Source: SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
SUNFLOWER BREEDING AND TESTING ALTERNATIVE OILSEED CROPS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0182948
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
SD00079-H
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 1999
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2004
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Grady, K. A.
Recipient Organization
SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY
PO BOX 2275A
BROOKINGS,SD 57007
Performing Department
PLANT SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
There is a need for sunflower varieties that can withstand the stresses of diverse South Dakota growing conditions and information on varieties and production practices for sunflower and other alternative oilseed crops. The purpose of this research is to genetically improve sunflower, with emphasis on seed yield, oil content and composition, stress tolerance, and pest resistance and to provide production information on sunflower and other minor oilseeds as alternative crops for South Dakota.
Animal Health Component
70%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
70%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2021844108010%
2031844108030%
2041842108010%
2041844108020%
2041848108010%
2031842108010%
2031848108010%
Goals / Objectives
(A) Complete evaluation of promising flax lines and either release or discard. (B) Develop, improve, and release sunflower breeding populations and any superior germplasm lines that may arise out of the population improvement program. (C) Develop and improve sunflower germplasm with mid-oleic (NuSun) oil composition. (D) Investigate the effects of stress on sunflower oil constituents. (E) Complete genetic studies in sunflower on the inheritance of a faciated plant trait and mutant plant type and publish. (F) Conduct agronomic research on sunflower, in cooperation with SDSU, CES, NDSU, USDA, and other regional personnel. Provide advice to growers on hybrid selection and general production practices for maximizing seed yield and oil content. (G) Test alternative oilseed crops to evaluate their potential for production in South Dakota.
Project Methods
(A) Replicated yield testing over a range of environments will be used in conjunction with laboratory analyses of oil content and field disease screening to determine the value of flax breeding lines. Statistical designs for yield trials will include randomized complete block, lattice, and nearest neighbor designs. Results will be analyzed via analyses of variance appropriate to the design (utilizing PC Agrobase or mainframe SAS statistical software). Lines proving superior over established checks will be recommended for release. (B) New sunflower breeding populations will be developed from F2 populations, composite varieties or synthetics. Population improvement will be by various methods of recurrent selection, such as half-sib family and S1 family selection. Traits that will be emphasized include seed yield, oil content, oil composition, earliness, good agronomic characters (lodging resistance, head type), stress tolerance, self-compatibility and pest resistance. (C) To investigate the effects of stress on sunflower oil constituents, sunflower varieties with varying fatty acid profiles will be planted over a range of field environments and in greenhouse and/or growth chamber environments. Environmental variants such as temperature, moisture, disease, and insect stress will be recorded. Oil constituents will be determined by GC analysis, and related back to environmental variants via regression and correlation analyses. (D) Classical genetic theory will be utilized in the inheritance studies on sunflower. Segregating F2 and backcross progenies will be evaluated for the trait under investigation and the fit of observed segregation ratios to expected ratios will be determined using chi-square tests. (E) Methods used for sunflower production research will depend on the area being investigated and the equipment available. (F) Alternative oilseed crops will be tested utilizing procedures appropriate for the type of crop.

Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/04

Outputs
FLAX: Flax variety Selby was released in 2000. Selby flax is tall and late-maturing, with high yield potential, good oil content, and resistance to flax rust. Averaged over 22 environments, Selby yielded 77 kg/ha more than the average of six popular check varieties. The flax breeding program was terminated in 2000, however cooperative regional flax variety trials continued annually. In 2004, 35 released flax varieties and experimental lines averaged 1753, 1452, 2042, and 2779 kg/ha seed yield at Brookings (early and late-planted), Watertown, and Webster, respectively. Data from performance trials were used to compare experimental cultivars with established varieties and were made available to SD producers to aid in variety selection. CANOLA: A canola variety performance trial was conducted at Webster and Watertown, SD in 2000. Thirteen canola varieties averaged 2328 kg/ha seed yield. Canola is a relatively new oilseed crop and the trials provided data on canola variety performance and adaptation to SD growing conditions. SUNFLOWER: One sunflower fertility-restorer line was released in 2001. SDR20 is a branchy, high-oil (527 g/kg), short height (117 cm) inbred line derived by pedigree selection from SDHAR1-HO85, a sunflower restorer population mass-selected for high oil content. A 3-year study on the effect of plant population on oilseed sunflower concluded that a plant population of 44400 plants/ha (compared to 24700, 34600, and 54300 plants/ha) maximized seed yield without a significant decrease in oil content or increase in seed moisture. Results of a 3-yr cooperative study with ND identified increased plant lodging and seed shattering as factors that lead to yield loss when sunflower harvest is delayed. A planting date study conducted in 2002 revealed that late planting (25 June) reduced the number of days from sowing to flowering and maturity by 5 to 7 days, decreased test weight by 35 g/l and increased seed moisture at harvest. Planting date did not influence oil content, plant height, head diameter, or number of seeds infested by seed weevil larvae. Seed yield was not affected by planting date at Selby, but early-planted (1 June) plots at Agar yielded significantly higher than plots sown on 25 June (2518 kg/ha compared to 1518 kg/ha). Trials to screen sunflower germplasm for resistance to the red sunflower seed weevil were conducted cooperatively with the USDA-ARS Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND in 2002-2004. Lines and interspecific crosses developed by the USDA-ARS and accessions obtained from the Plant Introduction Station, Ames, IA were screened. Results from 2002 and 2003 revealed promising germplasm with low levels of seed damage (<10% infested seeds). Resistant hybrids would reduce the need for pesticide applications. Oilseed and confection sunflower hybrid performance fee trials were conducted at four locations annually. These trials provided unbiased performance information to aid SD sunflower growers with hybrid selection. One or more cycles of selection were completed in several sunflower breeding populations undergoing recurrent selection for yield, oil, maturity, and other agronomic traits.

Impacts
This project provided improved sunflower and flax varieties/germplasm over those previously available, and information on alternative oilseed crops and production practices that optimize yields. Improved varieties and production practices increase crop profitability. For example, oilseed sunflowers were planted on 176,000 ha in South Dakota in 2004. At the Dec. 2004 price of $0.30/kg, a 112 Kg/ha increase in yield would increase the value of SD sunflower production by $6.0 million.

Publications

  • Berglund, D. and Grady, K.A. 2004. North Dakota and South Dakota hybrid sunflower performance testing 2003. NDAES, NDSU CES, and SDSU CES A-652 (revised), Jan. 2004.
  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2004. Flax variety trials. In: Progress Report 2003, Cent. Crops and Soils Res. Stn. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet No. 16. p 16-17.
  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2004. South Dakota flax variety evaluations 2003. SDSU CES ExEx 8055 (revised), 3 p., Jan. 2004.
  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2004. Sunflower: 2003 South Dakota Hybrid Performance Trials. SDSU CES EC 909 (revised), Jan. 2004. (Online).
  • Grady, K.A., Miller, J. and Charlet, L. 2004. Resistance of sunflower germplasm to the red sunflower seed weevil. In: Progress Report 2003, Cent. Crops and Soils Res. Stn. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet No. 16. p 14-15.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
FLAX: Cooperative regional flax variety performance trials were conducted at three South Dakota locations. Twenty-eight released flax varieties and seven experimental lines averaged 1848 kg/ha seed yield and 390 g/kg oil at Webster, SD and 1277 kg/ha yield with 399 g/kg oil in a late-planted (4 June) trial at Brookings. At Highmore, twenty-five flax varieties and three experimental lines averaged 1219 kg/ha seed yield and 386 g/kg oil. The highest yielding variety averaged across all locations was Linora (1608 kg/ha). Data from the trials are used to compare experimental cultivars with established varieties and are made available to SD producers to aid in variety selection. SUNFLOWER: Oilseed and confection sunflower hybrid performance fee trials were conducted at four locations. A combination of drought stress, lodging, and bird damage precluded the acquisition of usable yield data from two of the test sites (Pierre and Pukwana, SD). Oilseed hybrid sunflower seed yields averaged 2323 kg/ha at Ipswich, SD and 2103 kg/ha north of Miller, SD. Seed oil content averaged 397g/kg and 394 g/kg, respectively, at the two locations. These trials provide unbiased performance information to aid SD sunflower growers with hybrid selection. The second year of a cooperative trial between the South Dakota Ag Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND was conducted at the Central Crops and Soils Research Station at Highmore, SD. The goal of the project was to identify sunflower germplasm with genetic resistance to the red sunflower seed weevil (Smicronyx fulvus LeConte). Sunflower germplasm tested were lines developed by the USDA-ARS through a recurrent selection breeding procedure and Plant Introductions (PI) obtained from the Plant Introduction Station, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. In 2002, forty-one lines and fifteen accessions were screened at Highmore. The 2003 trial retested twenty lines and four accessions that showed low numbers of damaged seeds in the 2002 trials, plus eight new accessions. The mean number of seeds infested out of 200 ranged from 15 to 110 in 2002. Seed damage evaluations from 2003 have not been completed. Data from the study and seed of any germplasm with resistance will be distributed to public and private sunflower breeders for incorporation into their breeding programs to develop lines and hybrids resistant to this insect pest. Resistant hybrids would reduce the need for pesticide applications. A cycle of selection was completed in three sunflower breeding populations undergoing recurrent selection for yield, oil, maturity, and other agronomic traits.

Impacts
This project provides improved sunflower varieties/germplasm over those previously available, and information on alternative oilseed crops and production practices that optimize yields. Improved varieties and production practices increase crop profitability. For example, oilseed sunflowers were planted on 505,000 acres in SD in 2003. At an average price of $11.50/cwt, a 100 lbs/A increase in yield would increase the value of SD sunflower production by $5.8 million.

Publications

  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2003. 2002 flax variety trials. In: 2002 Annual Progress Report, Northeast Res. Stn. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet No. 11. p 41-42.
  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2003. 2002 South Dakota flax variety evaluations. SDSU CES ExEx 8055 (revised), 3 p., Mar. 2003.
  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2003. Sunflower 2002 South Dakota hybrid performance trials, oilseed/confection. SDSU CES EC 909 (revised), 16 p., Jan. 2003.
  • Grady, K.A. and Catangui, M.A. 2003. Early versus late planting of sunflower at two South Dakota locations. Proc. 25th NSA Sunflower Res. Forum, Fargo, ND, Jan. 2003.
  • Johnson, B.L., Halvorson, M.A., Henson, R.A., Grady, K.A. and Eriksmoen, E.D. 2003. Delayed harvest influence on sunflower. Proc. 25th NSA Sunflower Res. Forum, Fargo, ND, Jan. 2003.
  • Miller, J.F. and Grady, K.A. 2003. Resistance of sunflower germplasm to the red sunflower seed weevil. In: Progress Report 2002, Central Crops and Soils Res. Stn., Highmore, SD. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet 12, AESPS103. p 14-15.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
FLAX: Cooperative regional flax variety performance trials were conducted at two locations. Drought stress reduced yields. At Watertown, SD, 26 released flax varieties and four experimental lines averaged 789 kg/ha seed yield and 391 g/kg oil. Twenty-six flax varieties and two experimental lines averaged 1186 kg/ha seed yield and 390 g/kg oil at Webster, SD. The highest yielding variety across locations was Verne 93 (1154 kg/ha). Data from the trials are used to recommend varieties to SD producers and to compare experimental cultivars with established varieties. SUNFLOWER: A planting date study conducted at Agar and Selby, SD compared seed yield, seed oil content, oil quality, seed weevil (Smicronyx fulvus LeConte) larval infestation, and agronomic traits of two NuSun sunflower hybrids planted on 1 or 3 June with hybrids planted on 25 June. Late planting reduced the number of days from sowing to flowering and maturity by five to seven days, decreased test weight by 35 g/l and increased seed moisture at harvest. Planting date did not influence oil content, plant height, head diameter, or number of seeds infested by seed weevil larvae. Seed yield response to sowing date differed at the two locations. Plots planted on 3 June at Agar yielded significantly higher than plots sown on 25 June (2518 kg/ha compared to 1518 kg/ha). Poor stands in the late-planted plots may have contributed to the yield difference. Seed yield was not affected by planting date at Selby. Oil oleic acid content was reduced from 648 g/kg to 613 g/kg for the late-planted flowers compared to sunflower planted in early June. These preliminary results show that NuSun sunflower hybrids planted as late as 25 June in north central SD can yield as much as sunflower planted in early June, with no significant loss in oil content and only a slight reduction in oil quality. The study will be repeated in 2003 and 2004. Data from the planting date study will aid the Risk Management Agency in setting sunflower `final planting dates' for federal crop insurance and help SD sunflower producers manage sowing dates for their farm operations. Oilseed and non-oilseed sunflower hybrid performance fee trials were conducted at four locations. Oilseed seed yields, averaged over hybrids, ranged from 1226 kg/ha at Pukwana, SD to 1802 kg/ha at Ipswich, SD. These trials provide unbiased performance information to aid SD sunflower growers with hybrid selection. A cooperative trial between the South Dakota Ag Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS Sunflower Research Unit, Fargo, ND was conducted at the Highmore, SD Research Station. The purpose of the trial was to screen sunflower germplasm for resistance to the red sunflower seed weevil. The mean number of seeds infested out of 200 ranged from 15 to 110 for 41 USDA-ARS breeding lines and 14 Plant Introductions (PI) screened. Data from the study will be distributed to public and private sunflower breeders for incorporation into their programs to develop lines and hybrids resistant to this insect pest. A cycle of selection was completed in four sunflower breeding populations undergoing recurrent selection for yield, oil, maturity, and other agronomic traits.

Impacts
This project provides improved sunflower varieties/germplasm over those previously available, and information on alternative oilseed crops and production practices that optimize yields. Improved varieties and production practices increase crop profitability. For example, oilseed sunflowers were planted on 535,000 acres in SD in 2002. At an average price of $12.30/cwt, a 100 lbs/A increase in yield would increase the value of SD sunflower production by $6.6 million.

Publications

  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2002. 2001 Flax variety trials. In: 2001 Annual Progress Report, Northeast Res. Stn. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet No. 5. p. 38-39.
  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2002. 2002 South Dakota flax recommendations and 2001 yield results. SDSU CES ExEx 8055 (revised), Mar. 2002.
  • Grady, K.A. and Gilbertson, L. 2002. Sunflower oilseed/non-oilseed 2001 South Dakota hybrid performance trials. SDSU CES EC 909 (revised), 16 p., Jan. 2002.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
FLAX: Cooperative regional flax variety performance trials were conducted at two locations. A third location was lost due to herbicide carryover and hail damage. At Watertown, SD, 34 flax varieties and experimental lines averaged 1068 kg/ha seed yield and 401 g/kg oil. The 26 flax varieties tested at Webster, SD averaged 1158 kg/ha seed yield and 407 g/kg oil. Data from the trials were used to recommend varieties to SD producers and to compare experimental cultivars to established varieties. The highest yielding established variety across locations was Omega (1379 kg/ha). The highest yielding experimental was a Canadian line, FP1069, which averaged 1437 kg/ha. SUNFLOWER: A sunflower fertility restorer line, SDR20, was released. SDR20 is a branchy, high-oil (527 g/kg), short height (117 cm) inbred line derived by pedigree selection from SDHAR1-HO85, a sunflower restorer population mass-selected for high oil content for three cycles. SDR20 has traditional-type fatty acid oil composition and is high-yielding in hybrid combination. Oilseed and non-oilseed sunflower hybrid performance fee trials were conducted at four locations. Oilseed seed yields, averaged over hybrids, ranged from 1309 kg/ha at Pierre, SD to 3008 kg/ha at Miller, SD. These trials provide unbiased performance information to aid SD sunflower growers with hybrid selection. A cycle of selection in three sunflower breeding populations undergoing recurrent selection for yield, oil, maturity, and other agronomic traits was completed.

Impacts
This project provides improved oilseed varieties/germplasm over those previously available, and information on alternative oilseed crops and production practices that optimize yields. Improved varieties and production practices increase crop profitability. For example, oilseed sunflowers were planted on 670,000 acres in SD in 2001. At an average price of $9.00/cwt, a 100 lbs/A increase in yield would increase the value of SD sunflower production by $6 million.

Publications

  • Grady, K.A. and L. Gilbertson. 2001. 2000 Canola variety evaluations. In: 2000 Annual Progress Report, Northeast Res. Stn. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet No. 1. p. 27-30.
  • Grady, K.A. and L. Gilbertson. 2001. 2000 Flax variety trials. In: 2000 Annual Progress Report, Northeast Res. Stn. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet No. 1. p. 31-33.
  • Grady, K.A. and L. Gilbertson. 2001. 2001 South Dakota flax recommendations and 2000 yield results. SDSU CES ExEx 8055 (revised), Feb. 2001.
  • Grady, K.A. and L. Gilbertson. 2001. Sunflower oilseed non-oilseed 2000 South Dakota hybrid performance trials. SDSU CES EC 909 (revised), 23 p., Jan. 2001.
  • Johnson, B.L., K.A. Grady, and E.D. Eriksmoen. 2001. Effect of harvest date on sunflower performance. Proc. 23rd Sunflower Research Workshop, Jan. 17-18, 2001. Natl. Sunflower Assoc., Bismarck, ND. p. 126-130.
  • Grady, K.A. and L. Gilbertson. 2001. 2000 South Dakota sunflower hybrid performance trials. In: Progress Report 2000, Central Crops and Soils Research Station, Highmore, SD. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet 3. p. 43.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
FLAX: Released one new oilseed flax variety. "Selby" flax is tall and late-maturing, with high yield potential, good oil content, and resistance to flax rust. Averaged over 22 environments, Selby yielded 77 kg/ha more than the average of six popular check varieties (Flor, Linora, Linton Neche, Prompt, and Rahab 94). Conducted cooperative regional flax variety performance trials. Data from the trials were used to recommend varieties to SD producers and to compare experimental cultivars to established varieties. CANOLA: Conducted canola variety performance trials. Canola is a relatively new oilseed crop and these trials provided data on canola variety performance and adaptation to SD growing conditions. Averaged over two environments in 2000, 13 canola varieties yielded 2328 kg/ha. Information from the performance trials aids canola growers in variety selection. SUNFLOWER: Published results of a 3-year study on the effect of plant population on oilseed sunflower planted in 76 cm rows. Averaged over 10 environments and three hybrids, a plant population of 44400 plants/ha (compared to 24700, 34600, and 54300 plants/ha) maximized seed yield without a significant decrease in oil content or increase in seed moisture. Completed a 3rd year of a cooperative study with ND to clarify the factors that lead to yield loss when sunflower harvest is delayed for increasing intervals past physiological maturity. Preliminary results indicate that the response of seed yield to harvest date varies among environments. Substantial yield reductions for the later harvest dates at several sites were associated with increased plant lodging and seed shattering. Conducted oilseed and non-oilseed sunflower hybrid performance fee trials at four locations. Oilseed yields, averaged over hybrids, ranged from 1055 kg/ha at Highmore, SD to 2267 kg/ha at Pukwana, SD. These trials provide unbiased performance information to aid SD sunflower growers in hybrid selection. Completed a cycle of selection in three sunflower breeding populations undergoing recurrent selection for yield, oil, maturity, and other agronomic traits. Developed sunflower germplasm with mid-oleic oil composition.

Impacts
This project provides improved oilseed varieties/germplasm over those previously available, and information on alternative oilseed crops and production practices that optimize yields. Improved varieties and production practices increase crop profitability. For example, sunflowers were planted on 800,000 acres in SD in 2000. At an average price of $7.50/cwt, a 100 lbs/A increase in yield would increase the value of SD sunflower production by $6 million.

Publications

  • Grady, K.A. 2000. Canola production. SDSU CES ExEx 8130 (revised).
  • Grady, K.A. 2000. Effects of plant population on oilseed sunflower. Proc. 22nd Sunflower Research Workshop, Jan. 18-19, 2000. Natl. Sunflower Assoc., Bismarck, ND. p. 120-129.
  • Grady, K.A. and L. Gilbertson. 2000. 1999 Canola variety evaluations. In: 1999 Annual Progress Report, Northeast Res. Stn. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet No. 98.
  • Grady, K.A. and L. Gilbertson. 2000. 1999 Flax variety trials. In: 1999 Annual Progress Report, Northeast Res. Stn. SDSU Plt. Sci. Pamphlet No. 98.
  • Grady, K.A. and L. Gilbertson. 2000. 2000 South Dakota flax recommendations and 1999 yield results. SDSU CES ExEx 8055 (revised).
  • Johnson, B.L., R.A. Henson, E.D. Eriksmoen, and K.A. Grady. 2000. Harvest date influence on sunflower performance. Proc. 22nd Sunflower Research Workshop, Jan. 18-19, 2000. Natl. Sunflower Assoc., Bismarck, ND. p. 87-90.
  • Grady, K.A. 2000. Sunflower production. SDSU CES EC 911, 11 p.