. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(3):74-75.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Correct liming improves pond water, bottom quality. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(4):58-59.
  • Boyd, C.E. and D. Gautier. 2002. Sodium bisulfite treatments improve shrimp appearance but require proper disposal. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(4):70-71.
  • Boyd, C.E., M. Boonyaratpalin, and T. Thunjai. 2002. Properties of liming materials. Aquaculture Asia 7(3):7-8/
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Standardize terminology for low-salinity shrimp culture. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(5):58-59.
  • Sonnenholzner, S., L. Massaut, and C.E. Boyd. 2002. Ecuador study shows wild postlarvae use down. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(5):56-57.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Land and water use issues in aquaculture. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(6):78-79.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. ACC updates effluent standard. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5(6):10-12.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2002. Inland shrimp farming environmental issues, p. 115-117. World Shrimp Farming 2002, Shrimp News International, San Diego, California.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Best management practices (BMPs) for reducing volume and improving quality of channel catfish farm effluents were developed through cooperation among Alabama Catfish Producers Association, ALFA, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), and Alabama Department of Environmental Management. Sheets listing the BMPs and discussing their purpose and implementation may be found on the website for NRCS in Alabama. Studies of pond effluents and streams in catfish farming areas revealed that pond applications of sodium chloride for controlling nitrite toxicity and copper sulfate for controlling blue-green algae responsible for off-flavor in fish have not resulted in deterioration of stream water quality. Further studies of the settling characteristics of solids in catfish pond effluents suggest that settling basins will not be useful for effluent treatment. Most suspended particles in effluents are colloidal clay and plankton which will not settle.

Impacts
The data collected in this study is being used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in developing rules for aquaculture effluents. The Alabama Department of Environment Management will use BMPs from this study in their rule for aquaculture effluents in Alabama. Thus, the results of this research will provide the scientific information upon which catfish farm effluent regulations will be based. These regulations are due in June 2004.

Publications

  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Inland shrimp farming and the environment. World Aquaculture 32(1):10-12.
  • Boyd, C.E. and J. Queiroz. 2001. Feasibility of retention structures, settling basins, and best management practices in effluent regulation for Alabama channel catfish farming. Reviews in Fisheries Science 9:43-67.
  • Seo, J. and C.E. Boyd. 2001. Dry-tilling of pond bottoms and calcium sulfate treatment for water quality improvement. Journal of the World Aqualculture Society 32:257-268.
  • Seo, J. and C.E. Boyd. 2001. Effects of bottom soil management practices on water quality improvement in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus ponds. Aquacultural Engineering 25:83-97.
  • Thunjai, T. and C.E. Boyd. 2001. Pond soil pH measurement. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 32:141-152.
  • Tepe, Y. and C.E. Boyd. 2001. A sodium nitrate-based, water-soluble fertilizer for sportfish ponds. North American Journal of Aquaculture 63:328-332.
  • Hoagland, R.H., III, D.B. Rouse, D. Teichert-Coddington, and C.E. Boyd. 2001. Evaluation of automated aeration control in shrimp ponds. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 11(3):45-55.
  • Boyd, C.E. and C. Jackson. 2001. Effluent water quality report. Global Aquaculture Advocate 4(4):52-53.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Inland shrimp farming and the environment. Global Aquaculture Advocate 4(4):88-89.
  • Phillips, M.J., C. Boyd, and P. Edwards. 2001. Systems approach to aquaculture management, p. 239-247. In: R.P. Subasinghe, P. Bueno, M.J. Phillips, C. Hough, S.E. McGladdery, and J.R. Arthur, (eds.), Aquaculture in the Third Milliennium. Technical Proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok, Thailand, 20-25 February 2000. NACA, Bangkok, and FAO.
  • Boyd, C.E., J.A. Hargreaves, and J.W. Clay. 2001. Codes of conduct for marine shrimp aquaculture, p. 238-256. In: C.L. Browdy and D.E. Jory (eds.), The New Wave. Proceedings of the Special Session on Sustainable Shrimp Culture, Aquaculture 2001, World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Aquaculture and water pollution, p. 153-157. In: D.F. Hayes and M. McKee (eds.), Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management. American Water Resources Association, Middleburg, Virginia.
  • Boyd, C.E. and R.F. Hulcher. 2001. Best management practices for channel catfish farming in Alabama. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Alabama Highlights of Agricultural Research 48 (fall).
  • Boyd, C.E., M.C. Haws, and B.W. Green. 2001. Improving shrimp mariculture in Latin America: Good management practices (GMPs) to reduce environmental impacts and improve efficiency of shrimp aquaculture in Latin America and an assessment of practices in the Honduran shrimp industry. Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island, 88 p.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Site selection, design, and construction for environmentally-responsible aquaculture. Eurofish 1/2001:96-98.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Water quality standards: pH. Global Aquaculture Advocate 4(1):42-44.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Water quality standards: total suspended solids. Global Aquaculture Advocate 4(2):70-71.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Water quality standards: total phosphorus. Global Aquaculture Advocate 4(3):70-71.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Water quality standards: total ammonia nitrogen. Global Aquaculture Advocate 4(4):84-85.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Water quality standards: biochemical oxygen demand. Global Aquaculture advocate 4(5):71-72.
  • Boyd, C.E. 2001. Inland shrimp farming and the environment. Global Aquaculture Advocate 4(4):88-89.
  • Seo, J. and C.E. Boyd. 2001. Effects of bottom