Source: UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA submitted to
REDUCING ODOR OF SWINE MANURE USING DIETARY FEED ADDITIVES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0183605
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
GEO00886
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 1999
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2004
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Murry, A. C.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
200 D.W. BROOKS DR
ATHENS,GA 30602-5016
Performing Department
ANIMAL & DAIRY SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
In recent years swine production units have grown in both number and size. Odor from swine manure can cause potential health risks to both humans and animals, and environmental issues regarding air quality. This study will examine the effects of manipulating the diet to enhance nutrient utilization and reduce excretion of odor-causing compounds in swine manure.
Animal Health Component
60%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
60%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
30235101010100%
Goals / Objectives
The first objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of organic acid and complex carbohydrate supplementation on growth performance and feed efficiency in swine. In addition, this study should also determine the effects of organic and complex carbohydrate supplementation in swine diets on fecal microflora and putrefactive compounds.
Project Methods
Crossbred pigs, averging 11 kg body weight will be used for each treatment variable. Pigs will be housed in an environmentally controlled building. Treatments will be containing varying levels of organic acid and complex carbohydrates in the diets. Additives will be added to the drinking water and mixed with the feed. Pigs will be given 2.5 kg water per kg feed and the whole offered as a mesh. Additives will also be mixed with the feed and given in the dry form. Pigs will be fed their respective diets for a 28-day experimental period. Metabolism trials will be conducted to determine nutrient absorption and retention. Also, fecal microflora and putrefactive compounds will be determined.

Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/04

Outputs
Manipulation of colonic microflora has been successfully achieved in several species by supplementing the diet with prebiotics. Lactosucrose is characterized as a prebiotic but limited data have been published, however, on the effects of lactosucrose supplementation in diets for pigs. Therefore this study was designed to determine the effect of lactosucrose on growth performance, fecal odorous compounds, and fecal microflora in 20 growing pigs (18 kg). Pigs were randomly assigned to receive a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or basal diet plus 0.3% lactosucrose. Diets were supplied as a meal and mixed with water (water feed ratio of 2.5:1). Body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not different (P > 0.68) at d 7 and 14 due to diet. The fecal concentrations of p-Cresol increased (P < 0.01) while skatole tended (P < 0.10) to increase from d 7 to 14 in those pigs fed the control diet did not increase (P > 0.05) in those pigs fed the lactosucrose diet. The fecal concentrations of indole and phenol were not affected (P > 0.42) by diet. Fecal lactic acid bacteria colony forming units (CFU) tended (P < 0.09) to increase from d 7 to 14 while fecal Clostridium perfringens CFU were not different (P < 0.20 for those pigs fed lactosucrose. Whereas fecal lactic acid bacteria CFU in pigs fed the control diet was not different (P < 0.20) and Clostridium perfringens CFU tended (P < 0.10) to increase. It is concluded that lactosucrose can be included in the diet for growing pigs at the level of 0.3% without negatively affecting growth performance. Lactosucrose has also been shown to decrease fecal odor-causing compounds of dogs. Limited data have been published, however, on the effects of high and low levels of lactosucrose supplementation on fecal odor-causing compounds of dogs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted using six adult beagle dogs. In experiment one the dogs were fed a standard canine maintenance diet for a 14-day adjustment period. Dogs were then fed the maintenance diet + 1.5 g/d of lactosucrose for a 14-day experimental period. At day 14, lactosucrose was discontinued and the maintenance diet was fed for a 14-day washout period. In experiment two, after the washout period, dogs were then fed the maintenance diet + 2.5 g/d of lactosucrose for an additional 14-day experimental period. At day 14, lactosucrose was discontinued. In both experiments, feces were collected before (day 0), during (day 7 and 14), and after (day 21) lactosucrose administration. Results revealed that during lactosucrose administration, fecal concentrations of phenol, p-Cresol, indole, and skatole decreased (P < 0.05) on day 14 of lactosucrose administration compared to before administration. The fecal concentrations of p-Cresol (P < 0.008), indole (P < 0.001), and skatole (P < 0.001) decreased as the levels of lactosucrose supplementation (1.5 vs. 2.5 g/d) increased. The levels of lactosucrose supplementation, however, did not effect (P > 0.05) the fecal concentration of phenol. It is concluded that lactosucrose can be used as a feed ingredient in diets for dogs to reduced fecal odor-causing compounds.

Impacts
Decreasing odorous compounds will improve environmental air quality, alleviating concerns among community members regarding declining property values, potential compromises to health and welfare, and aesthetic disruption. This will result in new opportunities for the development of swine facilities in which both the swine and the humans who work with them will experience better health. Reducing odor-causing compounds in dog feces can improve the health of dogs and provide a pleasant environment for owners and handlers.

Publications

  • Murry, A. C. Jr., Susan Sanchez, and Parshall Bush. 2000. Progress Report. Diet manipulation using lactosucrose and lactic acid to reduce fecal and urine phenolic metabolites and fecal microflora in nursery pigs. The University of Georgia, Animal and Dairy Science 2000. Annual Report.
  • Murry, A. C., S. Sanchez, and P. Bush. 2001. Effect of lactic acid and lactosucrose supplementation in diets for nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79 (Suppl.1):470 (Abstr.).
  • Murry, A. C. Jr., P. Bush, and A. Hinton, Jr. 2002. Effect of lactosucrose on performance, fecal odorous compounds, and fecal microflora in growing pigs. The University of Georgia, Animal and Dairy Science 2002. Annual Report.
  • Murry, Jr., A.C. and A. Hinton, Jr. 2004. Effect of supplemental lactosucrose on microbial populations and fecal odor components in the canine. The University of Georgia, Animal and Dairy Science 2004 Annual Report. In Press.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Manipulation of colonic microflora has been successfully achieved in several species by supplementing the diet with prebiotics. Lactosucrose is characterized as a prebiotic but limited data have been published, however, on the effects of lactosucrose supplementation in diets for pigs. Therefore this study was designed to determine the effect of lactosucrose on growth performance, fecal odorous compounds, and fecal microflora in 20 growing pigs (18 kg). Pigs were randomly assigned to receive a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or basal diet plus 0.3% lactosucrose. Diets were supplied as a meal and mixed with water (water feed ratio of 2.5:1). Body weight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not different (P > 0.68) at d 7 and 14 due to diet. The fecal concentrations of p-Cresol increased (P < 0.01) while skatole tended (P < 0.10) to increase from d 7 to 14 in those pigs fed the control diet did not increase (P > 0.05) in those pigs fed the lactosucrose diet. The fecal concentrations of indole and phenol were not affected (P > 0.42) by diet. Fecal lactic acid bacteria's colony forming units (CFU) tended (P < 0.09) to increase from d 7 to 14 while fecal Colstridium perfringens CFU were not different (P < 0.20 for those pigs fed lactosucrose. Whereas fecal lactic acid bacteria's CFU in pigs fed the control diet were not different (P < 0.20) and Colstridium perfringens CFU tended (P < 0.10) to increase. It is concluded that lactosucrose can be included in the diet for growing pigs at the level of 0.3% without negatively affecting growth performance. Lactosucrose has also been shown to decrease fecal odor-causing compounds of dogs. Limited data have been published, however, on the effects of high and low levels of lactosucrose supplementation on fecal odor-causing compounds of dogs. Therefore, two experiments were conducted using six adult beagle dogs. In experiment one the dogs were fed a standard canine maintenance diet for a 14-day adjustment period. Dogs were then fed the maintenance diet + 1.5 g/d of lactosucrose for a 14-day experimental period. At day 14, lactosucrose was discontinued and the maintenance diet was fed for a 14-day washout period. In experiment two, after the washout period, dogs were then fed the maintenance diet + 2.5 g/d of lactosucrose for an additional 14-day experimental period. At day 14, lactosucrose was discontinued. In both experiments, feces were collected before (day 0), during (day 7 and 14), and after (day 21) lactosucrose administration. Results revealed that during lactosucrose administration, fecal concentrations of phenol, p-Cresol, indole, and skatol decreased (P < 0.05) on day 14 of lactosucrose administration compared to before administration. The fecal concentrations of p-Cresol (P < 0.008), indole (P < 0.001), and skatol (P < 0.001) decreased as the levels of lactosucrose supplementation (1.5 vs. 2.5 g/d) increased. The levels of lactosucrose supplementation, however, did not effect (P > 0.05) the fecal concentration of phenol. It is concluded that lactosucrose can be used as a feed ingredient in diets for dogs to reduced fecal odor-causing compounds.

Impacts
Decreasing odorous compounds will improve environmental air quality, alleviating concerns among community members regarding declining property values, potential compromises to health and welfare, and aesthetic disruption. This will result in new opportunities for the development of swine facilities in which both the swine and the humans who work with them will experience better health. Reducing odor-causing compounds in dog feces can improve the health of dogs and provide a pleasant environment for owners and handlers.

Publications

  • Murry, A. C., S. Sanchez, and P. Bush. 2001. Effect of lactic acid and lactosucrose supplementation in diets for nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79 (Suppl.1):470 (Abstr.).


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
There is widespread use of antibiotics in animal feed for improving growth rate and feed efficiency as well as for the prevention and treatment of diseases. There is increased concern that continued feeding of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels may be associated with an increase in antibiotic residue effects, the development of drug-resistant bacteria, as well as, the fear that this practice could reduce the ability to treat bacterial related health diseases in humans. Probiotics (direct-fed microbial) have been suggested as alternatives to the use of antibiotics in food animals. Probiotics are characterized as live microorganisms (e.g., including bacteria, fungi, and yeast) that when ingested by animals have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Experiments at the University of Georgia have been conducted to determine the effect of probiotics containing lactic acid bacteria on growth performance and fecal microflora in weanling and growing pigs. Sixty crossbred pigs (6 kg BW and 21 d of age) were used for this study. Pigs were randomly assigned to receive one of four treatments: (a) control diet with antibiotics (CA); (b) control diet without antibiotics and supplemented with 0.2% probiotics in feed alone, (PBF); (c) control diet without antibiotics and supplemented with 0.2% probiotics in the feed and 0.1% in water (PBFW); and (d) control diet without antibiotics and supplemented with 0.1% probiotics in water alone (PBW). Diets were fed from day 0 to 56 after weaning. Pig body weights and feed intake were measured biweekly to determine growth and feed efficiency. Fecal grab samples were collected weekly and dissolved in anaerobic diluents and analyzed for lactic acid bacteria and Escherichia coli. Overall, ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed ratio of pigs fed the CA diet were not different (P > 0.05) from those pigs fed PBF, PBFW, and PBW. Colony forming units (CFU) of lactic acid bacteria of pigs fed the CA diet were not different (P > 0.05) from CFU in pigs fed PBF, PBFW, and PBW from day 0 to 14. Colony forming units of lactic acid bacteria were higher (P < 0.06) at day 21 in pigs fed PBF and PBFW and higher (P < 0.03) at day 28 in pigs fed PBF than CFU in pigs fed the CA diet. From day 0 to 28, Escherichia coli CFU of pigs fed PBF, PBFW, and PBW were not different (P > 0.05) from CFU in pigs fed the CA diet. From day 35 to 56, colony forming units of lactic acid bacteria of pigs fed the CA diet were not different (P > 0.05) from CFU in pigs fed PBF, PBFW, and PBW. Colony forming units of E. coli were higher (P < 0.001) at day 35 in pigs fed the CA diet than CFU in pigs fed PBF and PBFW. Escherichia coli CFU were higher (P < 0.06) at day 42 in pigs fed PBW than CFU in pigs fed PBF and PBFW and the CA diets. The results indicate that probiotics containing lactic acid bacteria can be supplemented without antibiotics in diets of weanling and growing pigs at a rate of 0.2% in feed and 0.1% in water without negatively effecting growth performance. Also, fecal microflora can be affected by the inclusion of probiotics during different stages of the growth period.

Impacts
Probiotics may serve to partially replace the use of antibiotics in animal feed. Probiotics are unlikely to increase the incidence of antibiotic resistance. Also, because of the multiple mechanisms by which probiotics inhibit pathogens, there is a decrease in the chance for development of resistance against the probiotic. In addition, the administration of probiotics will be a cost effective dietary supplement by providing a higher return through improved health, feed efficiency and faster growth.

Publications

  • Murry, Jr. A. C., S. Sanchez, and P. Bush. 2000. Progress Report. Diet manipulation using lactosucrose and lactic acid to reduce fecal and urine phenolic metabolites and fecal microflora in nursery pigs. The University of Georgia, Animal and Dairy Science 2000 Annual Report.
  • Murry, A. C. Jr., P. Bush, and A. Hinton, Jr. 2001. Effect of lactosucrose on performance, fecal odorous compounds, and fecal microflora in growing pigs. The University of Georgia, Animal and Dairy Science 2001. Annual Report.
  • Murry, Jr., A. C. A. Hinton, Jr. 2003. Use of probiotics in the diet of weanling and growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81 (Suppl.1): In Press (Abstr.).


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Fecal odor-causing compounds result from the metabolic action of anaerobic bacteria on organic matter and nutrients in undigested feed as it passes through the large intestine. Manipulation of colonic microflora has been successfully achieved in several species by supplementing the diet with prebiotics. A prebiotic is a nondigestible food ingredient that selectively stimulates the growth and/or activity of bifidobacteria in the colon, over pathogenic microorganisms. Lactosucrose is produced from lactose and sucrose, is a nondigestible carbohydrate, and is utilized as a substrate for fermentation by intestinal bacteria. Limited data have been published, however, on the effects of lactosucrose supplementation in diets for pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of lactosucrose supplementation in pigs? diets on growth performance, and nutrient digestibility, fecal microflora, and fecal odor causing compounds, in growing pigs. Final BW, ADG, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not significantly affected by lactosucrose supplementation. Also, no significant differences were observed in apparent digestibility of DM, ether extract, CP, and DE between the control and lactosucrose-treated pigs on day 14. These results indicate that lactosucrose can be included in diet for growing pigs without negatively affecting growth performance. No significant differences were observed in fecal concentration of odor-causing compounds (p?cresol, skatol, indole, and phenol) between the control and lactosucrose-treated pigs on days 7 and 14. However, a within-group examination of diet and concentration of fecal odor-causing compounds over time (day 7 to 14) revealed a linear increase in p-cresol, skatol, indole, and phenol, but the increase was more pronounced in the lactosucrose-treated pigs compared to those fed the control diet. No significant differences were observed in fecal colony forming units (CFU) between the control and lactosucrose-treated pigs on days 7 and 14. There was a linear increase; however, in Lactobacilli bacteria and a linear decrease in Clostridia perfringens colony counts from day 7 to 14. The increase in Lactobacilli bacteria and decrease in Clostridia perfringens CFU were more pronounced in the lactosucrose-treated pigs compared to those fed the control diet. The knowledge gained from this will palliate the impact of odorous compounds, from swine feces on the atmosphere and the surrounding environment. Decreasing odorous compounds will improve environmental air quality, alleviating concerns among community members regarding declining property values, potential compromises to health and welfare, and aesthetic disruption. This will result in new opportunities for the development of swine facilities in which both the swine and the humans who work with them will experience better health.

Impacts
Decreasing odorous compounds will improve environmental air quality, alleviating concerns among community members regarding declining property values, potential compromises to health and welfare, and aesthetic disruption. This will result in new opportunities for the development of swine facilities in which both the swine and the humans who work with them will experience better health.

Publications

  • Murry, A. C., S. Sanchez, and P. Bush. 2001. Effect of lactic acid and lactosucrose supplementation in diets for nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79 (Suppl.1):470 (Abstr.).


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
In recent years large swine production units have grown in both number and size, and the problem of odor from swine manure has increased as well. Concerns about human health, animal health, and environmental air quality resulting from the odor of large swine production units have prompted research on the development of methods of reducing odors from swine manure. Lactic acid is a nontoxic organic acid and is used as a general purpose food additive. It has been used as a pH regulator and has been very effective against certain types of pathogenic microorganisms. No data, have been published, however, showing the effects of supplemental lactic acid in pigs' diets on fecal microflora and its relationship to reducing odorous compounds in swine manure. Studies have shown that complex carbohydrates added to the diet can alter the gastrointestinal microflora. Lactosucrose is a non-digestible trisaccharide produced from lactosucrose and sucrose and has been shown to decrease fecal ammonia and putrefactive compounds (ethylphenol, and indole) in dogs. No data, have been published, however, showing the effects of supplemental lactosucrose in pigs' diets on fecal microflora and its relationship to the reduction of odorous compounds in swine manure. Experiments at The University of Georgia, Athens, have been initiated to: (1) determine the effects of lactic acid and lactosucrose supplementation in pigs' diets on fecal microflora, and fecal and urine putrefactive compounds, (2) evaluate the effects of lactic acid and lactosucrose supplementation in pigs' diets on growth performance, feed efficiency and nutrient digestibility. Two experiments were conducted using a total of twenty cross bred pigs, average initial body weight 9.5 kg and age 28 days. Pigs were housed individually in stainless steel metabolism cages designed to separate urine and feces in an environmentally controlled room with temperature maintained at 26 C. The first seven days were used as an adjustment period to allow the pigs to adapt to metabolism cages and diets. All pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (20% CP) during the adjustment period. On day seven after the adjustment period, ten pigs were randomly assigned to receive the basal diet supplemented with either lactic acid (1.8%) or lactosucrose (0.2%). Pigs were fed their respective treatment diets for 14 days. On day 21, all pigs were taken off the treatment diets and fed the corn-soybean meal basal diet for an additional seven days. Fecal and urine samples were collected from individual pigs at the end of the adjustment period (day 7) before treatment administration, on days 14 and 21 during administration, and on day 28 after administration. Samples are currently being analyzed for fecal microflora, and fecal and urine putrefactive compounds. Also, data on growth performance, feed efficiency and nutrient digestibility are currently being analyzed. However, raw data show that growth performance and feed efficiency were similar for pigs fed diets supplemented with lactic acid and lactosucrose. Additional experiments are planned to evaluate varying levels of lactic acid and lactosucrose supplementation in swine diets.

Impacts
Results from these experiments will provide additional information on diet manipulation using an organic acid and complex carbohydrate to reduce odor causing compounds in swine manure. Decreasing odors from swine manure will improve the health of workers in swine production units, and the animals dwelling in these units. Improving the health of animals will result in increased feed efficiency, and enhanced animal growth and productivity. Decreasing odors will improve environmental air quality resulting in the development of new swine facilities because community members may not have concerns about declining property values, compromised health and welfare, and aesthetic disruption.

Publications

  • Murry, A. C. Jr., Susan Sanchez, and Parshall Bush. 2000. Progress Report. Diet Manipulation Using Lactosucrose and Lactic Acid to Reduce Fecal and Urine Phenolic Metabolites and Fecal Microflora in Nursery Pigs. The University of Georgia, Animal and Dairy Science 2000 Annual Report (In Press).