Source: KANSAS STATE UNIV submitted to
IMPROVED GRAZING SYSTEMS FOR BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0184076
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
KS225
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
NC-225
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 1999
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2004
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Blasi, D.
Recipient Organization
KANSAS STATE UNIV
(N/A)
MANHATTAN,KS 66506
Performing Department
ANIMAL SCIENCE & INDUSTRY
Non Technical Summary
Research protocols and Extension educational programs on grazing systems will be designed and implemented to improve the profitability and sustainability of beef production systems.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2041699106050%
3073310101050%
Keywords
Goals / Objectives
The overall objective is to develop and evaluate concepts and systems that increase the uniformity of the year-round forage supply and the efficacy of forage, animal and grazing management to improve the profitability of beef production. Specific objectives are: 1. To quantify production and economic impacts, including risk, of beef cow-calf and stocker systems that better match animal nutrient requirements to the quantity and nutritional value of the forage supply. 2. To improve the profitability and productivity of cow-calf and stocker systems by identifying alternative forage species and grazing management to extend the length of the grazing season. 3. Develop strategies for using forage legumes to improve the agronomic, animal performance, environmental, and economic characteristics of forage-beef systems. 4. Develop a system-based educational program on integrated forage/cattle management systems for cow-calf and stocker producers in the four-state region.
Project Methods
Develop a forage -beef system decision support software program that will estimate and compare forage production and livestock demand scenarios suitable for the central and upper Midwest region. Evaluate complimentary forages and legumes as they lend themselves towards the development of year-round grazing systems. Develop and implement producer-oriented workshops that will stress the new technology derived from the research efforts of this multi-state project.

Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/04

Outputs
Over the five years this project was conducted, a variety of questions surrounding grazing systems for beef cattle production were addressed. 1) Completion of a windows-based software program (KansasGrazer). 2) Winter cereal forages were evaluated for extending the length of the grazing season in South Central Kansas. 3) The evaluation for the presence of phytoestrogenic compounds were determined in native grass pastures in the Flint Hills Region. 4) The nutrient content of native grass species across the state was determined. 5) Management strategies (burning, grazing or combination of both) were evaluated to control evasive cool-season annual grasses. 6) Total season energy supplementation practices for improving beef performance and carrying capacity of native grass pastures were evaluated. 7) The practice of interseeding annual legumes into annual pastures was evaluated.

Impacts
1) Results from the grazing systems study have indicated animals from the more densely stocked intensive-early system had similar early and late gains, but produced more beef on a land area basis than continuously stocked pastures. 2) Interseeding legumes into Bermudagrass pastures can replace up to 100 lb N/acre/year. 3) The results of a 5 year evaluation of the nutrient content of native grasses in SW Kansas has provided additional information to beef producers which will allow them to develop supplementation programs for their cattle. 4) Results from grass species evaluation will assist producers in the selection of perennial cool season and warm season grasses to augment year around forage supply. 5) Management practices, such as overseeding legumes in existing cool season pastures should be done on a routine basis to maintain grazing animal performance. 6) A modified intensive-early stocking strategy on shortgrass range will yield comparable results to season long continuous stocking. 7) Energy supplementation on pasture did not affect subsequent finishing performance or carcass merit, but it did reduce the time required for finishing by 18 days. 8) Comparable levels of pasture and animal performance allow producers to evaluate either the differences in costs to establish annual legumes or fertilize with nitrogen.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Total season energy supplementation was evaluated for improving beef performance and carrying capacity of native grass pastures. Results showed that energy supplementation resulted in more pounds of gain per acre due to improved grazing performance as well as a 34% increase in stocking density over the entire grazing season. Interseeding annual legumes into annual pastures indicate that available forage dry matter and grazing steer performance were similar between pastures of crabgrass fertilized with additional nitrogen and those interseeded with lespedeza.

Impacts
Energy supplementation on pasture did not affect subsequent finishing performance or carcass merit, but it did reduce the time required for finishing by 18 days. Comparable levels of pasture and animal performance allow producers to evaluate either the differences in costs to establish annual legumes or fertilize with nitrogen.

Publications

  • Montgomery, S.P., D.A. Blasi, R.L. Packard, J.C. Forcherio, and R.R. Scott. 2003. Energy supplementation of steers grazing early-season, native range: Effects on grazing and subsequent finishing performance and carcass merit. Kansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Rep. of Progress 908. pp. 130-136.
  • Lomas, L.W., J.L. Moyer, F.K. Brazle, G.L. Kilgore, and G.A. Milliken. 2003. Effect of interseeding lespedeza versus additional nitrogen fertilization in a wheat-crabgrass double-crop system on forage production and cattle performance. J. Anim. Sci. 81 (Suppl. 1) 77-78 (Abstr.).
  • Lomas, L.W., J.L. Moyer, F.K. Brazle and G.L. Kilgore. 2003. Interseeding lespedeza into crabgrass pasture versus additional nitrogen fertilization of forage production and cattle performance. Kansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Rep. of Progress 908, pp. 121-129.
  • Lomas, L.W., J.L. Moyer, F.K. Brazle and G.L. Kilgore. 2003. Interseeding lespedeza into crabgrass pastures versus additional nitrogen fertilization on forage production and cattle performance. Agricultural Research. Kansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Rep. of Progress 909, pp. 1-4.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
The evaluation of cool and warm season grass species to complement existing native grass species is a current emphasis throughout the state. A statewide effort designed to evaluate the nutrient content of native grass species across the state was completed. Management strategies (burning, grazing or a combination of both practices) to control evasive cool-season annual grasses is also an ongoing effort.

Impacts
The results contained in the published research will assist producers in the selection of Perennial cool season and warm season grasses to augment year around forage supply. Management practices, such as overseeding legumes in existing cool season pastures should be done on a routine basis to maintain grazing animal performance. Moreover, modified intensive-early stocking on Shortgrass range will yield comparable results to season long continuous stocking.

Publications

  • Harmoney, K., C. Thompson, J. Brethour and S. Johnson. 2002. Growth characteristics and development of perennial complementary cool-season grasses for grazing. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 891. p. 41.
  • Harmoney, K. 2002. Control and utilization of Japanese Brome. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 891. p. 47.
  • Harmoney, K. and J. Brethour. 2002. Modified intensive-early stocking on shortgrass rangeland. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 891. p. 51.
  • Harmoney, K., S. Johnson, R. Cochran, E. Vanzant, T. Jones, J. Wilson, D. Yauk, M. Ploger, G. McClure, M. Holder, B. Allen, W. Bell and H. Jansonius. 2002. Seasonal forage quality of rangelands across Kansas. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 890. p. 168.
  • Lomas, L.W., J.L. Moyer and G.L. Kilgore. 2002. Effect of legume persistence in endophyte-infected Tall Fescue pastures on forage production and steer performance. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 890. p. 154.
  • Moyer, J.L., 2002. Evaluation of Tall Fescue cultivars. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 892. p. 23.
  • Moyer, J.L. and K.W. Kelley. 2002. Performance of warm-season, perennial, forage grasses. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rept. of Prog. 892. p. 25.
  • Moyer, J.L., K. Janssen, K.W. Kelley, and C.M. Taliaferro. 2002. Forage production of Bermudagrass cultivars in Eastern Kansas. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rept. of Prog. 892. p. 27.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
The value of winter cereal forages (wheat, rye and triticale) for extending the length of the grazing season is being evaluated for the 2nd year in S.C. Kansas using two 80-acre dryland fields. Additionally, cool-season perennial grasses are in the 4th year of evaluation for growth characteristics and plant/tiller densities that will indicate their adaptation for western Kansas. Additional work is in progress to identify the active phytoestrogenic compound present in Kansas Flint Hills pastures.

Impacts
Interseeding legumes into Bermudagrass pastures can replace up to 100 lb N/acre/year. Initial field trial work has determined hay feeding grounds for livestock are ideal breeding habitat for stable flies, a serious livestock pest that has only recently been identified as a notable pest of range cattle. The results of a 5 year evaluation of the nutrient content of native grasses in SW Kansas has provided additional information to beef producers which will allow them to develop supplementation programs for their cattle.

Publications

  • Lomas, LW, JL Moyer, DW Sweeney,FK Brazle and GL Kilgore and R Jones. 2001. Effect of grazing system on endophyte-infected and endophyte-free fescue-clover pastures Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn Rpt. of Prog. 875. p 8.
  • Lomas, LW, JL Moyer and GL Kilgore. 2001. Effects of legume persistence in endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on forage production and steer performance. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn Rpt. of Prog. 875. p 11.
  • Marston, TT and DO Yauk. 2001. Evaluation of southwestern Kansas native grasses. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 873. p 31.
  • Moyer, JL and LW Lomas. 2001. Use of legumes in wheat-bermudagrass pastures. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn Rpt. of Prog. 875. p 18.
  • Blasi, DA, SI Paisley, WV Welshons, GE Rottinghaus, MS Holder, JL Davidson, DE Kehler and J Higgins. 2001. A survey of phytoestrogenic activity in Kansas Flint Hills Pastures. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 873. p 34.
  • Harmoney, K., et al. 2001. Growth characteristics and development of perennial complementary cool-season grasses for grazing. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/lvstk2/roundup1.pdf p.13.
  • Harmoney, K. 2001. Control and utilization of Japanese Brome. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt of Prog. http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/lvstk2/roundup1.pdf p. 18.
  • Harmoney, K. and J. Brethour. 2001. Modified intensive-early stocking on shortgrass rangeland. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt of Prog. http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/lvstk2/roundup1.pdf p. 21.
  • Lomas, LW, JL Moyer, FK Brazle and GL Kilgore. 2001. Interseeding lespedeza into crabgrass pasture versus additional nitrogen fertilization on forage production and cattle performance. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Rpt. of Prog. 875. p 1.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
An initial version (vers. 1.0) of a user-friendly, Windows-based software program (KansasGrazer) which will allow individuals to estimate and compare annual forage production and livestock demand has been completed for peer review. Moreover, western Kansas forage samples have been collected by soil type and range type during the past five consecutive summer grazing seasons to provide accurate information that will be incorporated eventually into KansasGrazer. Additionally, research evaluating alternative grazing strategies in western Kansas is in progress to determine if animal gains per acre could be increased by reducing grazing pressure early in the season to less than double the season-long density. An important consideration of beef cow-calf and stocker production costs and, subsequently, the impact of making more effective use of grazing resources is the economic cost of the grazed forage resource (either by the rental rate or the annualized ownership costs) or by the costs of harvest. Consequently, the potential economic impacts of exogenous variables that impact the grazing land rental market are being explored and economically optimal stocking rates each year over a 24 year period are being evaluated using statistical and multi-period mathematical programming models. The preliminary results suggest that net returns to both the landowner and the tenant, as well as long term forage condition may be improved by the use of longer term per head lease arrangements. Moreover, the true costs of harvested forages as influenced by hay type and storage method is presently being evaluated in southeast Kansas.

Impacts
The KansasGrazer software, which contains yield and forage quality data collected at various locations throughout the state, will help livestock producers identify potential imbalances in their existing grazing system and also simulate potential changes in order to make more informed management decisions. Preliminary results from the grazing systems study have indicated animals from the more densely stocked intensive-early system had similar early and late gains, but produced more beef on a land area basis than continuously stocked pastures. The results of the economic analyses will help producers identify and better understand the factors that influence grazing land costs and the interaction between the land lease tenure agreement and the economic incentives presented to both land owners and tenants for grazing land maintenance and improvements.

Publications

  • Moyer, J. L. and L. W. Lomas. 2000. Use of legumes in wheat-bermudagrass pastures. pp. 16-18. IN: 2000 Agricultural Research, Southeast Agricultural Research Center. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Report of Progress 853. 62p.
  • Lomas, L.W., J.L. Moyer, F.K. Brazle and G.L. Kilgore. 2000. Effects of interseeding lespedeza into crabgrass pasture on forage production and cattle performance. IN: 2000 Agricultural Research, Southeast Agricultural Research Center. Kansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Report of Progress. No. 853, p. 1-5.