Source: N Y AGRICULTURAL EXPT STATION submitted to
BREEDING AND GENETICS OF CABBAGE, BROCCOLI, CAULIFLOWER, AND COMMON BEANS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0183255
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NYG-632420
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2009
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2014
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Griffiths, PH.
Recipient Organization
N Y AGRICULTURAL EXPT STATION
(N/A)
GENEVA,NY 14456
Performing Department
Geneva - Horticultural Sciences
Non Technical Summary
Crucifer vegetables (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower) and common beans (snap beans and dry beans) are important throughout NY State, the US and the world. The primary crucifer vegetables and common bean crops in NY State are cabbage (15,000 acres), snap bean (33,000 acres) and light red kidney beans (15,000 acres). The NY State combined farm-gate value of these crops is approximately $150,000,000. Additionally, NY State produces several thousand acres of cauliflower with a farm-gate value of approximately $10 million, and is restricted in broccoli production primarily through brief seasonal heat waves causing damage to the crowns. On a global scale, crucifer vegetable crops (Brassica oleracea) are grown on over 300,000 acres in the U.S., with an estimated value in excess of $1 billion and on several million acres worldwide especially throughout SE Asia and Europe. World common bean production is in excess of 22 million tons with over 4 million tons of snap beans. Snap beans are an important crop for the northeast and Great Lakes region where approximately 200,000 acres are grown for processing and 50,000 acres for fresh market. Several diseasea and environmental stresses reduce cole crop and common bean yield and quality. The most effective long-term solution to these problems is through enhancing germplasm and breeding new varieties. Host plant resistance to pests and physiological stresses can improve the uniformity and quality of snap bean yields when introgressed into an acceptable plant type. The primary constraints to common bean production are environmental stresses and diseases. New cultivars that are adapted to US markets would be of importance to growers, particularly if value added traits are introgressed. The development of segregating populations that can be selected for yield, quality and other important traits will enhance the development of new cultivars. Molecular markers could also allow selection of pest resistance while other characters are being screened for (simultaneous selection could otherwise lead to erroneous results). Developing marker-assisted selection for new sources of resistance will be a valuable tool in breeding new commercially viable host plant resistant cultivars. Selection for germplasm with resistance will be valuable for breeding superior lines, which require lower pesticide use. Support of this work will enhance the development of Brassica and Phaseolus crops that will subsequently benefit growers through improved cultivars with increased host plant resistance. Resistant germplasm will be important to the future development of cultivars by both the program and the seed industry.
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
(N/A)
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2011410108110%
2011411108115%
2011440108110%
2041410108110%
2041411108115%
2041440108110%
2121410108110%
2121411108110%
2121440108110%
Goals / Objectives
New cultivars that are adapted to US markets would be of importance to growers, particularly if value added traits are introgressed. The development of segregating populations that can be selected for yield, quality and other important traits will enhance the development of new cultivars. Molecular markers could also allow selection of pest resistance while other characters are being screened for (simultaneous selection could otherwise lead to erroneous results). Developing marker-assisted selection for new sources of resistance will be a valuable tool in breeding new commercially viable host plant resistant cultivars. Molecular-marker work will be applied to all aspects of the breeding program, combined with the production of doubled-haploids to allow screening of dominant markers in homozygous plants. Selection for germplasm with resistance will be valuable for breeding superior lines, which require lower pesticide use. The use of molecular-markers and double haploids will help accelerate the breeding program, allowing a shorter to market time of both germplasm and cultivars. Support of this work will enhance the development of Brassica and Phaseolus crops that will subsequently benefit growers through improved cultivars with increased host plant resistance. Resistant germplasm will be important to the future development of cultivars by both the program and the seed industry. Objectives include the evaluation of germplasm to identify sources of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, enhance germplasm through the development of superior breeding lines, utilization of related species for transfer of important traits through interspecific hybridization, .develop molecular markers for marker-assisted selection of important traits, release of germplasm to the research community, industry and marketplace. Breeding lines developed within the program are released to the research community, commercial seed companies and growers both nationally and internationally. Historically, commercial cultivars have not been developed within the vegetable breeding research programs at Geneva. It is anticipated that new germplasm and breeding lines will be developed and released in cole crops and common bean that will make significant contributions to cultivar development and the sustainability of vegetable crop systems.
Project Methods
Germplasm enhancement involves selection of plants from variable or segregating populations. The breeding research at Geneva has focused on the improvement of traits in crucifer and common bean crops that has resulted in the development and release of breeding lines. The development of breeding lines is achieved through multiple generations of selection and crossing or self-pollination. This work involves replicated greenhouse and field screening of breeding lines to advance traits into superior breeding lines. This work will be continued for several traits of interest, focusing primarily on: white mold resistance in crucifers and beans, black rot resistance in crucifers, CMV resistance in beans, heat tolerance in broccoli and beans and on quality/novel traits. Several projects that have been worked on show significant promise for developing solutions to problems experienced by growers throughout the US. The projects showing most promise have been highlighted, and continued work in developing germplasm and releasing superior breeding lines will greatly support US growers of Brassica and Phaseolus crops. Additional research is also being undertaken on other traits that will benefit growers including development of new varieties, transfer of novel traits (orange cauliflower, hairy cabbage), and improvement of breeding lines for alternaria resistance, thrips tolerance and root rot tolerance. The continuation of these projects will be important in developing solutions to old and new problems as they arise. This has been highlighted through the work focused on CMV resistance in beans that shows the importance of breeding work in developing a solution to an emerging disease. Standard breeding methodologies including backcrossing and populations development and selection will be deployed to attain this including the use of molecular tools from basic research in order to aid selection of plants.

Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: The target audiences included grower groups, seed company breeders and representatives, processing companies, food companies, international agricultural stations, NGOs, academic/research institutions and tarining sites. These included multiple international seed companies, grower groups including NYSVRA/C and the dry bean advisory board, international KARI centers in Kenya, CIIFAD, Seneca Foods, collaborative researchers and institutions throughout the USA Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Individuals contributing to the project included Matt Wavrick, Sarah Durkee, Kristin Marino, Clare Saied and Traci Hoogland as technical support and John Hart as a graduate student who graduated in January 2014. Projects involved multi-state collaborations for white mold trials and collaboration. Collaborations for bean rust and heat tolerance were also made with Tim Porch USDA-ARS, Marcial Pastor Corrales USDA-ARS and ACL via Charles Wasonga in East Africa. Brassica trials were made in collaboration with Charles Wasonga were onsite farmer trials were planted in Kenya for training purposes. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? A presentation was given in Dec 2013 to NYSVRA/C in Geneva NY, to the dry bean advisory council in March 2014 and September 2014. Reports and a visit was made to field trials with a processing company in Washington state and Wisconsin. A seminar was presented by John Hart in Ithaca. A seminar was presented by Griffiths in Ithaca. Materials were demonstrated to seed company breeders and individuals at the Cornell VBI field days in August 2014. A VBI report was distributed to seed companies. Updates on cultivar development and breeding efforts were made to growers via written, oral and in person reports. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables focused on resistance to black rot in cabbage and Sukuma Wiki and adaptation of broccoli to the East Coast. Other selected traits included the selection of interior natural colors in radish and cabbage, interspecific crossing and improvement of plant type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from combining NY and Wisconsin breeding lines. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate collard and sukuma wiki breeding lines for black rot resistance derived from B. oleracea, including lines developed from PI 366606, Badger #16 and Early Fuji. New breeding lines were released in 2014. Replicated trials of broccoli inbred lines were evaluated for quality under NE growing conditions in 2014, including hybrids generated from 2013 selections and public x public hybrids from USDA-ARS SC. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance, rust resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Hart, J.P., and P.D. Griffiths. 2013. A series of eIF4E alleles at the Bc-3 locus are associated with recessive resistance to Clover yellow vein virus in common bean. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 126:2849-2863.


Progress 10/01/12 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Target audiences include Brassica vegetable and common bean growers in New York, the US and worldwide. Efforts are aimed and creating new germplasm and varieties of interest to commercial seed companies and growers. Additionally the research supports the vegetable processing industry and the fresh produce sector. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? The principal investigator for this project was Dr. Phillip D. Griffiths, with technical support from Matt Wavrick, Jeff McNamara and Sarah Durkee. Additional help for field trials came from Lauren Brown, Sydney Hurley, Kevin McGuigan, Alexandra Bennett and Emily Burnell. Regional trial reporting associated with this research was undertaken by Sarah Durkee and Clare Saied. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Though outreach grower meetings and presentations within and outside the state of NY What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables focused on resistance to black rot in cabbage and Sukuma Wiki and adaptation of broccoli to the East Coast. Other selected traits included the selection of interior natural colors in radish and cabbage, interspecific crossing and improvement of plant type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from combining NY and Wisconsin breeding lines. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate collard and sukuma wiki breeding lines for black rot resistance derived from B. oleracea, including lines developed from PI 366606, Badger #16 and Early Fuji. New breeding lines were released in 2013. Replicated trials of broccoli inbred lines were evaluated for quality under NE growing conditions in 2013, including hybrids generated from 2012 selections and public x public hybrids from USDA-ARS SC. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance, rust resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project.

Publications


    Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/12

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables focused on resistance to black rot in cabbage and Sukuma Wiki and adaptation of broccoli to the East Coast. Other selected traits included the selection of interior natural colors in radish and cabbage, interspecific crossing and improvement of plant type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from NY and Wisconsin breeding lines. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate collard and sukuma wiki breeding lines for black rot resistance derived from B. oleracea, including lines developed from PI 366606, Badger #16 and Early Fuji. New breeding lines were released in 2012. Replicated trials of broccoli inbred lines were evaluated for quality under NE growing conditions in 2012, including hybrids generated from 2011 selections and public x public hybrids from USDA SC. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance, rust resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project. PARTICIPANTS: The principal investigator for this project was Dr. Phillip D. Griffiths, with technical support from Matt Wavrick, Jeff McNamara and Sarah Durkee. Additional help for field trials came from Lauren Brown, Sydney Hurley, Kevin McGuigan, Alexandra Bennett and Emily Burnell. Regional trial reporting associated with this research was undertaken by Sarah Durkee and Alexandra Bennett. This work has involved industry collaborations including Bejo Seeds, Monsanto Vegetable Seeds, and Syngenta Seeds. Additional input has been received from the cabbage research and development board and the New York State Vegetable Research and advisory council. Collaborators include Dr. Thomas Bjorkman, Mark Farnham, Jim Myers, Jeanine Davis, Mark Hutton and Wythe Morris. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include Brassica vegetable and common bean growers in New York, the US and worldwide. Efforts are aimed and creating new germplasm and varieties of interest to commercial seed companies and growers. Additionally the research supports the vegetable processing industry and the fresh produce sector. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, broccoli and common bean is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically, and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through inter-specific crosses and combination of public sector breeding lines will enable black rot resistance to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower, collard, sukuma wiki and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance and better adaptability in broccoli will improve the potential acreage for production in the east coast region and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables focused on resistance to black rot in cabbage and Sukuma Wiki and adaptation of broccoli to the Northeast. Other selected traits included the selection of interior natural colors in radish and cabbage and improvement of plant type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from interspecific crosses with an Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Advanced backcross populations segregating black rot resistance have been developed, and are being evaluated through greenhouse and field trials. Field trials were also undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines for black rot resistance derived from B. oleracea, including lines developed from PI 366606 and Early Fuji. New breeding lines will be released in 2012. Replicated trials of broccoli inbred lines were evaluated for quality under NE growing conditions in 2011, including hybrids generated from 2010 selections. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance, rust resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project. PARTICIPANTS: The principal investigator for this project was Dr. Phillip D. Griffiths, with technical support from Matt Wavrick, Jeff McNamara and Sarah Durkee. Additional help for field trials came from Lauren Brown, Sydney Hurley, Joe Morabito and Emily Burnell. Laboratory work associated with this research was undertaken by Sarah Durkee. This work has involved industry collaborations including Bejo Seeds, Monsanto Vegetable Seeds, Syngenta Seeds and Rijk Zwaan. Additional input has been received from the cabbage research and development board and the New York State Vegetable Research and advisory council. Collaborators include Dr. Thomas Bjorkman, Dr. Chris Smart and Dr. Elizabeth Earle. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include Brassica vegetable and common bean growers in New York, the US and worldwide. Efforts are aimed and creating new germplasm and varieties of interest to commercial seed companies and growers. Additionally the research supports the vegetable processing industry and the fresh produce sector. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, broccoli and common bean is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically, and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through inter-specific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance and better adaptability in broccoli will improve the potential acreage for production in the northeast and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables focused on resistance to black rot in cabbage and Sukuma Wiki and adaptation of broccoli to the Northeast. Other selected traits included the selection of leaf trichomes, male sterility (Ogura and Anand), cauliflower curd colors, radish interior color and improvement of plant type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from interspecific crosses with an Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) accession and new lines being generated from B. rapa crosses. The interspecific crosses were initially generated using the embryo rescue technique, also necessary in the development of BC2 and BC3 plants derived from backcross plants. Advanced backcross populations segregating black rot resistance have been developed, and are being evaluated through greenhouse and field trials. Field trials were also undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines for black rot resistance derived from B. oleracea, including lines developed from PI 366606 and Early Fuji. Four new breeding lines were released in 2008: Cornell 105, Cornell 106, Cornell 107 and Cornell 108. New inbred selections at the F6 stage are being evaluated for release, and 132 selections were made in 2010. Replicated trials of broccoli inbred lines were evaluated for quality under NE growing conditions in 2010, including hybrids generated from 2009 selections. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project. PARTICIPANTS: The principal investigator for this project was Dr. Phillip D. Griffiths, with technical support from Cathy Roe, Matt Wavrick and Sarah Durkee. Additional help for field trials came from Kate McNamara, Jacob Ballerstein, Adam Churey and Holly Smith. Laboratory work associated with this research was undertaken by Cathy Roe and Sarah Durkee. This work has involved industry collaborations including Bejo Seeds, Monsanto Vegetable Seeds, Syngenta Seeds and Rijk Zwaan. Additional input has been received from the cabbage research and development board and the New York State Vegetable Research and advisory council. Collaborators include Dr. Thomas Bjorkman, Dr. Chris Smart and Dr. Elizabeth Earle. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include Brassica vegetable and common bean growers in New York, the US and worldwide. Efforts are aimed and creating new germplasm and varieties of interest to commercial seed companies and growers. Additionally the research supports the vegetable processing industry and the fresh produce sector. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and common bean is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically, and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through inter-specific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance and better adaptability in broccoli will improve the potential acreage for production in the northeast and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables focused on resistance to black rot in cabbage, broccoli and Sukuma Wiki and adaptation of broccoli to the Northeast. Other selected traits included the selection of leaf trichomes, male sterility (Ogura and Anand), cauliflower curd colors, radish color and improvement of plant type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from interspecific crosses with an Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) accession (A 19182) and new lines being generated from B. rapa crosses. The interspecific crosses were initially generated using the embryo rescue technique which was also necessary in the development of BC2 and BC3 plants derived from backcross plants. Advanced backcross populations segregating black rot resistance have been developed, and are being evaluated through greenhouse and field trials. Field trials were also undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines for black rot resistance derived from B. oleracea, including lines developed from PI 366606 and Early Fuji. Four new breeding lines were released in 2008: Cornell 105, Cornell 106, Cornell 107 and Cornell 108. Replicated trials of broccoli inbred lines were evaluated for quality under NE growing conditions in 2009, including hybrids generated from 2007 and 2008 selections. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project. PARTICIPANTS: The principal investigator for this project was Dr. Phillip D. Griffiths, with technical support from Cathy Roe, Matt Wavrick and Sarah Durkee. Additional help for field trials came from Kate Higgins, Joe Morabito, Holly Smith. Laboratory work associated with this research was undertaken by John Hart, Davina Chen and Charles Wasonga. This work has involved industry collaborations including Bejo Seeds, Seminis Seeds, Syngenta Seeds and Rijk Zwaan. Additional input has been received from the cabbage research and development board and the New York State Vegetable Research and advisory council. Collaborators include Dr. Chris Smart and Dr. Elizabeth Earle. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include Brassica vegetable and common bean growers in New York, the US and worldwide. Efforts are aimed and creating new germplasm and varieties of interest to commercial seed companies and growers. Additionally the research supports the vegetable processing industry and the fresh produce sector. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and common bean is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically, and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through inter-specific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance in broccoli will improve adaptation and the potential acreage for production in the northeast and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • Griffiths, P. D., L. Fredrick Marek and L. D. Robertson. 2009. Identification of Crucifer Accessions from the NC-7 and NE-9 Plant Introduction Collections that are Resistant to Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris) Races 1 and 4. HortScience 44 (2) 284-288.
    • Griffiths, P. D., 2009. Release of Cornell 601-606: Common bean breeding lines with resistance to white mold. HortScience 44 (2): 463-465.
    • Griffiths, P.D. 2009. Development of snap beans resistant to cucumber mosaic virus. Proceedings of the Empire State Fruit and Vegetable Expo. 88-90.


    Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables was focused primarily on resistance to black rot in cabbage and adaptation of broccoli to the Northeast, with other selected traits including the selection of leaf trichomes, male sterility (Ogura and Anand), cauliflower curd colors, radish color and improvement of plant type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from interspecific crosses with an Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) accession (A 19182). The interspecific crosses were initially generated using the embryo rescue technique, generating 30 interspecific hybrids and 4 backcross plants following crosses to broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica). Embryo rescue was also necessary in the development of BC2 and BC3 plants derived from backcross plants. Advanced backcross populations segregating black rot resistance have been developed, and are being evaluated through greenhouse and field trials. Field trials were also undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines for black rot resistance derived from B. oleracea, including lines developed from PI 366606 and Early Fuji. Four new breeding lines were released in 2008: Cornell 105, Cornell 106, Cornell 107 and Cornell 108. Replicated trials of broccoli inbred lines were evaluated for quality under NE growing conditions in 2008, including hybrids generated from 2007 selections. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project. PARTICIPANTS: The principal investigator for this project was Dr. Phillip D. Griffiths, with technical support from Cathy Roe, Matt Wavrick and Sarah Durkee. Additional help for field trials came from Kate McNamara, Jacob Ballerstein, Adam Churey and Holly Smith. Laboratory work associated with this research was undertaken by Amy Jobe and Charles Wasonga. This work has involved industry collaborations including Bejo Seeds, Seminis Seeds, Syngenta Seeds and Rijk Zwaan. Additional input has been received from the cabbage research and development board and the New York State Vegetable Research and advisory council. Collaborators include Dr. Chris Smart and Dr. Elizabeth Earle. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include Brassica vegetable and common bean growers in New York, the US and worldwide. Efforts are aimed and creating new germplasm and varieties of interest to commercial seed companies and growers. Additionally the research supports the vegetable processing industry and the fresh produce sector. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and common bean is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically, and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through inter-specific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance in broccoli will improve adaptation and the potential acreage for production in the northeast and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables was focused primarily on resistance to black rot in cabbage and heat tolerance in broccoli with other selected traits including the selection of trichomes, male sterility (Ogura and Anand), cauliflower curd colors, and improvement of plant type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from interspecific crosses with an Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) accession (A 19182). These inter-specific crosses were generated using the embryo rescue technique, initially generating 30 interspecific hybrids and 4 backcross plants following crosses to broccoli (Brassica oleracea). Embryo rescue was also necessary in the development of BC2 and BC3 plants derived from backcross plants. Advanced backcross populations segregating blackrot resistance have been developed, and will be evaluated through greenhouse inoculation and flow cytometry. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines for black rot resistance derived from B. oleracea, including lines developed from PI 366606 and Early Fuji. Replicated trials of broccoli inbred lines were evaluated for quality under NE growing conditions. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project. PARTICIPANTS: The principal investigator for this project was Dr. Phillip D. Griffiths, with technical support from Cathy Roe, Matt Wavrick and Sarah Durkee. Additional help for field trials came from Kate McNamara, Adam Churey and Holly Smith. Lab work associated with this research was undertaken by Amy Jobe and Charles Wasonga. This work has involved industry collaborations including Bejo Seeds, Seminis Seeds, Syngenta Seeds and Rijk Zwaan. Additional input has been received from the cabbage research and development board and the New York State Vegetable Research and advisory council. Collaborators include Dr. Chris Smat and Dr. Lisa Earle. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include brassica vegetable and common bean growers in New York, the US and worldwide. Efforts are aimed at creating new germplasm and varieties of interest to commercial seed companies and growers. Additionally the research supports the vegetable processing industry and the fresh produce sector. Outreach efforts for this work include grower meetings and committees, and interaction with commercial companies.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and common bean is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically, and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through inter-specific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance in broccoli will increase the potential acreage for production in the northeast and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

    Outputs
    Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables was made for resistance to black rot and white mold. Other selected traits included: the selection of trichomes, male sterility (Ogura and Anand), cauliflower curd colors, heat tolerance in broccoli and improvement of type. This research included the development of Brassica breeding lines with black rot resistance that was derived from interspecific crosses with an Indian mustard accession (A 19182). These inter-specific crosses were generated using the embryo rescue technique, initially generating 30 interspecific hybrids and 4 backcross plants following crosses to broccoli (Brassica oleracea). Embryo rescue was also necessary in the development of BC2 and BC3 plants derived from backcross plants. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines for disease resistance and quality, including replicated trials evaluating black rot and white mold resistance. Interspecific backcrosses were also developed between Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata) and broccoli to transfer powdery mildew resistance to B. oleracea. Selection of common bean breeding lines for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance, bean yellow mosaic virus resistance, clover yellow vein virus resistance and heat tolerance were also made as part of the project.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and common bean is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically, and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through inter-specific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance in broccoli will increase the potential acreage for production and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

    Outputs
    Genetic improvement of Brassica vegetables was made for resistance to black rot, white mold and Alternaria. Other selected traits included: the selection of trichomes, male sterility (Ogura and Anand), cauliflower curd colors, heat tolerance in broccoli and improvement of type. This research included the development of Brassica backcross self plants with black rot resistance that were derived from interspecific crosses with an Indian mustard accession (A 19182). These interspecific crosses were achieved using the embryo rescue technique, initially generating 30 interspecific hybrids and 4 backcross plants following crosses to broccoli (Brassica oleracea). Embryo rescue was also necessary in the development of BC2 and BC3 plants derived from backcross plants. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines for disease resistance and quality, including replicated trials evaluating black rot and white mold resistance. Alternaria and thrips tolerance selections were removed from the field to advance the lines and make additional crosses to commercial types. Interspecific backcrosses were also developed between Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata) and broccoli to transfer powdery mildew resistance to B. oleracea. Selection of common beans for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance and heat tolerance was also initiated as part of the project.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through interspecific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance in broccoli will increase the potential acreage for production and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • Griffiths, P. D. and C. Roe. 2005. Response of Brassica oleracea var. capitata to wound and spray inoculation with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in juvenile and mature plants. HortScience 40(1):47-49.


    Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

    Outputs
    The program focused on three primary areas of disease resistance in 2004: black rot, white mold and Alternaria. Several other areas of focus included: improvement of hairy crucifer types, male steriles, cauliflower curd colors, thrips tolerance, heat tolerance in broccoli and improvement of type. This research included, development of backcross plants with black rot resistance that were derived from interspecific crosses with an Indian mustard accession. These interspecific crosses were achieved using the embryo rescue technique, initially generating 30 interspecific hybrids and 4 backcross plants with broccoli. Embryo rescue was also necessary in the development of BC2 and BC3 plants derived from backcross plants. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines for disease resistance and quality, including replicated trials evaluating black rot and white mold resistance. Alternaria and thrips tolerance selections were removed from the field to advance the lines and make additional crosses to commercial types. New molecular tools for discriminating Brassica species were developed based on the RFLP technique, which will help in determining species for germplasm taxonomy purposes. Interspecific backcrosses were also developed between Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) and broccoli to transfer powdery mildew resistance to Brassica oleracea. Selection of common beans for white mold resistance, cucumber mosaic virus resistance and heat tolerance was also initiated as part of the project.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through interspecific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance in broccoli will increase the potential acreage for production and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season. Plants developed from interspecific crosses will also generate new materials with novel traits transferred to B. oleracea.

    Publications

    • Cunha, C., M. Tonguc and P. D. Griffiths. 2004. Discrimination of diploid Brassica species using PCR-RFLP of chloroplast DNA. HortScience 39(3):481-484
    • Tonguc, M. and P. D. Griffiths. 2004. Transfer of powdery mildew resistance from B. carinata to B. oleracea L. Plant Breeding 123:1-3.
    • Tonguc, M. and P. D. Griffiths. 2004. Genetic relationships of Brassica vegetables determined using database derived simple sequence repeats. Euphytica 137:193-201.
    • Tonguc, M. and P. D. Griffiths. 2004. Development of black rot resistant interspecific hybrids between B. oleracea L cultivars and accession A 19182. Euphytica 136:313-318.
    • Tonguc, M. and P. D. Griffiths. 2004. Evaluation of Brassica carinata accessions for resistance to black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris). HortScience 39(5):952-954.


    Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

    Outputs
    The program focused on three primary areas of disease resistance in 2003: black rot Alternaria and white mold. Several other areas of focus included: improvement of hairy crucifer types, male steriles, cauliflower curd colors, thrips tolerance, heat tolerance in broccoli and improvement of type. This research included interspecific crosses between broccoli cultivars and Indian mustard accession A 19182 for the transfer of black rot resistance from a related species. These interspecific crosses were achieved using the embryo rescue technique generating 30 interspecific hybrids and 4 backcross plants with broccoli. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate cabbage breeding lines and cultivars, using four inoculation approaches at the juvenile and mature plants stages. It was determined that the juvenile wound approach for inoculating for black rot may not be appropriate for B. oleracea derived multiple gene resistance. Alternaria, white mold and thrips tolerance selections were removed from the field to advance the lines and make additional crosses to commercial types.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material. Introgression of resistance from related species through interspecific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. Heat tolerance in broccoli will increase the potential acreage for production and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season.

    Publications

    • Tonguc, M., E. Earle and P. D. Griffiths. 2003. Segregation distortion of Brassica carinata derived black rot resistance in Brassica oleracea. Euphytica 134 (3):269-276.
    • Griffiths, P. D. and A. M. Shelton. 2003. Evaluation of cabbage accessions for thrips damage. Cruciferae Newsletter 25.
    • Griffiths, P. D. and M. Tonguc. 2003. Evaluation of Black Rot Resistance in Cabbage Germplasm Derived from Intraspecific and Interspecific Crosses. HortScience 38:677.


    Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

    Outputs
    The program focused on three primary areas of disease resistance in 2002 (black rot (Xanthomonas campestris), Alternaria and white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)). Several other areas of focus included improvement of hairy crucifer types, male steriles, cauliflower curd colors, thrips tolerance, heat tolerance in broccoli and improvement of type. This work included the identification of new sources of black rot resistance from the B. carinata (Ethiopian mustard) collection, one of which (A 19182) was used to create 30 interspecific hybrids with B. oleracea for introgression of resistance into the vegetable Brassicas. Field trials were undertaken to evaluate B. oleracea breeding lines for black rot, Alternaria, white mold and thrips tolerance, and selections were removed from the field to advance the lines and make additional crosses to commercial types.

    Impacts
    Breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic pests in cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli is an important component of IPM and will help to reduce chemical costs, make NY agriculture more viable economically and reduce environmental damage of chemical pesticides. Resistance to black rot is not complete in B. oleracea derived material, introgression of resistance from related species through interspecific crosses will enable a black rot resistance gene that controls the resistance to the major races to be introgressed to cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli varieties. Heat tolerance in broccoli would increase the potential aceage for production and reduce the uncertainty involved with variable temperatures during the summer season.

    Publications

    • Griffiths, P. D. and Robertson, L. D. 2002. Evaluation of cauliflower plant introductions for white mold resistance. Crucifer Newsletter Nr 24.


    Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

    Outputs
    The genetic control of resistance to black rot derived from PI 199947 was evaluated, and molecular markers were identified that showed linkage to a black rot resistance gene. A partial linkage map of linked markers was derived, although inheritance of this resistance source did not meet expected frequencies. A total of 273 breeding lines selected for black rot resistance from PI 199947 and other sources were evaluated in greenhouse and field trials and 109 selections were made including 11 F4 lines and 9 F3 lines based on PI 199947 resistance. Evaluations of white mold crucifer breeding lines were also made including PI's identified during 2000 screens. A total of 40 selections were made including cabbage, non-heading cabbage, broccoli, purple broccoli, glossy broccoli and cauliflower. Selections of breeding lines were also made for resistance to Alternaria, glossy leaves, hairy leaves, male sterility, orange cauliflower, heat tolerant broccoli and quality. To aid cultivar identification and seed purity of crucifer varieties, 36 microsatellites were identified within known B. oleracea sequence databases. Sequences suitable for primers were identified and primer pairs flanking microsatellite regions were obtained. Of the 36 STMs, 17 amplified polymorphisms between commercial cultivars of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli (from the genes CALc, CALa, PLD2, PC15, CH1A, ACC01, THL1, DEL9, CK1a, ABI1, FAD2, ACT1, CALb, SRLKb, ENAR1b, PLD1, CSC1). These polymorphisms were differentiated by a small sequence change on metaphor agarose or acrylamide gels. Breeding line selections have been self-pollinated and crossed for evaluation in 2002 trials.

    Impacts
    Black rot, white mold and Alternaria are three of the most important diseases in crucifer production. Breeding for resistance to these will reduce the damage caused and the need for chemical control measures. Breeding for improved quality and male sterility will benefit the growing community and the seed industry. Polymorphisms based on microsatellite sequence lengths will enable cultivar determination and confirmation of parental heritage.

    Publications

    • Griffiths, P.D. and Nickels, J. L. (2001). Association of a molecular polymorphism with black rot resistance derived from Ethiopian mustard. Cruciferae Newsletter Nr. 23, p57-58.


    Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

    Outputs
    Black rot inoculations of juvenile and mature F2 populations derived from a resistant broccoli (derived through protoplast fusion with B. carinata) x cauliflower ('Snowball') cross were evaluated, and complete (juvenile and mature) resistance was observed in approximately 10% of the F2 progeny. This segregation suggested multiple gene control, differing from the reports of single dominant gene control previously reported. Linkage of 3 RAPD markers to the resistant plants indicated that recovery of the molecular markers was also occurring in these populations. This indicates that the control may indeed be single gene dominant, but may not be fully stabilized in the B. oleracea germplasm studied. White mold screens of the cauliflower PI collection identified five PI's with tolerance to white mold (PI 234599 (1.93), PI 267724 (1.87), PI 462217 (2.14), PI 462224 (2.20), PI 462216 (2.33)), however, this tolerance was not superior to that observed in current breeding lines, and was associated with later maturing and non-heading accessions indicating stem resistance, but not resistance to head-rot. Alternaria lines developed from Sinapsis Alba fusion with B. oleracea exhibited only limited resistance, and earlier generations will need to be re-evaluated to incorporate better resistance. Breeding lines with other important traits for commercial production have also been advanced through self-pollinations of plants and crosses, these include heat tolerance in broccoli, orange heading cauliflower, persistent white cauliflower, thrips resistance, glossy crucifers, hairy crucifers and male sterility.

    Impacts
    Black rot a the major worldwide pathogen of B. oleracea, complete resistance has not been documented within the species. Resistance from B. carinata is complete, giving resistance to the two most prevalent races of the pathogen (races 1 and 4). If this can be stabilized, and is controlled by a single dominant gene, it can be introgressed into varieties of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli, reducing the need for ineffective chemical control, and increasing the economic value. White mold resistance in storage cabbage varieties will be beneficial in reducing storage damage.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 03/01/99 to 12/31/99

    Outputs
    Cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli lines were rated for horticultural type and crosses were made based on industry needs. Disease screens were made to identify plants showing resistance to black rot (Xanthomonas campestris) a major disease of cabbage and cauliflower in NY state, the US and the world. Black rot resistant selections were crossed to cabbage cauliflower and broccoli to improve type, and hybrids of black rot resistant broccoli and cauliflower were selfed to generate populations for genetic studies. White mold resistant storage cabbage would be of benefit to the NY cabbage industry, as white mold develops during cool damp seasons, or during storage. White mold screens identified resistant plants that are being crossed to storage cabbage for further evaluation. Studies of thrips resistant and thrips susceptible cabbage varieties identified molecular polymorphisms potentially linked to thrips resistance genes.

    Impacts
    The genetic source of black rot resistance is derived from Ethiopian mustard and is not available in any current crucifer varieties. Crosses performed this fall have allowed movement of this resistance into cabbage and cauliflower. Further crosses will lead to material for variety production where it could significantly reduce damage caused by this pathogen.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period