Source: LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
CULTURAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0185360
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
LAB03461
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2000
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Owings, A.
Recipient Organization
LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
BATON ROUGE,LA 70893
Performing Department
BURDEN RESEARCH CENTER
Non Technical Summary
Information pertinent to the production, landscape management, and performance of ornamental plants will benefit nursery and landscape industries. This project examines general cultural practices, chemical growth regulation, and the landscape performance of ornamental plants.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
20424991020100%
Goals / Objectives
Evaluate cultural practices on the production and landscape management of selected ornamental plants. Evaluate the effectiveness of plant growth regulators to control size, flowering, and basal sprouting of selected ornamental plants. Evaluate commercially available and newly released ornamental plant cultivars for landscape performance and adaptability to Louisiana.
Project Methods
Selected woody ornamental plants will be grown in container and field settings to evaluate the influence of cultural practices (pruning, fertilization, and watering) on annual growth, bloom quality, disease and insect resistance, and overall performance. Commercially available plant growth regulators (PGR's) will be applied to field and container grown ornamental plants to evaluate their effectiveness in controlling basal sprouting, overall size, and flowering. Plant trials will be conducted on woody ornamentals, annual bedding plants, and herbaceous perennials to determine seasonal adaptability and overall performance.

Progress 07/01/00 to 06/30/05

Outputs
Container evaluation of garden mum cultivars over two years found that Chablis was the earliest to flower, 7 to 9 days prior to Debonair, the second to flower each year. Janice also flowered early, third overall each year. Foxy Valerie and Roxanne flowered the latest each year, 35 days after Chablis. Sandy had the largest growth index both years. Rose studies have found that Earth Kind roses from Texas include cultivars that are highly susceptible to black spot and powdery mildew when grown in Louisiana. Approximately 40% of these recommended cultivars should not be recommended in Louisiana. Most of these roses have repeat blooming characeristics. Own root verses budded rose varieties grown over a three year period lead to varying results. Some cultivars did best bareroot and some did best budded. Landscape studies showed Kong coleus performed much better in shade than in full sun. Kong Red, Kong Scarlet and Kong Rose were the better performing cultivars. Order of flowering in landscape evaluation of Kong coleus in 2004 was Green (first), Red, Mosaic, Rose and Scarlet (last). Generally, Solar series coleus out-performed Stained Glassworks and Hurricane series cultivars. Solar Shade performed the worst of the series, while Solar Sunrise, Solar Millennium Red and Solar Shadow were the best. Solar Millennium Red did not perform as well in 2004 as it did in 2003. The Stained Glasswork series was better than the Hurricane series. The Hurricane series cultivars and some of the Stained Glassworks series cultivars lacked the vigor of other cultivars and were especially lacking when compared to the Solar group. In flowering, Hurricane Louise was slower to flower than the other two Hurricane cultivars. Flowering varied within the Stained Glassworks and Solar series also. Grace Ann, Kiwi Fern and Cooper flowered later than other Stained Glassworks cultivars. Shadow, Millennium Red and Sunrise were slowest to flower in the Solar series. All-America daylilies highly susceptible to rust are Judith, Leebea Orange Crush, and Lady Lucille. Daylilies slightly to moderately susceptible to rust are Plum Perfect, Frankly Scarlet, Black Eyed Stelle, Starstruck, and Chorus Line. Resistant cultivars are Bitsy and Lullaby Baby. Profusion Fire, Profusion Apricot and Profusion Orange has been the best landscape performers in the Profusion series of zinnias. Vanilla Perilla in the landscape is less vigorous than Magilla Perilla.

Impacts
Evaluating landscape performance of new and industry standard annual bedding plants and herbaceous perennials provides usual information to over 56,000 green industry professionals in Louisiana. This program generates plant recommendations and leads to expansion of plant material used in commercial and residential landscaping. Nursery producers also expand their product lines based on this information.

Publications

  • Owings, Allen, Anthony Witcher, Wanda Ellis, and Allen Broyles. 2005. Container production evaluation of container garden mum cultivars. Proc. Southern Nursery Assoc. Res. Conf. 50:103-105.
  • Owings, Allen, Gordon Holcomb, Anthony Witcher and Allen Broyles. 2005. Initial performance of Texas Earth Kind roses in Louisiana. Proc. Southern Nursery Assoc. Res. Conf. 50:481-483.
  • Owings, Allen, Anthony Witcher, and Allen Broyles. 2005. Landscape performance of coleus cultivars 2003 and 2004. Proc. Southern Nursery Assoc. Res. Conf. 50:499-502.
  • Owings, Allen, Gordon Holcomb, Anthony Witcher, and Allen Broyles. 2005. Rose research expands. Louisiana Agriculture. 48(2):11.
  • Owings, Allen, Gordon Holcomb, Edward Bush, Anthony Witcher, and Allen Broyles. 2005. All-American daylilies: performance and the rust threat. Louisiana Agriculture. 48(2):12-13.
  • Owings, Allen, Gordon Holcomb, Anthony Witcher, and Allen Broyles. 2005. Bedding plant and herbaceous perennials: landscape performance 2003-2004. Louisiana Agriculture. 48(2):18-19.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Performance evaluations of numerous annual and perennial herbaceous ornamentals were conducted in landscape settings in 2004. A mid-summer through fall evaluation of Kong coleus found no difference in flowering performance and visual quality ratings of the five available cultivars. In a sun/shade study, Kong coleus cultivars in 60% shade were about 50% shorter than those in sun. Other impressive coleus have been Aurora Black Cherry and Mississippi Summer Sun. The Stained Glassworks series of coleus have been average performers. The Son series of lantanas (Sonrise, Sonset, Samson, Sonshine) have been top performers in terms of visual quality and continual bloom. Profusion Apricot and Profusion White have been less susceptible to Xanthomonas bacterial petal blight than Profusion Fire, Profusion Cherry, and Profusion Orange. Earth Kind roses, being promoted by Texas A&M, are being evaluated for landscape performance along with black spot and powdery mildew susceptibility. Most problematic cultivars thus far have included Georgetown Tea, Clotilde Soupert, Nacogdoches, Reve dOr, New Dawn, Souvenir de St. Annes, Spice, Lamarque, Puerto Rico, Sarah Jones, Ducher, and Louis Philippe. Lady Bird cosmos have been good late summer/early fall landscape performers. All-American daylily cultivars named from 1994-2004 have been evaluated for landscape performance and daylily rust (Puccinia hemerocallidis) susceptibility. Cultivars included Black-Eyed Stella, Bitsy, Leebea Orange Crush, Plum Perfect, Judith, Starstruck, Frankly Scarlet, Lullaby Baby, Lady Lucille and Chorus Line. Flowering observations indicated that Black Eyed Stella and Bitsy were the only cultivars showing reliable repeat bloom potential. Among the other cultivars, Judith was the earliest to bud and bloom but also had a blooming period of only 2-3 weeks compared to 4-5 weeks of bloom for other cultivars. Rust was most prevalent on Judith, Leebea Orange Crush, Starstruck and Lady Lucille. Judith and Leebea Orange Crush have rust symptoms earlier than other cultivars. Plum Perfect, Frankly Scarlet, Bitsy, Black Eyed Stella and Lullaby Baby were least susceptible to daylily rust.

Impacts
Considerable effort is made to provide recommendations on herbaceous ornamental plants for landscape use in Louisiana. This program has generated plant recommendations for the Louisiana Select plant promotion and recommendation program and also generates information for mass media dissemination via the LSU AgCenter's 'Get It Growing' effort.

Publications

  • Owings, Allen, Edward Bush, Drew Bates, and Gordon Holcomb. 2004. Landscape performance of miniature and dwarf crape myrtle cultivars. Journal of the Louisiana State Horticulture Society. Volume 1:11-12.
  • Owings, Allen, Anthony Witcher, Allen Broyles, and Edward Bush. 2004. Landscape performance of lantana cultivars - 2003. Proc. Southern Nursery Assoc. Res. Conf. 49:415-417.
  • Owings, Allen, Gordon Holcomb, Anthony Witcher, and Edward Bush. 2004. All America Daylilies: Landscape performance and rust observations. Proc. Southern Nursery Assoc. Res. Conf. 49:418-421.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Studies to evaluate the landscape performance of numerous warm season herbaceous annuals were conducted in 2003. Ornamental sweet potatoes should exhibit excellent performance with no irrigation and fertilization inputs. The 'Sweet Caroline' series was found to contain viruses. Top performing dianthus in terms of visual quality and landscape performance were the 'Amazon' series, 'Dynasty' series, 'Purple Bouquet', 'First Love', and 'Corona Cherry Magic'. A three year study was initiated to determine own-root verses budded rose varieties. First year data only showed minor statistical differences in terms of visual quality and flowering. Sun coleus were grown in an attempt to evaluate for lack of flowering and landscape performance. Superior varieties were 'New Orleans Red', 'Solar Spectrum', 'Solar Shadow', 'Solar Millenium Red' and 'Mississippi Summer Sun'. Evaluation of African marigolds that continued from 2001 and 2002 was terminated. Evaluation of Earth roses were initiated in cooperation with Texas A&M University. Evaluation of new crape myrtle cultivars for landscape performance and disease susceptibility was initiated. New varieties of lantana, primarily the 'Morning Glow' series, 'Lavender Swirl', 'Athens Rose', and several of the 'Patriot' series were shown to have improved flower color, growth habit and overall landscape performance compared to some traditional varieties. The 'Solstice' series of snapdragons has been shown to be a good early season performer in south Louisiana.

Impacts
Considerable effort is made to provide recommendations on herbaceous ornamental plants for landscape use in Louisiana. This program has generated plant recommendations for the Louisiana Select plant promotion and recommendation program and also generates information for mass media dissemination via the LSU AgCenter's 'Get It Growing' effort.

Publications

  • Owings, Allen, Gordon Holcomb, Drew Bates, and Anthony Witcher. 2003. Fall and spring landscape performance of African marigold varieties. Journal of the Louisiana State Horticulture Society. Volume 1: 1-2.
  • Mirabello, Robert, Charles E. Johnson and Allen Owings, 2003. Versatility of pawpaw in the landscape. HortScience. 38(6):1276.
  • Gill, Dan. 2003. Get It Growing Project. HortScience. 38(6):1272.
  • Owings, Allen, Gordon Holcomb and Anthony Witcher. 2002. Landscape performance of warm-season annual bedding plants. Louisiana Agriculture. 46(1).


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Two studies: A study to evaluate the effectiveness of Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for control of basal sprouting Southern wax-myrtle (Myrica cerifera L.) was initiated. Seventy-five, field grown, 1.2 m plants, were used for the experiment. Fifty of the plants were placed into 175 l pots containing a pine bark medium. Twenty-five of the plants were planted in the field to simulate a landscape setting. NAA treatments began in 2001. Excellent sucker control on wax myrtle was achieved. A study to evaluate the effect of pruning level on annual growth, bloom quality, pest and disease resistance, and overall performance on Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei `Natchez' crape myrtle was initiated. Twenty-seven, container grown trees were planted in the field to simulate a landscape setting. Pruning treatments- no pruning, removal of one-fourth total height, and removal of one-half total height - began in 2001. Currently, crape myrtle pruning treatments have revealed no significance.

Impacts
Considerable time and expense can be incurred to remove sprouts in nursery and landscape settings where a tree-form plant is desired. Chemical sprout and sucker control on Southern wax-myrtle would reduce labor costs required to produce and maintain a tree-form plant. This process needs to be further evaluated on southern live oaks, crape myrtles, and other common nursery and landscape plants. The performance of `Natchez' crape myrtle grown under different pruning levels has not been thoroughly investigated in a landscape setting. Results of this study will assist with the development of pruning recommendations for optimizing the health and ornamental appearance of `Natchez' crape myrtle.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
(1) A study to evaluate the effectiveness of Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for control of basal sprouting and suckering of Southern wax-myrtle (Myrica cerifera L.) was established in 2001. Treatments were applied to container and field grown plants. All plants were pruned during the first growing season to establish uniformity. Sprouts and basal suckers were pruned prior to the application of NAA treatments during the first week of April 2001. Treatments were applied to the lower 61 cm (24 in) of the main trunks, by direct spraying with either water or aqueous solutions of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% NAA prepared from the commercial product 'Tre-Hold' (15.1% 1-napthaleneacetic acid, ethyl ester). All suckers and sprouts within the treated area were removed in October 2001. The quanity and dry weight of suckers and sprouts were recorded. Preliminary analysis of the data suggests that all NAA treatments suppressed the growth of sprouts and suckers for approximately 4 to 6 months. Higher treatment rates resulted in longer supression time and fewer sprouts and suckers. Continued research is needed to evaluate the timing of application and the most cost effective rate of NAA. (2) A study to evaluate the effect of pruning level on annual growth, bloom quality, pest and disease resistance, and overall performance on Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei `Natchez' crape myrtle was established in November 2001. Twenty-seven, 3 gal. trees were field planted to simulate a landscape setting. Trees were pruned during the first growing season to establish uniformity. Pruning treatments were: no pruning, removal of 30% total height, and removal of 50% total height. Data will be recorded throughout the 2002 growing season and subsuqent years.

Impacts
(1) Considerable time and expense can be incurred to remove suckers and sprouts in nursery and landscape settings where a tree-form plant is desired. Chemical sprout and sucker control on Southern wax-myrtle would reduce labor costs required to produce and maintain a tree-form plant. (2)The performance of `Natchez' crape myrtle grown under different pruning levels has not been thoroughly investigated in a landscape setting. Results of the study will assist with the development of pruning recommendations for optimizing the health and ornamental appearance of `Natchez' crape myrtle.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
A study to evaluate the effectiveness of Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for control of basal sprouting and suckering of Southern wax-myrtle (Myrica cerifera L.) was initiated. Seventy-five, field grown, 4 ft (1.2 m)plants, were used for the experiment. Fifty of the plants were placed into 46 gal (175 l) pots containing a pine bark medium. Twenty-five of the plants were planted in the field to simulate a landscape setting. NAA treatments are scheduled to begin in 2001. A study to evaluate the effect of pruning level on annual growth, bloom quality, pest and disease resistance, and overall performance on Lagerstroemia indica x fauriei `Natchez' crape myrtle was initiated. Twenty-seven, container grown trees were planted in the field to simulate a landscape setting. Pruning treatments - no pruning, removal of one-fourth total height, and removal of one-half total height - will begin in 2001.

Impacts
Considerable time and expense can be incurred to remove sprouts in nursery and landscape settings where a tree-form plant is desired. Chemical sprout and sucker control on Southern wax-myrtle would reduce labor costs required to produce and maintain a tree-form plant. The performance of `Natchez' crape myrtle grown under different pruning levels has not been thoroughly investigated in a landscape setting. Results of the study will assist with the development of pruning recommendations for optimizing the health and ornamental appearance of `Natchez' crape myrtle.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period