Source: RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY submitted to
BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE USE OF NON-TRADITIONAL ORGANIC WASTES IN AGRICULTURE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0180710
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NJ07145
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Nov 1, 2002
Project End Date
Oct 31, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Krogmann, U.
Recipient Organization
RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY
3 RUTGERS PLZA
NEW BRUNSWICK,NJ 08901-8559
Performing Department
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
The use of non-traditional organic wastes are anticipated to improve soil and plant fertility due to the addition of soil organic matter and increased water retention in an extremely permeable, sandy soil. Best Management Practices for non-traditional organic wastes will provide agricultural extension agents, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and farmers with the information they need to effectively use non-traditional wastes without contributing to non-point source pollution.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2040110200050%
2042410102040%
2046199301010%
Goals / Objectives
The proposed project has the overall objective to develop Best Management Practices for the use of specific non-traditional organic materials (e.g., grass clippings, cranberry pressings, tomato skins, excess cranberries, etc.).
Project Methods
Organic wastes will be characterized in terms of physical characteristics, nutrient content, presence of potential pollutants or pathogens. Nitrogen mineralization rates for the non-traditional wastes will be determined, as well as the field availability, uptake of nitrogen, release of phosphorous will be examined and measured. We will also calculate the estimated monetary costs and returns of using non-traditional wastes in order to create comprehensive best management practices.

Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The "Guidelines for Application of Sewage Biosolids to Agricultural Lands in the Northeastern US" (see Publications) are disseminated free of charge via the Rutgers Cooperative Extension web site. A European publisher requested permission to print and disseminate the publication internationally. TARGET AUDIENCES: Agricultural community.

Impacts
This project resulted in a change of knowledge during this reporting period. The use of excess cranberry fruits and leaves as mulches on established blueberry plants was examined. The objective of this part of the project was to determine the effects of these novel mulches on established blueberry plant nutrient uptake, fruit yield, selected soil chemical properties and weed suppression. In the second year of the study, the fruit yield in the mulched treatments was lower than in the control (P<0.05), but not the fruit size. One possible reason is a significant decrease in leaf nitrogen uptake observed in some mulch plots. Weed biomass was significantly reduced along with species diversity. This study shows that novel mulches need to be carefully evaluated before being used due to their potential environmental and plant impacts.

Publications

  • Barker, A., Harrison, E., Hay, A., Krogmann, U., McBride, M., McDowell, W., Richards, B., Steenhuis, T., Stehouwer, R.: Guidelines for Application of Sewage Biosolids to Agricultural Lands in the Northeastern US. Edited by Harrison E. and Krogmann, U. Rutgers Cooperative Cooperative Extension Bulletin #317, 2007, 36 pp.


Progress 11/01/02 to 10/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research and extension publications have been produced that provide research-based information for decision-markers, from farmers to governmental agencies. Guidance on use of non-traditional organic wastes such as food-processing by-products and municipal yard wastes on agricultural soils in New Jersey, on characterization of these wastes, application rates and soil management and monitoring are informing decisions. In addition, guidance on use of certain traditional wastes such as horse manure composts and sewage biosolids on agricultural soils in New Jersey were provided. The guidance documents were shared at various conferences (see publications). PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audience are decision-markers, from farmers to governmental agencies. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
This project changed knowledge concerning the use of some non-traditional organic wastes. Interactions between soil, plant and applied mulch were confirmed and it was also shown that a novel mulch such as cranberry fruit needs to be carefully analyzed before being applied. These findings were confirmed by the assessment of chemical, biological and physical soil properties (publication in preparation). The project also changed knowledge concerning nitrogen mineralization rates of some food-processing by-products and municipal yard wastes. Nitrogen mineralization rates of some of these wastes were not available previously.

Publications

  • Krogmann, U.: Composting Horse Manure on Small Farms. RCE Seminar "Horse Manure on Small Farms", Allentown, NJ, November 1, 2003.
  • Heckman, J.R., Krogmann, U., Westendorf, M.: Results from a Survey for Yard Waste Management and a Proposal for Composting. 2005 Turfgrass Proceedings from the New Jersey Turfgrass Expo in New Brunswick, NJ, on December 6-8, 2005, published by the Rutgers Center for Turfgrass Science, New Brunswick, NJ.
  • Westendorf, M., Krogmann, U.: Horses and Manure. Rutgers Fact Sheet #FS036, 2004, 4 pp.
  • Krogmann, U., Rogers, B.F., Boyles, L.S., Heckman, J.R., Bamka, W.: Best Management Practices for the Use of Non-Traditional Organic Wastes in Agriculture in New Jersey/USA. Proceedings of the "Nineteenth International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management" in Philadelphia, PA, on March 21-24, 2004, published by the University of Pennsylvania.
  • Westendorf, M.L., Rogers, B.F., Romano, P.V. 2004. Best Management Practices for Horse Manure Composting on Small Farms in Monmouth County/New Jersey. Abstracts of the Northeastern Branch of American Society of Agronomy, July 11-14, 2004.
  • Rogers, B.F., Krogmann, U and Kumudini, S. 2003. Evaluation of a Novel Organic Mulch in Blueberry Production: Characteristics, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Weed Suppression. Abstracts of the Northeastern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy, June 29-July 2, 2003.
  • San Miguel, C., Gimenez, D., Krogmann, U. and Tate, R.L. 2003. Utilizing Multiple Soil Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties to Assess the Impact of a Traditional and a Non-Traditional Organic Waste Amendment. Abstracts of the Northeastern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy, June 29-July 2, 2003.
  • Krogmann, U., Rogers, B.F., Boyles, L.S., Bamka, W.J., Heckman, J.R.: Guidelines for Land Application of Non-Traditional Organic Wastes (Food-Processing By-Products and Municipal Yard Wastes) on Farmlands in New Jersey. Rutgers Fact Sheet #E281, 2003.
  • Heckman, J.R., Krogmann, U.: Nutrient Management of Applied Grass Clippings. Rutgers Fact Sheet #FS1023, 2003, 2 pp.
  • Krogmann, U., Westendorf, M.L., Rogers, B.F., Romano, P.V.: Best Management Practices for Horse Manure Composting on Small Farms in Monmouth County/New Jersey (USA). Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of ORBIT Association on Biological Processing of Organics: Advances for a Sustainable Society (Part 1) in Perth/Australia on 30 April - 2 May, 2003, published by Centre for Organic Waste Management, Murdoch University, Perth/Australia, pp. 366-374.
  • Krogmann, U. and Chiang, H.-N.: Selected Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge from New Jersey POTWs. JAWRA, 38(3), 2002, 681-692.
  • Heckman, J.R., Morris, T.F., Sims, J.T., Sieczka, J.B, Krogmann, U., and Nitzsche, P.J.: Presidedress Soil Nitrate Test for Fall Cabbage. Hort Sci., 37(1), 2002, 113-117.
  • Krogmann, U., Romano, P.V., Westendorf, M.: Reduction of Fecal Streptococci and Strongyle Eggs during Small-Scale Composting of Horse Manure Mixed with Wood Shavings. Proceedings of 2002 International Symposium Composting and Compost Utilization in Columbus, OH, on 6-8 May, 2002, published by Ohio State University (CD-ROM).
  • Krogmann, U.: Land Application of Sewage Sludge: Selected Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge from New Jersey POTWs. USDA NE 1001 Meeting, Toronto, Canada, June, 2002.
  • Krogmann, U.: Rutgers Guidelines for Land Application of Sewage Sludge (Biosolids) in Agriculture. NJ Vegetable Growers Meeting, Atlantic City, NJ, January 15, 2002.
  • Krogmann, U., Rogers, B.F. and Kumudini, S.: Effects of Mulching Established Highbush Blueberry Plants with Cranberry Fruits and Leaves on Yield, Nutrient Uptake, Soil Properties and Weed Suppression. Comp. Sci. Util., 16(4), 2008, 220-227.
  • Barker, A., Harrison, E., Hay, A., Krogmann, U., McBride, M., McDowell, W., Richards, B., Steenhuis, T., Stehouwer, R.: Guidelines for Application of Sewage Biosolids to Agricultural Lands in the Northeastern US. Edited by Harrison E. and Krogmann, U. Rutgers Cooperative Cooperative Extension Bulletin #317, 2007, 36 pp.
  • Ramirez-Perez, J.C., Strom, P.F. and Krogmann, U.: Horse Manure and Cranberry Fruit Composting Kinetics and Measures of Stability. Comp. Sci. Util., 15, 2007, 200-214.
  • Romano, P.V., Krogmann, U., Westendorf, M. and Strom, P.F.: Reduction of Fecal Streptococci and Strongyle Eggs during Small-Scale Composting of Horse Manure Mixed with Wood Shavings. Comp. Sci. Util., 14(2), 2006, 132-141.
  • Krogmann, U., Rogers, B.F., Westendorf, M.L.: Best Management Practices for Horse Manure Composting on Small Farms. Rutgers Cooperative Extension Bulletin #E307, 2006, 9 pp.
  • Westendorf, M.L., Krogmann, U.: Horse Manure Management: Bedding Use. Rutgers Fact Sheet #FS537, 2006, 3 pp.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Organic wastes are increasingly applied to the land without information on their effect on the soil ecosystem. This year, the data analysis of a two-year study of land application of cranberry fruit and leaves to established blueberry plants was completed. A publication will be submitted shortly.

Impacts
Best Management Practices for non-traditional organic wastes will provide agricultural extension agents, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and farmers with the information they need to effectively use non-traditional wastes without contributing to non-point source pollution.

Publications

  • Ramirez-Perez, J.C., Strom, P.F., Krogmann, U. 2007. Horse Manure and Cranberry Fruit Composting Kinetics and Measures of Stability. Comp. Sci. Util., in press.
  • Krogmann, U., Rogers, B.F., Westendorf, M.L. 2006. Best Management Practices for Horse Manure Composting on Small Farms. Rutgers Cooperative Extension Bulletin #E307, 9 pp. http://www.rcre.rutgers.edu/pubs/publication.asp?pid=E307.
  • Westendorf, M.L., Krogmann, U. 2006. Horse Manure Management: Bedding Use. Rutgers Fact Sheet #FS537, 3 pp. http://www.rcre.rutgers.edu/pubs/publication.asp?pid=FS537.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Organic wastes are increasingly applied to the land without information on their effect on the soil ecosystem. This year, the data analysis of a study was completed that evaluated the impact of a traditional (dairy manure) and a non-traditional (cranberry skins) organic waste amendment on selected chemical, physical and biological soil properties. A publication will be submitted shortly.

Impacts
Best Management Practices for non-traditional organic wastes will provide agricultural extension agents, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and farmers with the information they need to effectively use non-traditional wastes without contributing to non-point source pollution.

Publications

  • Romano, P.V., Krogmann, U., Westendorf, M., Strom, P.S. 2006. Reduction of Fecal Streptococci and Strongyle Eggs during Small-Scale Composting of Horse Manure Mixed with Wood Shavings. Comp. Sci. Util., in press.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Organic wastes are increasingly applied to the land without information on their effect on the soil ecosystem. This year, the data of a study were analyzed that evaluated the impact of a traditional (dairy manure) and a non-traditional (cranberry skins) organic waste amendment on selected chemical, physical, and biological soil properties. The surface soil of two sites were sampled: 1) a manure-amended silt loam (MA) and an unamended control (MC), and 2) a sandy loam amended with cranberry skins at high (CH) and low (CL, 10% of high) rates. Chemical properties evaluated included pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM) content, total (TKN) and inorganic (NO3-N and NH4-N) nitrogen levels, and available plant nutrients (P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Mn, Z, and B). Physical properties included bulk density and water retention measured in the range from -0.5 to -1500 kPa. Biological parameters included potential dehydrogenase activity and metabolic diversity using the BIOLOG system. The analysis will be completed during the next year.

Impacts
Best Management Practices for non-traditional organic wastes will provide agricultural extension agents, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and farmers with the information they need to effectively use non-traditional wastes without contributing to non-point source pollution.

Publications

  • Krogmann, U., Rogers, B.F., Boyles, L.S., Heckman, J.R., Bamka, W. Best Management Practices for the Use of Non-Traditional Organic Wastes in Agriculture in New Jersey/USA. Proceedings of the "Nineteeth International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management" in Philadelphia, PA, on March 21-24, 2004, published by the University of Pennsylvania.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
In a two-year study, cranberry fruit and leaves were applied to established blueberry plants. The effects of these novel mulches on plant nutrient uptake, selected soil properties and weed suppression were studied. Leaf tissue nutrients (N, P, K), selected soil properties, weed communities and fruit yield were determined. The data indicated mulch had a mixed impact on blueberry plants. The mulch reduced weed biomass and number of weed species but reduced plant available nitrogen. The use of mulch could improve pesticide usage by farmers by having farmers target the more persistent weed species. However, the interaction of the fertilizer and the mulch may have tied up the nitrogen and additional inorganic fertilizer would have to be used. Soil samples are currently being analyzed and further data analyses are being performed.

Impacts
Best Management Practices for non-traditional organic wastes will provide agricultural extension agents, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and farmers with the information they need to effectively use non-traditional wastes without contributing to non-point source pollution.

Publications

  • Krogmann, U., Rogers, B.F., Boyles, L.S., Bamka, W.J., Heckman, J.R. 2003. Guidelines for Land Application of Non-Traditional Organic Wastes (Food-Processing By-Products and Municipal Yard Wastes) on Farmlands in New Jersey. Rutgers Fact Sheet #E281 (http://www.rce.rutgers.edu/pubs/pdfs/e281.pdf)
  • Heckman, J.R., Krogmann, U. 2003. Nutrient Management of Applied Grass Clippings. Rutgers Fact Sheet #FS1023,2 pp. (http://www.rce.rutgers.edu/pubs/pdfs/fs1023.pdf)
  • San Miguel, C., Gimenez, D., Krogmann, U. and Tate, R.L. 2003. Utilizing Multiple Soil Physical, Chemical and Biological properties to assess the Impact of a Traditional and a Non-Traditional Organic Waste Amendment. Abstracts of the Northeastern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy, June 29-July, 2, 2003.
  • Rogers, B.F., Krogmann, U and Kumudini, S. 2003. Evaluation of a Novel Organic Mulch in Blueberry Production: Characteristics, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Weed Suppression. Abstracts of the Northeastern Branch of the American Society of Agronomy, June 29-July, 2, 2003.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
It is too early in the life of the project to report on any progress.

Impacts
Best Management Practices for non-traditional organic wastes will provide agricultural extension agents, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and farmers with the information they need to effectively use non-traditional wastes without contributing to non-point source pollution.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Nitrogen mineralization studies of non-traditional organic wastes and a 3-year field study applying grass clippings to fall cabbage were completed. The following summarizes the results: Nitrogen mineralization rate (NMR) studies provide a means to determine plant available N resulting from organic waste applications. Non-traditional organic wastes (food processing and yard wastes) were applied at two different rates (112 kg N ha-1 and 224 kg N ha-1) to soils from two different soil series, Adelphia sandy clay loam (Aquic Hapludults) and Sassafras sandy loam (Typic Hapludults) in a 25-week laboratory incubation study. Supplemental ammonium sulfate was added to the soils amended with wastes with high C/N ratios. NMRs were reported as the percent organic N mineralized from organic waste. The NMRs ranges were as follows for the vegetable food processing wastes: 13.9% to 55.1% (Adelphia soil) and 17.0 to 66.8% (Sassafras soil); for the other food processing wastes: -20.8% to 39.9% (Adelphia soil) and -20.5 to 47.7% (Sassafras soil); and for the yard wastes: -26.7% to 29.8% (Adelphia soil) and -22.6% to 65.6% (Sassafras soil). The application rates of the wastes and the two soil types significantly affected the NMRs of several of the organic wastes studied (P < 0.05). The effect of waste characteristics and soil type on NMRs needs to be accounted for if organic wastes are to be used as a N source. One option is to apply organic wastes at rates below agronomic recommendation rates based on NMRs and supply additional inorganic N as needed. In a 3-year field study, grass clippings were applied to fall cabbage to determine the effectiveness of using this common yard waste as a nutrient supplement for crops. Objectives of this research were 1) to determine the characteristics of grass clippings used in this study, 2) to monitor soil NH4-N and NO3-N dynamics in the upper 30-cm soil layer over time, and 3) to determine fall cabbage yield at various grass clippings application rates. The grass clippings used were heterogeneous in their chemical and physical characteristics. Even at the same application rate, soil NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations and yields were very different for each year. To avoid over- and underfertilization, targeted N supply from grass clippings should be less than necessary to grow fall cabbage. Additional N fertilizer can be applied based on the PSNT (presidedress soil nitrate test).

Impacts
Best Management Practices for non-traditional organic wastes will provide agricultural extension agents, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and farmers with the information they need to effectively use non-traditional wastes without contributing to non-point source pollution.

Publications

  • Krogmann, U., Heckman, J.R., and Boyles, L.S.: Nitrogen Mineralization of Grass Clippings - A Case Study in Fall Cabbage Production. Comp. Sci. Util., 9(3), 2001, 230-240.
  • Rogers, B.F., Krogmann, U., and Boyles, L.S.: Nitrogen Mineralization of Non-Traditional Organic Wastes. 2001. Soil Sci., 166(5), 2001, 353-363.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Non-traditional organic wastes (food processing residuals, grass clippings, leaves, etc) currently applied on farmland in New Jersey were identified and characterized with regard to their chemical and physical properties. Additional information will be collected to quantify these wastes and identify the current management practices. To determine nitrogen mineralization rates of these non-traditional organic wastes, laboratory experiments were conducted with the following categories of waste: cranberry skins and hulls; tomato skins and clarifier waste; coffee grounds; various vegetable wastes; and, grass clippings and leaves. In addition, initial field experiments applying grass clippings to grow cabbage were also set up to determine the field availability and plant uptake of nitrogen. Additional data about waste characterization and nitrogen availability will be collected. This information will be the basis for the development and implementation of Best Management Practices for farms using non-traditional organic wastes. This will help to minimize non-point source pollution from the application of these wastes.

Impacts
Best Management Practices for non-traditional organic wastes will provide agricultural extension agents, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and farmers with the information they need to effectively use non-traditional wastes without contributing to non-point source pollution.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period