Source: WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
PACIFIC NORTHWEST SPRING WHEAT BREEDING AND GENETICS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
REVISED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0183055
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
WNP00334
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2010
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2015
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Pumphrey, M. O.
Recipient Organization
WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY
240 FRENCH ADMINISTRATION BLDG
PULLMAN,WA 99164-0001
Performing Department
Crop & Soil Sciences
Non Technical Summary
Pacific Northwest spring wheat production in 2009 was 73.9 million bushels, valued at over $350,000,000. Spring wheat production in Washington State in 2009 was valued at over $125,000,000, with a total of 26.3 million bushels harvested from 585,000 acres (http://www.nass.usda.gov/). The Washington State University (WSU) spring wheat breeding program is focused on improving production options, profitability and sustainability of wheat production for all four classes of spring wheat. The economic benefit of growing wheat varieties developed by the WSU spring wheat program is evidenced by their significant acreage. In total, ~50% of the 2009 and 2010 Washington spring wheat acres were planted to WSU spring wheat varieties. A single "perfect" wheat variety will never exist. Washington and Pacific Northwest production environments vary considerably across relatively small geographic distances, while four market classes of spring wheat are produced with variable end-use quality characteristics. Changing production systems, disease and insect pest problems, market preferences/end-uses, and variable weather patterns all demand a long-term integrated effort to respond to and improve yield potential/protection and grain quality. Yield limiting biotic (including stripe rust, root diseases, and insect pests) and abiotic (including heat, drought, poor fertility, herbicide carryover) stresses reduce wheat production across the state. Our aim is to provide genetic solutions to these production limitations in the form of new, high-yielding, pest-resistant, high-quality varieties. Variety development and germplasm enhancement are accomplished by conventional plant breeding breeding activities, including cross-pollination, followed by selection of superior lines and yield testing at multiple locations throughout the state. New higher-yielding wheats with pest resistance and superior end-use quality will be released to Pacific Northwest wheat growers and increase spring wheat profitability and sustainability, while decreasing the use of pesticides.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
50%
Developmental
50%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2011541108010%
2011543108010%
2021541108110%
2021543108110%
2031541108110%
2031543108110%
2111541108110%
2111543108110%
2121541108110%
2121543108110%
Goals / Objectives
The development of superior varieties in each market class is expected from future breeding activities. Major objectives of the WSU spring wheat breeding project include: 1)Develop stress tolerant, high-yielding, and high-quality spring wheat varieties for diverse PNW production environments; 2)Increase diversity of Hessian fly and stripe rust resistance in PNW spring wheat germplasm to strengthen long-term variety development efforts; 3)Develop and implement genomic scientific techniques to enhance current selection methods. New higher-yielding germplasm with useful diversity for Hessian fly and stripe rust resistance and superior end-use quality will increase spring wheat profitability. By utilizing different resistance sources in different market classes of wheat, we will further increase diversity of stripe rust resistance and potentially reduce vulnerability to race changes in the stripe rust population at the regional level. This could have a tremendous economic impact. This project will implement cutting-edge genomic selection for difficult traits, like grain quality, protein content, and yield, while developing the framework for implementation of genomic selection at a breeding program scale. Improved and more efficient selection procedures and information will accelerate the rate of genetic gain in future breeding efforts, benefiting long-term competitiveness of Washington wheat production systems. Public wheat breeding programs at WSU and across the country payback consistently on research dollars invested and demonstrate highly visible impact in agriculture. It is commonly referenced that public wheat breeding programs consistently return > ~60% on investment. With over 50% of the spring wheat acres in Washington planted to WSU varieties, growers continue to realize a return on research dollars invested at WSU in spring wheat breeding. Research results will be presented through publication in peer-reviewed journals, presentations at regional, national, and international meetings, and directly to Washington wheat producers through presentations at field days and other grower meetings. Primary publications will include genetics of strip rust resistance, heat tolerance, and genomic selection efficiency in wheat.
Project Methods
Variety development and germplasm enhancement are largely accomplished by the following conventional breeding activities. Germplasm from within the WSU breeding program, other public and private breeding and genetics programs in the Pacific Northwest, and national and international nurseries are the primary sources of genetic diversity for improvement of agronomic, quality, and pest resistance traits. Additional diversity/germplasm will also be directly requested from cereal gene banks, CIMMYT, Australian and European breeding programs as needed to increase sources of biotic and abiotic stress resistance/tolerance, components of grain quality, and yield potential. Evaluation of appropriate nurseries will be used to identify donor germplasm with potential to improve protein content (hard red spring wheat) and grain quality, Rhizoctonia/Pythium/wireworm tolerance, and diversity of resistance to stripe rust and Hessian fly as resources allow. Elite breeding lines (and exotic germplasm with promising potential) will be hybridized-advanced in fall and spring greenhouse cycles. Field nurseries will be used to evaluate and select superior populations/progeny/elite lines with acceptable agronomics, disease resistance, and quality. Single crosses will be primarily used for elite PNW x elite PNW breeding populations, while three-way or single backcross hybridizations will be primarily used when introducing variation from more diverse sources or inter-market class crosses. Yield trials are planted using an alpha lattice design with three replicates per location. Data is managed and analyzed with AgroBase database software

Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Wheat variety development and release has significant impacts in the Pacific Northwest, as productive, high-quality, and input-efficient cultivars benefit thousands of farmers, rural communities, and a multi-billion dollar export and food product industry. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? The WSU spring wheat breeding project currently has 5 PhD and 1 M.S. students in the Crop Science graduate program. Three post-doctoral research associates are also extending their professional experience on the project. Each of these students and staff attended at least one professional conference or training workshop in 2013, including participating in the World Food Prize Conference, Gates Foundation Workshops, NIFA- Triticeae CAP Grant workshops, Plant and Animal Genome Conference, the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative 2013 Technical Workshop, and other technical plant breeding short-courses. A Borlaug Fellow visiting scientist was also hosted for 6 weeks. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Peer reviewed publications, numerous presentations at wheat grower field days, industry meetings, conferences, contributions to several newspaper articles, and three magazine articles for Wheat Life magazine. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Release at least one new wheat variety. Publish and release new germplasm with stripe rust and Hessian fly resistance, and continue extension, training, and communication.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Six peer-reviewed publications were published that directly contribute to the goal of enhancing techniques, materials, and information for wheat breeding and improvement. Two broadly adapted wheat varieties were released and have been strongly accepted by the private sector. These varieties provide outstanding yield, excellent quality, and a high level of stripe rust resistance. New sources of Hessian fly and stripe rust resistance have been identified and are being further characterized.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Cavanagh, C., S. Chao, S. Wang, B. E. Huang, S. Kiani, K. Forrest, C. Saintenac, G. Brown-Guedira, A. Akhunova, D. See, G. Bai, M. Pumphrey, L. Tomar, D. Wong, S. Kong, M. Reynolds, M.L. da Silva, H. Bockelman, L. Talbert, J. Anderson, S. Dreisigacker, S. Baenziger, A. Carter, V. Korzun, P. Morrell, J. Dubcovsky, M. Sorrells, M. Hayden, E. Akhunov. 2013. Genome-wide comparative diversity uncovers multiple targets of selection for improvement in a worldwide sample of hexaploid wheat landrace and cultivars. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1217133110
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Liu, W., T. Danilova, M. Rouse, R. Bowden, B. Friebe, B.S. Gill, and M. Pumphrey. 2013. Development and characterization of a compensating wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Robertsonian translocation with Sr44 resistance to stem rust (Ug99). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 126:1167-1177.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Olson, E.L., M. Rouse, M. Pumphrey, R. Bowden, B.S. Gill, and J. Poland. 2013. Introgression of stem rust resistance genes SrTA10187 and SrTA10171 from Aegilops tauschii to wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics online early: DOI 10.1007/s00122-013-2148-z
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Olson, E.L., M. Rouse, M. Pumphrey, R. Bowden, B.S. Gill, and J. Poland. 2013. Simultaneous transfer, introgression, and genomic localization of genes for resistance to stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99) from Aegilops tauschii into wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 126:1179-1188.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Geng, H., B.S. Beecher, M. Pumphrey, Z. He, and C.F. Morris. 2013. Segregation analysis indicates that Puroindoline b-2 variants 2 and 3 are allelic in Triticum aestivum and that a revision to Puroindoline b-2 gene symbolization is indicated. Journal of Cereal Science 57: 61-66.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Smiley, R. W., Marshall, J. M., Gourlie, J. A., Paulitz, T. C., Kandel, S. L., Pumphrey, M. O., Garland-Campbell, K., Yan, G. P., Anderson, M. D., Flowers, M. D., and Jackson, C. A. 2013. Spring wheat tolerance and resistance to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease 97:590-600.


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Washington State University (WSU) Spring Wheat Breeding Program released two wheat varieties in 2012. Hard red spring wheat Glee is broadly adapted to the Pacific Northwest and has been the leading variety based on yield the past three years in WSU variety trials. Glee has superior resistance to stripe rust compared to most commercially available hard red spring wheat varieties, resistance to Hessian fly, and "most desirable" milling and baking quality. Dayn is a hard white spring wheat variety that is is broadly adapted with excellent stripe rust resistance, good test weight, above average protein content, and excellent yield potential in high rainfall and irrigated production areas of Washington State and Southern Idaho. Both varieties have been well-received by the wheat industry and acres are increasing. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Wheat breeders, wheat growers PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The economic benefit of growing wheat varieties developed by the WSU spring wheat program is evidenced by their significant acreage. WSU spring wheat varieties accounted for ~44% of total acres planted in the state based on certified seed sales in 2012. Recent SWS releases Babe, Whit, and Diva were planted on ~54,000 acres in 2012, and combined with Louise, accounted for ~81% of all SWS acres. JD spring club increased to ~10,000 acres in 2012. Newly released WSU spring wheat varieties Glee and Dayn have been well received by the seed industry. Soft spring wheat variety trial data from 2012 indicates the gross economic return from Louise and Diva (~125,000 acres combined) was on-average ~$55 greater per acre compared to the closest non-WSU variety in the primary spring wheat production area of E. Washington receiving 12" or more annual precipitation. This is a nearly $7,000,000 greater economic return in a single year, and thousands of dollars per average farm.

Publications

  • Geng H., B.S.Beecher, M.O.Pumphrey, Z.He, C.F.Morris 2012. Segregation analysis indicates that Puroindoline b-2 variants 2 and 3 are allelic in Triticum aestivum and that a revision to Puroindoline b-2 gene symbolization is indicated. Journal of Cereal Science. 57:61-66.
  • Lanning S., P.Hucl, M.O.Pumphrey, A.H.Carter, P.Lamb, G.Carlson, D.Wichman, K.Kephart, D.Spaner, J.Martin, L.Talbert 2012. Agronomic performance of spring wheat as related to planting date and photoperiod response. Crop Science, 52(4), p. 1633-1639.
  • Lanning, S.P., Martin, J.M., Stougaard, R.N., Guillen-Portal, F.R., Blake, N.K., Sherman, J.D., Robbins, A.M., Kephart, K.D., Lamb, P., Carlson, G.R., Pumphrey M.O., Talbert, L.E. 2012. Evaluation of near-isogenic lines for three height-reducing genes in hard red spring wheat. Crop Science, 52(3), p. 1145-1152 doi: 10.2135/cropsci2011.11.0625


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Spring Wheat Breeding project had a successful year in 2011 thanks to high quality screening nurseries and suitable experimental conditions at all locations. Program operations continue to be refined and several changes were fully implemented. We successfully advanced our early generation materials more rapidly by using a winter nursery cycle from November 2010-April 2011 in Yuma, AZ. Expanded preliminary yield trials at Lind and Spillman research stations and additional advanced generation yield trials at new off-station locations (Walla Walla, Reardan, Pendleton) were established in 2011. Another severe stripe rust epidemic in 2011 provided the conditions necessary to select and advance elite germplasm with high yield potential and adequate disease resistance. Several experimental lines performed well in Washington State University (WSU) Variety Testing Trials. A total of 427 unique cross combinations were made for selection in field nurseries in 2011, and 19,419 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 18 locations throughout Washington State. Grain samples from 317 advanced breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the WSU/USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. A total of 2,208 F4 headrows (1,046 SWS, 671 HRS, 223 HWS and 268 spring clubs) were selected from the field based on plant type, stripe rust resistance and heading date. Early generation, end-use quality assessment methods were used to evaluate these selections and ~900 superior lines were identified. Afterwards, we implemented an additional single-seed-descent generation in the greenhouse in December 2011 and F5-derived lines will be grown at Spillman Farm in 2012. Varieties in the WSU Spring Wheat program have been F3-derived for many years; by inbreeding two additional generations, we expect our germplasm to be more uniform and better aligned for employing modern genomics methods in wheat breeding. Twenty-seven populations were made in 2011 involving elite SWS, HWS, and HRS crosses for rapid advancement under greenhouse conditions (4 generations per year). These populations are currently being advanced from F3 to F4 (>250 progeny per population) and will be ready for head-row evaluation in 2012 field nurseries. One or two of these populations will be used for genomic selection in subsequent years based on field evaluation. One population has been selected from 2011 field evaluations and is being pursued as a genomic selection population by Jeff Godoy, a new graduate student in the Spring Wheat program. 9000K SNP genotyping will be completed in 2012, along with field trials a 2-3 locations. PARTICIPANTS: Breeding programs at Univ. of Idaho; Oregon State University; Montana State University; UC Davis; WSU faculty and extension personnel; USDA-ARS scientists in Pullman, WA; Pumphrey, Michael; Baik, Byung-Kee; Guy, Stephen; Hulbert, Scot; Gill, Kulvinder; Carter, Arron TARGET AUDIENCES: Our variety development effort targets wheat producers in the Pacific Northwest to sustainably increase wheat production. As part of this effort we participate in efforts to educate the community as a whole, other institutions, and conduct original research to improve national and international wheat breeding and genetics. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Approximately half of all WA spring wheat acres are planted to WSU wheat varieties. Our soft white spring variety acreage requires less fungicide applications for wheat production, has higher yields, on average, and is directly increasing profitability of WA farmers, compared to varieties available from other sources. WA8074 (hard red, pedigree WA7839/ID529) will be proposed for full release in 2012. If approved, Foundation seed will be available in 2012. The WA State Crop Improvement Associatio (WSCIA) has already pursued increase of this line in an off-season nursery in Yuma, AZ and approximately 18,000 pounds of seed are expected. It has good stripe rust resistance, high yield potential, good test weight, and excellent quality. WA8074 has been tested in the WSU variety trials for the past 3 years (2009-2011). Over 3 years in the variety trials (42 site years), WA8074 has significantly outperformed check varieties in both yield and test weight, out yielding Hank by 9 bu/a. WA8074 has performed well in all precipitation zones and is broadly adapted to PNW HRS wheat production areas. WA8123 (hard white, pedigree ID597//WA7931*2/P9347A1-2) will be proposed for pre-release in 2012. This line has been tested in the WSU variety trials for 2 years (2010-2011). In the 2011 WSU variety trials, WA8123 was the top yielding variety (including hard reds) in all precipitation zones except <12" where it was second. It also topped the irrigated Moses Lake trial. Over 2 years in the variety trials (29 site years), WA8123 was significantly higher yielding and had higher test weight than check varieties, Otis and Macon. It was equal to BR7030 in both yield and test weight, except in the >20" locations and under irrigation, where WA8123 yielded significantly better (7bu/a higher in >20" and 11 bu/a higher in irrigated).

Publications

  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2011. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 123:159-167.
  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2011. Development and characterization of wheat-Ae. searsii Robertsonian translocations and a recombinant chromosome with stem rust resistance gene Sr51. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 122:1537-1545.
  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2011. Stem rust resistance in Aegilops tauschii. Crop Science. 51:2074-2078.
  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2011. Discovery and molecular mapping of a new gene conferring resistance to stem rust, Sr53, derived from Aegilops geniculata and characterization of spontaneous translocation stocks with reduced alien chromatin. Chromosome Research. 19:669-682.
  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2011. Fusarium Head Blight Symptoms and Mycotoxin Levels in Single Kernels of Infected Wheat Spikes. Cereal Chemistry. 88:291-295.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A total of 307 crosses were made for selection in field nurseries in 2010, and 25,832 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 16 locations throughout Washington State. Grain samples from 386 advanced breeding lines with superior agronomic performance and pest resistance were sent to the WSU/USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. A total of 1,236 F4 lines (503 SWS, 529 HRS, 159 HWS and 45 spring clubs) were selected from the field, based on plant type, stripe rust resistance and heading date. Diva (formerly WA8090), was approved for release in 2010. Diva has good grain yield potential across a broad range of production conditions, is Hession Fly resistant, has good levels of high temperature adult plant stripe rust resistance (slightly better than Louise), and has excellent milling and baking qualities. Diva was in the top yield group across 12"-20" rainfall locations in 2010, while out-performing (higher yield) Louise in 10 out of 15 rain-fed locations. WA008124 (soft white, pedigree ID599/S2K00095) had a great first year in the WSU Variety Trial in 2010. It has excellent stripe rust resistance, high yield potential and good quality. In WSU Variety Trial locations, WA008124 had the highest SWS yield average in less than 16" locations and greater than 20" locations, and was in the top yield group in 16-20" locations. Pre-release seed increase permission will likely be applied for winter 2010 and it will be entered in the WSU Variety Trial a second year in 2011. PARTICIPANTS: University, Federal, and local cooperators. Pacific Northwest farmers, grower organizations, seedsmen, and numerous other industry stakeholders. TARGET AUDIENCES: Our variety development effort targets wheat producers in the Pacific Northwest to sustainably increase wheat production. As part of this effort we participate in efforts to educate the community as a whole, other institutions, and conduct original research to improve national and international wheat breeding and genetics. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Several areas of the Spring Wheat Breeding program were changed in 2010. We feel that these changes will enhance our ability to develop superior varieties. In the field, selection based on stripe rust resistance, maturity, plant height, and general plant type were initiated in early generation materials (F2 and F3). The stripe rust epidemic of 2010 greatly simplified this process and we were able to strongly select for stripe rust resistance in all populations, harvesting a sample of the most resistant plants in each population. This is in contrast to the random bulk advancement procedure used in previous years, where no selection was carried out within populations. Therefore, in future evaluations of this material, we will not waste labor and field resources on lines without adequate stripe rust protection. For F2 generation materials, selected heads were harvested and processed and sent to Arizona in October 2010 where they are currently being advanced to F4 in a winter nursery. By doing so, we will cut an entire year off the variety development process and allow us to accelerate genetic gain. An additional location was established in 2010, by planting F7 yield nurseries between Colfax and Steptoe (cooperator R. Suess). Several additional modifications were identified/implemented that can be fully realized in the 2011 crop year, including an additional pre-breeders seed purification nursery that will insure advanced lines are more stable and uniform prior to release.

Impacts
WSU Spring wheat varieties were planted on 263,900 acres in Washington in 2010. This represents 47% of the total spring wheat acreage, and approximately $70,000,000 in farm gate revenue. The number of spring club wheat acres more than doubled in 2010 (now ~18,000 acres), all of which were planted to a WSU spring club variety. This emerging market represents potential for increased farm revenue due to frequent club wheat premium prices.

Publications

  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2010. Development of wheat lines having a small introgressed segment carrying stem rust resistance gene Sr22. Crop Science. 50:1823-1830.
  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2010. Genetic maps of stem rust resistance gene Sr35 in diploid and hexaploid wheat.. Crop Science. 50:2464-2474.
  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2010. Megabase Level Sequencing Reveals Contrasted Organization and Evolution Patterns of the Wheat Gene and Transposable Element Spaces.. The Plant Cell. 22:1686-1701.
  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2010. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Identification of Fusarium Head Blight Damage and Prediction of Deoxynivalenol in Single Wheat Kernels. Cereal Chemistry. 87(6):511-517.
  • Pumphrey, M.O. 2010. A robust molecular marker for the detection of shortened introgressed segment carrying the stem rust resistance gene Sr22 in common wheat.. Theoretical and Applied Genetics.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A total of 276 crosses were made in 2008, and 29,431 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 16 locations throughout Washington State. Grain samples from 752 advanced breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. Nearly 1,900 F4 lines (804 SWS, 582 HRS, 274 HWS and 233 spring clubs) were selected from the field based on plant type, stripe rust resistance and heading date. Special emphasis was placed on selecting lines with high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust. All early generation (F4) selections from the field were evaluated for end-use quality potential using small scale tests designed to assess protein content (NIR Technicon), protein quality (SDS Microsedimentation), flour extraction (MicroMill), and noodle color (polyphenol oxidase , PPO), depending on the product targets for each market class. We successfully combined seedling resistance genes, Yr5 and Yr15, in advanced generation backcross material derived from Scarlet, WA7900, Alpowa and Zak. Two backcross derivatives of Zak were selected for end-use quality assessment in 2009 and will be entered in the statewide variety testing trials in 2010, if results are favorable. Using a forward breeding strategy, we have successfully deployed these genes throughout our breeding program. New sources of Hessian fly resistance have been incorporated into adapted spring wheat germplasm. H13 was introgressed into Eden and selected lines will be evaluated in 2010 at multi-location, replicated yield trials. Fifteen crosses involving H9 and/or H25 were advanced from F3 and will be planted as F4 head rows. One population has been selected to undergo marker analysis to pyramid H9, H25, and the Hessian fly resistance from Louise into adapted germplasm. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
1. Over 62% (178,000 A) of the SWS wheat acreage in Washington State was planted to Louise in 2009. 2. Approximately 13% (36,600 A) of the HRS wheat acreage in Washington State was planted to Hollis in 2009. 3. Nearly 10% (28,000 A) of the HRS wheat acreage in Washington State was planted to Tara 2002 in 2009. 4. 100% (7,400 A) of the spring club acreage in Washington State in 2009 was planted to Eden. 5. Two varieties, Babe (SWS) and JD (Spring Club) were released in 2009. 6. WA8090 (SWS) was approved for pre-release in 2009.

Publications

  • Kidwell, K.K., G.B.Shelton, V.L.Demacon, J.S.Kuehner, B.Baik, D.A.Engle, N.A.Bosque-Perez, A.Burke, A.H.Carter, and X.Chen. 2009. Registration of Whit Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 3(3):279-282.
  • Carter, A.H., X.Chen, K.Campbell, and K.K.Kidwell. 2009. Identifying QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp.tritici) in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Louise. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 119:1119-1128.
  • Kidwell, K.K., G.B.Shelton, V.L.Demacon, X.Chen, J.S.Kuehner, B.Baik, D.Engle, A.H.Carter, and N.Bosque-Perez. 2009. Registration of Kelse Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 3:269-272.
  • Randhawa, H.S., J.S.Mutti, K.K.Kidwell, C.Morris, X.Chen, and K.Gill. 2009. Rapid introgression of single genes into popular cultivars using marker-assisted background selection. PloS one 4(6):5752-5763.
  • Murphy, L.R., D.K.Santra, K.K.Kidwell, G.Yan, X.Chen, and K.Campbell. 2009. Linkage maps of wheat stripe rust resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 for use in marker-assisted selection. Crop Science. 49:1-5.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The overall goal is to provide genetic solutions to economic and environmental problems associated with spring wheat production in Washington State, primarily through the timely release of improved varieties suitable for commercial production. Research strategies involve: 1) incorporating genetic resistances to pests and diseases that currently hinder spring wheat production into future variety releases to reduce production risks, lower input costs and decrease inorganic chemical use; 2) genetically improve milling and baking quality to enhance the market demand for wheat grain produced in Washington State; and 3) identifying genetic resistance for cereal diseases that prevail in direct seed production systems for introgression into cultivated germplasm. Research strategies focus on combining traditional breeding methods with molecular marker technologies to develop superior, adapted spring wheat varieties. The development of DNA tags associated with beneficial traits offers an opportunity to assay individuals during the breeding process to ensure that complementary genes are in fact present in selected individuals. The use of laboratory and greenhouse facilities has been incorporated into the breeding program to improve the effectiveness of cultivar development efforts, thereby reducing the time required for variety release by 2 to 6 years, depending on the strategy employed. A total of 299 crosses were made in 2008, and 26,027 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 16 locations throughout Washington State. Grain samples from 833 advanced breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. Over 1,500 F4 lines (885 SWS, 278 HRS, 240 HWS and 124 spring clubs) were selected from the field based on plant type, stripe rust resistance and heading date. Special emphasis was placed on selecting lines with high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust. All early generation (F4) selections from the field were evaluated for end-use quality potential using small scale tests designed to assess protein content (NIR Technicon), protein quality (SDS Microsedimentation), flour extraction (MicroMill), and noodle color (polyphenol oxidase , PPO), depending on the product targets for each market class. Based on quality results, final selections were made for advancement to F5 single plot field trials in 2009. DNA markers were used in marker-assisted selection strategies (MAS) to identify individuals carrying essential genes associated with HTAP, seedling resistance to stripe rust (Yr5 and Yr15), high grain protein concentration (Gpc-B1), and/or resistance to the Hessian fly. Genetic linkage mapping efforts for two sources of HTAP resistance were completed. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Output results:1.Two varieties, Whit (soft white spring) and Kelse (hard red spring), were approved for release in 2008. Foundation seed for both varieties will be available in 2009. 2. Our first variety release developed using marker-assisted selection, Farnum hard red winter wheat, was approved for release. This genotype carries Gpc-B1, which increases grain protein concentration, and the durable stripe rust resistance gene Yr36. Breeder seed of Farnum was available in fall 2008. 3. Two experimental breeding lines generated through traditional cross-hybridization and selection, WA8047 (soft white spring club) and WA8039 (soft white spring) were approved for pre-release. 4. We successfully combined seedling resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 in advanced generation backcross material derived from Scarlet, WA7900, Alpowa and Zak. A total of 12 backcross derivatives were selected for end-use quality assessment and promising lines will be evaluated in the field in 2009. 5. New sources of Hessian fly resistance have been incorporated into adapted spring wheat germplasm. H13 was introgressed into Eden and selected lines will be evaluated in 2009 as single plots. Sixteen crosses involving H9 and/or H25 were advanced from F2 to F3 plots. One population has been selected to undergo marker analysis to pyramid H9, H25, and H3 into adapted germplasm. Impact Results: 1. Over 52% (155,000 A) of the SWS wheat acreage in Washington State was planted to Louise in 2008. Registered and Certified seed of Louise is available for 2009. 2. Approximately 12% (35,500 A) of the HRS wheat acreage in Washington State was planted to Hollis in 2008. Certified seed of Hollis is available for 2009. 3. Over 4% (12,200 A) of the HRS wheat acreage in Washington State was planted to Tara 2002 in 2008. Certified seed of Tara 2002 is available for 2009. 4. 100% (7,500 A) of the spring club acreage in Washington State in 2008 was planted to Eden. Certified seed of Eden is available for 2009. 5. In the past 3 years, WSU spring wheat varieties have accounted for 73%, 78%, 0%, and 21% of reported acres for SWS, Spring Club, HWS, and HRS varieties, respectively. This represents nearly 640,000 acres planted to Washington State University (WSU) varieties since 2006.

Publications

  • Walker, C., K. Garland Campbell, B. Carter and K. Kidwell. 2008. Identifying superior soft white wheat genotypes in diverse production environments using the solvent retention capacity test. Crop Science 48:495-506.
  • Kidwell, K., G. Shelton, V. DeMacon and A. Carter. 2008. Improving spring wheat varieties for the Pacific Northwest. p. 30. In Huggins, D., Kok, H., Marsh, D., Rollins, D. (ed), Field Day Abstracts: Highlights of Research Progress: Bioenergy Cropping Systems Research. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 08-1.
  • Carter A., D. See, K. Kidwell and K. Campbell. 2008. Marker Development and Marker-assisted Selection for Improved Disease Resistance and End Use Quality in Pacific Northwest Wheat. p. 32. In Huggins, D., Kok, H., Marsh, D., Rollins, D. (ed), Field Day Abstracts: Highlights of Research Progress: Bioenergy Cropping Systems Research. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 08-1.
  • Santra, D., M. Santra, V. DeMacon, G. Shelton, A. Carter and K. Kidwell. 2008. Application of Biotechnology to Spring Wheat Variety Improvement. p. 31. In Huggins, D., Kok, H., Marsh, D., Rollins, D. (ed), Field Day Abstracts: Highlights of Research Progress: Bioenergy Cropping Systems Research. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 08-1.
  • Carter, A.H., X. Chen, K.G., Campbell, K.K. Kidwell. 2008. Identification of a major QTL for high-temperature, adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in the spring wheat cultivar `Louise'. Agronomy Abstracts. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
The overall goal is to provide genetic solutions to economic and environmental problems associated with spring wheat production in Washington State, primarily through the timely release of improved varieties suitable for commercial production. Research strategies involve: 1) incorporating genetic resistances to pests and diseases that currently hinder spring wheat production into future variety releases to reduce production risks, lower input costs and decrease inorganic chemical use; 2) genetically improving milling and baking quality to enhance the market demand for wheat grain produced in Washington State; and 3) identifying genetic resistance for cereal diseases that prevail in direct seed production systems for introgression into cultivated germplasm. Research strategies focus on combining traditional breeding methods with molecular marker technologies to develop superior, adapted spring wheat varieties. The development of DNA tags associated with beneficial traits offers an opportunity to assay individuals during the breeding process to ensure that complementary genes are in fact present in selected individuals. The use of laboratory and greenhouse facilities has been incorporated into the breeding program to improve the effectiveness of cultivar development efforts, thereby reducing the time required for variety release by 2 to 6 years, depending on the strategy employed. A total of 335 crosses were made in 2006, and 36,385 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 18 locations throughout Washington State. Grain samples from 519 advanced breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. Nearly 2,500 F4 lines (1,119 SWS, 483 HRS, 689 HWS and 204 spring clubs) were selected from the field based on plant type, stripe rust resistance and heading date. Special emphasis was placed on selecting lines with high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust. All early generation (F4) selections from the field were evaluated for end-use quality potential using small scale tests designed to assess protein content (NIR Technicon), protein quality (SDS Microsedimentation), flour extraction (MicroMill), and noodle color (polyphenol oxidase , PPO), depending on the product targets for each market class. Based on quality results, final selections were made for advancement to F5 single plot field trials in 2007. DNA markers were used in marker-assisted selection strategies (MAS) to identify individuals carrying essential genes for seedling resistance to stripe rust (Yr5 and Yr15), high grain protein concentration (Gpc-B1), or resistance to the Hessian fly. Genetic linkage mapping efforts for HTAP, Rhizoctonia root rot and Pythium root rot are underway.

Impacts
Results: 1. Three experimental breeding lines generated through traditional cross-hybridization and selection, WA8008 (soft white spring), WA7954 (hard red spring), and WA7986 (spring club), will be proposed for pre-release in 2007. 2. Our first potential variety release developed using marker-assisted selection is the hard red winter line WA7975, which will be proposed for pre-release in 2007. This genotype carries Gpc-B1, which increases grain protein concentration. 3. We successfully combined seedling resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 in advanced generation backcross material derived from Scarlet, WA7900, Alpowa and Zak. These lines are promising candidates for variety release and are expected to have durable stripe rust resistance. Three new sources (H9, H13 and H25) of Hessian fly resistance have been incorporated into adapted spring wheat germplasm, and yield trials of this material will begin in 2007.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
The overall goal is to provide genetic solutions to economic and environmental problems associated with spring wheat production in Washington State, primarily through the timely release of improved varieties suitable for commercial production. Research strategies involve: 1) incorporating genetic resistances to pests and diseases that currently hinder spring wheat production into future variety releases to reduce production risks, lower input costs and decrease inorganic chemical use; 2) genetically improve milling and baking quality to enhance the market demand for wheat grain produced in Washington State; and 3) identifying genetic resistance for cereal diseases that prevail in direct seed production systems for introgression into cultivated germplasm. Research strategies focus on combining traditional breeding methods with molecular marker technologies to develop superior, adapted spring wheat varieties. The development of DNA tags associated with beneficial traits offers an opportunity to assay individuals during the breeding process to ensure that complementary genes are in fact present in selected individuals. The use of laboratory and greenhouse facilities has been incorporated into the breeding program to improve the effectiveness of cultivar development efforts, thereby reducing the time required for variety release by 2 to 6 years, depending on the strategy employed. A total of 335 crosses were made in 2006, and 36,385 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 18 locations throughout Washington State. Grain samples from 519 advanced breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. Nearly 2,500 F4 lines (1,119 SWS, 483 HRS, 689 HWS and 204 spring clubs) were selected from the field based on plant type, stripe rust resistance and heading date. Special emphasis was placed on selecting lines with high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust. All early generation (F4) selections from the field were evaluated for end-use quality potential using small scale tests designed to assess protein content (NIR Technicon), protein quality (SDS Microsedimentation), flour extraction (MicroMill), and noodle color (polyphenol oxidase , PPO), depending on the product targets for each market class. Based on quality results, final selections were made for advancement to F5 single plot field trials in 2007. DNA markers were used in marker-assisted selection strategies (MAS) to identify individuals carrying essential genes for seedling resistance to stripe rust (Yr5 and Yr15), high grain protein concentration (Gpc-B1), or resistance to the Hessian fly. Genetic linkage mapping efforts for HTAP, Rhizoctonia root rot and Pythium root rot are underway.

Impacts
Three experimental breeding lines generated through traditional cross-hybridization and selection were identifed for pre-release. WA8008, a soft white spring wheat, is targeted to the high rainfall production region as a short, high yielding, stripe rust resistant replacement for Alpowa, the primary soft white spring wheat variety currently in commercial production. WA7954, is a hard red spring wheat line with high grain protein content, stripe rust resistance and high yield potential in the high rainfall zone, which is targeted to replace Westbred 926, the only hard red spring variety that consistently achieves 14% grain protein concentration targets in this area. WA7986 is a stripe rust resistant spring club variety with excellent end-use quality that is expected to replace Eden, which is highly susceptible to stripe rust. All three of these variety release candidates will enhance the economic viability and environmental safety of spring wheat production by eliminating the need for fungicide application. Our first potential variety release developed using marker-assisted selection is the hard red winter line WA7975, which carries Gpc-B1, a gene that results in increased grain protein concentration. WA7975 is targeted for the semi-arid production region as a complement to Bauermeister, and is intended to reduce the risk of producting hard red winter wheat by elevating grain protein concentration without additional nitrogen fertilizer requirements.

Publications

  • Santra, D., V. DeMacon, K. Garland-Campbell and K. Kidwell. 2006. Marker-assisted backcross breeding for simultaneous introgression of stripe rust resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) Agronomy Abstracts. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
  • Blahnik, A., D. Santra, G. Shelton, V. DeMacon and K. Kidwell. 2006. Assessing the impact of early senescence on increasing grain protein concentration of hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) Agronomy Abstracts. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
  • Kidwell, K.K., G.B. Shelton, V.L. DeMacon, J.W. Burns, B.P. Carter, C.F. Morris, X. Chen, and N.A. Bosque-Perez. 2006. Registration of Louise Wheat. Crop Sci 46:1384-1385. Plant Variety Protection Number 200500311.
  • Kidwell, K.K., G.B. Shelton, V.L. DeMacon, J.W. Burns, B.P. Carter, C.F. Morris, X. Chen, and N.A. Bosque-Perez. 2006. Registration of Otis Wheat. Crop Sci 46:1386-1387. Plant Variety Protection Number 200500312.
  • Santra D. K., C. Watt, L. Little, K.K. Kidwell and K. Garland Campbell. 2006. Comparison of a modified assay method for the endopeptidase marker Ep-D1b with the STS marker XustSSR2001-7DL for strawbreaker foot rot resistance in wheat. Plant Breeding 125:13-18.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
A total of 375 crosses were made in 2005, and 30,824 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 18 locations throughout Washington State. Grain samples from 689 advanced breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. Nearly 1,100 F4 lines (312 SWS, 250 HRS, 329 HWS and 176 spring clubs) were selected from the field based on plant type, stripe rust resistance and heading date. More than 1,000 entries were selected from among 28,000 F4 head rows planted in the field based on plant type, maturity and disease resistance. Special emphasis was placed on selecting head rows with high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust. After harvest, grain was visually inspected for plumpness, grain color and texture. All early generation (F4) selections from the field were evaluated for end-use quality potential using small scale tests designed to assess protein content (NIR Technicon), protein quality (SDS Microsedimentation), flour extraction (MicroMill), and noodle color (polyphenol oxidase , PPO), depending on the product targets for each market class. Based on quality results, final selections were made for advancement to F5 single plot field trials in 2006. DNA markers were used in marker-assisted selection strategies (MAS) to identify individuals carrying essential genes for seedling resistance to stripe rust (Yr5 and Yr15), high grain protein concentration, or resistance to the Hessian fly. Genetic linkage mapping efforts for Rhizoctonia and Pythium root rots are underway.

Impacts
Louise, released in 2005, has excellent potential as the Zak and Alpowa replacement. It has superior HTAP resistance to stripe rust compared to Alpowa, is partially resistant (65%) to the Hessian fly, and has better emergence than both Zak and Alpowa. This variety is a dramatic end-use quality improvement over Alpowa, the primary soft white spring wheat in commercial production in Washington State. Otis, released in 2005, has outstanding grain yields compared to Blanca Grande and Idaho 377s, the leading hard white spring varieties in commercial production in the Pacific Northwest. Otis has better bread making quality than Idaho 377s and has excellent noodle making potential. Otis has seedling resistance to stripe rust, as well as adequate HTAP resistance. It also is tolerant to Hessian fly. We successfully combined seedling resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 in advanced generation backcross material derived from Scarlet, WA7900, Alpowa, and Zak using MAS with variety release potential. The availability of these varieties will ensure the economic viability and environmental safety of spring wheat production by eliminating the need for fungicide application. We successfully used MAS to introgress a high grain protein content gene into the hard red winter line WA7975, which has variety release potential. This line will provide growers with a high yielding, high quality variety with elevated grain protein content without additional nitrogen fertilizer application requirements.

Publications

  • Baley G., James, Kimberlee K. Kidwell and Timothy C. Paulitz (co-discovers). Suppression of Foliar and Soilborne Pathogens of Wheat. U.S. Patent Application No. 60/532,758 (WSURF Ref No. 699). Published May 2005.
  • Feng, P.C.C., G.J. Baley, W.P. Clinton, G.J. Bunkers, M.F. Alibhai, T.C. Paulitz, and K.K. Kidwell. 2005. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102(48):17290-17295.
  • Koenig, R., M. Allen, W. Pan, K.G. Campbell, R. Bolton, K. Kidwell, J. Burns and B. Carter. 2005. Chloride response of Pacific Northwest spring and winter wheat cultivars. Pp 169-175 in B. Stevens (Ed) Proceedings of the Western Nutrient Management Conference, March 3-4, Salt Lake City, UT.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
The overall goal is to provide genetic solutions to economic and environmental problems associated with spring wheat production in Washington State, primarily through the timely release of improved varieties suitable for commercial production. Since 1998, eight new spring wheat varieties have been released from this program. Research strategies involve: 1) incorporating genetic resistances to pests and diseases that currently hinder spring wheat production into future variety releases to reduce production risks, lower input costs and decrease inorganic chemical use; 2) genetically improve milling and baking quality to enhance the market demand for wheat grain produced in Washington State; and 3) identifying genetic resistance for cereal diseases that prevail in direct seed production systems for introgression into cultivated germplasm. Research strategies focus on combining traditional breeding methods with molecular marker technologies to develop superior, adapted spring wheat varieties. The development of DNA tags associated with beneficial traits offers an opportunity to assay individuals during the breeding process to ensure that complementary genes are in fact present in selected individuals. The use of laboratory and greenhouse facilities has been incorporated into the breeding program to improve the effectiveness of cultivar development efforts, thereby reducing the time required for variety release by 2 to 6 years, depending on the strategy employed. Nearly 290 crosses were made in 2004, and 21,676 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 18 locations throughout Washington State. Two experimental lines, Louise (formerly WA7921) and Otis (formerly WA7931) were approved for variety release. Louise is a high yielding soft white spring with exceptional end-use quality, Hessian fly tolerance and durable resistant to stripe rust. Otis is a high yielding, partial waxy hard white spring wheat with partial resistance to the Hessian fly, and durable resistance to stripe rust. Marker-assisted backcross breeding was used to introgress a segment from chromosome 6BS of wheat conferring increased grain protein content into the hard red genotypes Scarlet, Tara 2002, and WA7869. A durable stripe rust resistance gene, Yr36, also is found in this region. We identified derivatives from all three recurrent parents with the HGPC region, as well as Yr36. We successfully combined seedling resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 for stripe rust into BC3 or BC4 backcross derivatives of Zak, Scarlet, WA7900 and Alpowa using marker assisted backcross breeding. The disease response of wheat cultivars previously identified as tolerant and susceptible to Pythium spp. were confirmed and cross-hybridizations were made among tolerant and susceptible cultivars to generate segregating populations for genetic characterization and genetic mapping efforts. Through mutation breeding, we identified a single, semi-dominant gene in an EMS mutant of Scarlet that imparts resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzea.

Impacts
The new improved wheat varieties will enable farmers in the Pacific Northwest attain economic advantage with high-yielding disease resistant wheat.

Publications

  • Higginbotham, R.W., T.C Paulitz, and K.K. Kidwell. 2004. Virulence of Pythium species collected from wheat fields in eastern Washington. Plant Disease 88(9):1021-1026.
  • Higginbotham, R.W., T.C Paulitz, K.G. Campbell, and K.K. Kidwell. 2004. Evaluation of adapted wheat cultivars for tolerance to Pythium Rot root. Plant Disease 88(9):1027-1032.
  • Kidwell, K.K., G.B. Shelton, V.L. DeMacon, J.W. Burns, B.P. Carter, C.F. Morris, X. Chen, and N.A. Bosque-Perez. 2004. Registration of Hollis Wheat. Crop Sci 44:1871-1872.
  • Kidwell, K.K., V.L. DeMacon, G.B. Shelton, J.W. Burns, B.P. Carter, C.F. Morris, and X. Chen. 2004. Registration of Eden Wheat. Crop Sci 44:1870-1871. Plant Variety Protection Number 200300264.
  • Burns, J. and K. Kidwell. 2004. Spring Wheat Performance in 2004, Dec 2004, Wheat Life, Vol. 47 No. 11, p 51-53
  • Burns, J.W., S.S. Jones, K.G. Campbell, K.K. Kidwell, S.E. Ullrich, D.H. von Wettstein, and D. Boze. 2004. 2004 cereal variety evaluation results. Dept. of Crop and Soil Sci. Tech. Report 04-5. WSU. 185 pp.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
More than 250 crosses were made in 2003, and 29,625 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 16 locations in Washington state. Grain samples from 1923 breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. A chromosomal region from a wild relative of wheat expected to confer a grain protein content increase of 1 to 2% has been introgressed into adapted germplasm through marker-assisted backcross breeding. Isolines carrying the high grain protein concentration (HGPC) region (43 Scarlet BC5F5 derivatives; 13 Tara 2002 BC5F5 derivatives) along with the donor and recurrent parents, were evaluated for response to high (3.6 lb N/expected bu) and low (2.5 lb N/expected bu) fertilizer application rates in conventional and direct seeded production systems. Several isolines carrying the HGPC region produced significantly more protein than their recurrent parents. These lines are currently undergoing end-use quality assessment to determine variety release potential. Genes (Yr5 and Yr15) conferring seedling resistance to stripe rust also have been pyramided into susceptible varieties (Zak, Scarlet, WA7900 and Alpowa) using marker-assisted selection. Efforts to evaluate wheat germplasm for resistance to Pythium, a prevalent disease in direct seed wheat production, to identify potential gene donors for variety improvement were completed. Using controlled growth chamber analyses, we assessed tolerance levels of a diverse set of wheat germplasm collected from all major wheat production regions in the United States to Pythium debaryanum isolate 90136 and P. ultimum isolate 90038, previously identified as the most virulent Pythium isolates on wheat. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in susceptibility were detected among wheat genotypes in the presence of both Pythium species. Based on both shoot and root measurements, Caledonia, Chinese Spring, MN97695 and OR942504 appear to be highly susceptible to Pythium root rot, whereas genotypes KS93U161, OH708 and Sunco were the most tolerant to this disease. Efforts also have been initiated to identify potential gene donors for Rhizoctonia root rot resistance through mutation breeding. Mutants were induced with the chemical ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS), and to date, 1665 Scarlet and 1145 Zak mutants have been screen for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-8.

Impacts
An experimental line, Hollis (formerly WA7859), was approved for variety release. Hollis is a tall, Hessian fly resistant variety with excellent stripe rust resistance, high grain volume, high grain protein concentration and outstanding end-use quality. Two experimental lines WA7921 (soft white spring) and WA7931 (hard white spring) were approved for pre-release. WA7921 is a high yielding line with exceptional end-use quality, Hessian fly resistance and high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistant to stripe rust. WA7931 is a high yielding, partial waxy wheat with partial resistance to the Hessian fly, as well as seedling and HTAP resistances to stripe rust. We are the first group in the world to report the identification of wheat germplasm with tolerance to Pythium and Rhizoctonia root rot. Efforts to genetically characterize the Pythium root rot tolerance identified in the spring wheat cultivar Sunco are underway.

Publications

  • Kidwell K., G. Shelton, V. DeMacon, M. McClendon, J. Baley and R. Higginbotham. 2003. Washington State University: Spring wheat breeding and genetics. Annual Wheat Newsletter 49:235-238.
  • Kidwell, K.K., V.L. DeMacon, G.B.Shelton, J.W. Burns, B.P. Carter, C.F. Morris, X.Chen and N.A. Bosque-Perez. 2003. Registration of Macon Wheat. Crop Sci 43:1561-1563.
  • Kidwell, K.K., V.L. DeMacon, G.B. Shelton, J.W. Burns, B.P. Carter, C.F. Morris, X. Chen and N.A. Bosque-Perez. 2003. Registration of Macon Wheat. Crop Sci 43:1561-1563. Plant Variety Protection Number 200200130.
  • Paulitz, T.C., J.D. Smith and K.K. Kidwell. 2003. Virulence of Rhizoctonia oryzae on wheat and barley cultivars from the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease 87:51-55.
  • Smith, J.D., K.K. Kidwell, M.A. Evans, R.J. Cook and R.W. Smiley. 2003. Evaluation of spring cereal grains and wild Triticum relatives for disease reaction to Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 in controlled environments. Crop Science 43: 701-709.
  • Smith, J.D., K.K. Kidwell, M.A. Evans, R.J. Cook and R.W. Smiley. 2003. Assessment of spring wheat accessions for disease reaction to Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 in controlled environment and no-till field evaluations. Crop Science 43: 694-700.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Seven hundred crosses were made in 2002, and 27,334 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 16 locations in Washington State. Grain samples from 522 breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. A chromosomal region from a wild relative of wheat that confers a grain protein content increase of 1-2% has been introgressed into adapted germplasm through marker-assisted backcross breeding. Several BC5F4 and BC6F2 lines containing the high protein segment with superior agronomic performance and improved grain protein content compared to the recurrent parents were identified. These lines will be evaluated in replicated fertility trials in 2003. Efforts were initiated to proactively determine the risks of incorporating herbicide tolerant wheat into commercial production systems. Glyphosate tolerant wheat will permit "in crop" weed control while maintaining the intrinsic environmental and economic benefits associated with direct seed crop production. However potential yield gains may be lost due to increased activity of soil borne pathogen on dying weeds within a glyphosate tolerant wheat crop. Near isogenic lines (NILs), with and without glyphosate tolerance, were evaluated under no-till conditions in three agroclimatic zones in Eastern Washington. A mixture of spring barley and sterilized oat seed inoculated with Rhizcotonia root rot or Take all were direct seeded into the field plots prior to planting the NILs to simulate greenbridge volunteer. A no greenbridge control also was included. NILs from three treatments (RoundUp, Buctril/Harmony Extra, and a no spray, hand weeded control) were evaluated for disease severity as well as agronomic performance. Regardless of disease treatment, glyphosate treated RoundUp Ready spring wheat, produced significantly (P=0.001) more grain than NILs treated with Buctril/Harmony Extra or in the no spray control, suggesting that greenbridge transmission of Rhizoctonia and Take all due to RoundUp application may not occur at high enough levels to suppress yields of glyphosate tolerant varieties. Efforts also are underway to screen wild relatives and synthetic wheat accessions for resistance to Phythium, a prevalent disease in direct-seed wheat production, to identify potential gene donors for variety improvement. Nineteen isolates of Pythium were tested for relative pathogenicity on two spring wheat cultivars. Preliminary results indicated Pythium isolates caused a significant reduction in the number of root tips (P < 0.0001), root surface area (P = 0.0001), and root length (P = 0.0001). Isolates also caused an increase in average root diameter (P = 0.001) due to a reduction in the number of fine secondary roots. Isolates with the highest pathogenicity ratings will be used in future germplasm screening assays.

Impacts
Two varieties, `Macon' (hard white spring) and `Eden' (spring club) were approved for variety released. Macon is a Hessian fly resistant variety with exceptional bread baking and noodle making properties. Eden has outstanding grain yield potential, traditional club quality and excellent stripe rust resistance. The hard red spring wheat variety `WA7859' was approved for pre-release. WA7859 is a tall, Hessian fly resistant variety with excellent stripe rust resistance and outstanding end-use quality.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Over 300 crosses were made in 2001, and 27,217 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 16 locations in Washington state. Grain samples from 523 breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. Two varieties, `Macon' (hard white spring) and `WA7902' (spring club) were approved for pre-released. Macon is a Hessian fly resistant variety with exceptional bread baking quality, acceptable noodle color and soft noodle texture. WA7902 has outstanding grain yield potential, traditional club quality and excellent stripe rust resistance. A chromosomal region from a wild relative of wheat that confers a grain protein content increase of 1-2% has been introgressed into adapted germplasm through marker-assisted backcross breeding. BC5 lines containing 99% of the genes from the adapted lines and 1% of the genes from the donor parents, including the high protein segment, have been developed, and these lines will be evaluated in the field in 2002. Efforts were initiated to proactively determine the risks of incorporating herbicide tolerant wheat into commercial production systems, specifically in terms of soilborne disease interactions. Specific objectives are to: 1) Measure the disease response of glyphosate-tolerant spring wheat to common soilborne pathogens after treatment with glyphosate; 2) Quantify the levels of key enzymes and aromatic products involved in disease defense, in glyphosate-tolerant and sensitive wheat challenged by soilborne fungal pathogens; and 3) Determine if glyphosate-sensitive grassy weeds or volunteer plants killed by applications of glyphosate within a crop of glyphosate-tolerant wheat can serve as a reservoir or green-bridge of inoculum, further increasing disease pressure on the crop. Risks associated with increased soilborne disease incidence may hinder wide spread acceptance of conservation tillage systems for wheat involving herbicide resistance technology, thus eliminating the benefits of this strategy for reducing soil erosion, reducing fuel costs and improving soil quality. Efforts also are underway to screen wild relatives and synthetic wheat accessions for resistance to take-all and Phythium, two prevalent diseases in direct-seed wheat production, to identify potential gene donors for variety improvement.

Impacts
The plant variety protection status for Scarlet was approved in 2001 making it the first wheat variety released by WSU to be PVP'ed. Based on acreage, Scarlet will be number 1 hard red spring wheat in commercial production in Washington state in 2002. Macon has outstanding bread baking characteristics and desirable soft noodle quality, creating potential domestic and export markets for this variety. Macon will be the first hard white wheat variety to be released by WSU, and the standard for dual purpose quality in hard white wheat will be established by this line. WA7902 is a high yielding spring club replacement for Calorwa. Releasing an adapted spring club of this caliber for the region will guarantee that a consistent supply of club wheat from the PNW will be available for Pacific Rim consumers, even when the winter club crop is lost to winter injury.

Publications

  • Kidwell, K.K. 2001. WSU breeder visits SE Asia customers and gains valuable insight. p. 42-43. In Wheat Life, Washington Association of Wheat Growers. Official Publication. December 2001, vol. 44, no. 11. ISSN No. 0043-4701.
  • Linscott, T.M., N.A. Bosque-Perez, K.K. Kidwell D.J. Schotzko, and R.S. Zemetra. 2001. Genetic control of Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) resistance in wheat accession PI 47545. Euphytica 121:31-35.
  • Morris, C.F., M.Lillemo, M. C. Simone, M.J. Giroux, S.L. Babb and K.K. Kidwell. 2001. Prevalence of puroindoline grain hardness genotypes among North American spring and winter wheats. Crop Sci. 41(1):218-228.
  • Pan*, W., D. Huggins, F. Young and K. Kidwell. 2001. Enhancing grain protein by optimizing distribution of root zone N. Agronomy Abstracts. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. TSNo. S04-pan135059-O.
  • Pan, W.L., F.L. Young and K.K. Kidwell. 2001. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in direct-seeded spring cereal alternatives to summer fallow. p. 202-209. In Proceedings of the Western Nutrient Management Conference, 8-9 March 2001, Vol 4. PVP application submitted for 'Scarlet' hard red spring wheat.
  • Schwab*, G.J., J.W. Burns and K.K. Kidwell. 2001. Effects of chloride fertilizer on yield, protein and flour quality of spring wheat cultivars. Agronomy Abstracts. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. TSNo. S08-schwab1130523-O.
  • Barrett, B.A., K. K. Kidwell*, G.J. Baley and J.D. Smith. 2001. Marker-aided introgression of a QTL conferring increased grain protein percentage into adapted wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm. Proceedings of Plant and Animal Genome IX, San Diego, CA. P5c_26.html.
  • Burns, J. and K. Kidwell. 2001. Spring wheat performance in 2001: WSU Statewide extension uniform variety testing program trial results. In The Green Sheet, weekly newsletter: Washington Association of Wheat Growers. 9 November 2001.
  • Burns, J.W., K.K. Kidwell, P. Reisenauer and G. Shelton. 2001. Spring wheat performance in 2001. p. 24-27. In Wheat Life, Washington Association of Wheat Growers. Official Publication. December 2001, vol. 44, no. 11. ISSN No. 0043-4701.
  • Campbell*, K.A.G., K.K. Kidwell, C.F. Morris and C. Gaines. 2001. Improving gains from selection for end-use quality in wheat. Agronomy Abstracts. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. TSNo. C01-campbell123201-P.
  • Cook, R.J., K. Campbell, S. Jones and K. Kidwell. 2001. Spring wheat breeding and genetics. p. 77-82. In Burns, J. and Veseth, R. (eds), 2001 Field Day Proceedings: Highlights of Research Progress. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 01-4.
  • Kidwell K., G. Shelton, V. DeMacon, B. Barrett, J. Smith, J. Baley and C. Bickle. 2001. Washington State University: Spring wheat breeding and genetics. Annual Wheat Newsletter 47:309-311.
  • Kidwell, K. 2001. 21 June 2001. Wheat Variety Development in the Pacific Northwest Region of the United States. U.S. Wheat Associates South Asian Technical Conference. Phuket, Thailand.
  • Kidwell, K., G. Shelton, V. DeMacon, B. Barrett, C. Bickle, J. Smith and J. Baley. 2001. Spring wheat breeding and genetics. p. 27-29. In Burns, J. and Veseth, R. (eds), 2001 Field Day Proceedings: Highlights of Research Progress. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 01-4.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
Over 350 crosses were made in 2000, and nearly 35,000 breeding lines were evaluated in field trials at 1 to 16 locations. Grain samples from 765 breeding lines with superior agronomic performance were sent to the USDA-ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory for end-use quality assessment. Two varieties, 'Zak' (soft white spring) and 'Tara' (hard red spring) were released. Zak is a high yielding, Hessian fly (HF) tolerant, stripe rust resistant variety with exceptional baking properties. Tara is a high yielding, HF resistant line with exceptional gluten strength that is well adapted to direct seed production. Local, domestic markets for both varieties are evolving due to their exceptional end-use quality. WA7902, a spring club, with outstanding yield potential, traditional club quality and stripe rust resistance was proposed for pre-release. Foundation seed of three hard white spring varieties with dual purpose potential was produced. Wheat microsatellite and AFLP markers linked within 1.1 to 20.6 cM of the spring growth-habit gene Vrn-B1 were identified in reciprocal mapping populations generated by crossing near-isogenic lines carrying the recessive winter and dominant spring growth habit alleles. Progress towards utilizing tags associated with Vrn-B1 and a chromosomal segment from Triticum diccoides associated with a 1 to 2 % increase in grain protein content was made for cultivar enhancement. Research efforts to identify potential gene donors for Rhizoctonia resistance among T. tauschii accessions and other wild relatives of wheat have been completed. Although resistance levels varied among species, all were deemed as susceptible to the pathogen.

Impacts
Zak was released as the Wawawai replacement and is expected to become the primary spring wheat in commercial production in the region within 3 years. Tara was released as the Westbred 926 replacement and is expected to become the primary hard red wheat in commercial production within 4 years. WA7902 is the first spring club released by WSU in decades. This variety will allow producers to capitalize on the increasing market demand for club wheat. Foundation seed of the first hard white variety ever to be released by WSU was produced, which will allow producers to capitalize on this expanding export market.

Publications

  • Burns, J., K. Kidwell, P. Reisenauer, G. Shelton and J. Kuehner. 2000. 2000 spring wheat WSU variety testing program yield results. In The Green Sheet, weekly newsletter: Washington Association of Wheat Growers. 17 November 2000.
  • Cook, R.J., S. Jones and K. Kidwell. 2000. Performance of advanced lines and varieties of spring and winter wheats seeded directly into cereal stubble. p. 86-89. In Dofing, S. and Veseth, R. (eds), 2000 Field Day Proceedings: Highlights of Research Progress. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 00-1.
  • Dofing, S., K. Kidwell, P. Reisenauer and G. Shelton. 2000. 1999 spring wheat variety trial results. p. 45-51. In Wheat Life, Washington Association of Wheat Growers' Official Publication. March 2000, vol. 43, no. 3. ISSN No. 0043-4701.
  • Dofing, S., K. Kidwell, P. Reisenauer, J. Kuehner, G. Shelton, and V. DeMacon. 2000. 1999 variety testing program - spring wheat. p. 34-37. In Dofing, S. and Veseth, R. (eds), 2000 Field Day Proceedings: Highlights of Research Progress. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 00-1.
  • Dofing, S.M., S.S. Jones, S.E. Ullrich, K.K. Kidwell, K.G. Campbell and D. Boze. 2000. 1999 Cereal Variety Evaluation Results. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 00-2.
  • Kidwell, K. G. Shelton, V. DeMacon, B. Barrett, J. Smith and M. Bayram. 2000. Washington State University: Spring wheat breeding and genetics. Annual Wheat Newsletter 46:260-262.
  • Kidwell, K., G. Shelton, V. DeMacon, B. Barrett, J. Smith and M. Bayram. 2000. Spring wheat breeding and genetics. p. 31-33. In Dofing, S. and Veseth, R. (eds), 2000 Field Day Proceedings: Highlights of Research Progress. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 00-1.
  • Mikhaylenko, G.G., Z. Czuchajowska, B.-K. Baik and K.K. Kidwell. 2000. Environmental influences on milling performance, flour composition, flour rheology and end-product quality of spring wheat. Cereal Chem. 77(4):507-511.
  • Stubbs, T. A. Kennedy, and K. Kidwell. 2000. Effects of tillage and cultivar on residue decomposition and soil quality. p. 55-57. In Dofing, S. and Veseth, R. (eds), 2000 Field Day Proceedings: Highlights of Research Progress. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Technical Report 00-1.
  • Young, F.L., W.L. Pan, K.K. Kidwell and C.R. Hennings. 2000. Integrated spring cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest. Agronomy Abstracts. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. p. 76.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
The research originally described in project 1570 will be continued in this project. Although the objectives and strategies have been redefined, the overall goals of the projects are similar. Project 334 was initiated on Oct 1, therefore, no additional progress, aside from that describe in the termination report for project 1570, has been made to date.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period