Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY OF GRASS SEED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0177883
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ORE00430
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jan 1, 2003
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Chastain, T. G.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
CROP AND SOIL SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
Loss of seed due to shattering is one of the major causes of low and unpredictable seed yields in cool-season perennial grasses. Very little information is available for managing irrigation in grass seed crops. Production costs are lessened and environmental protection is optimized when reproductive efficiency is improved.
Animal Health Component
60%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
60%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2031621102020%
2031621107020%
2051621102030%
2051621107030%
Goals / Objectives
Characterize seed shattering losses in perennial ryegrass, squirreltail, and rough stalk bluegrass, and determine the potential of ethylene inhibitors to decrease shattering losses. Characterize reproductive efficiencies in fine fescue, tall fescue, and perennial ryegrass seed crops and identify the nature and magnitude of genetic variation for reproductive efficiency within each of these species. Determine the morphological, physiological, and seed yield responses of cool-season perennial grasses to management practices; perennial ryegrass and tall fescue responses to irrigation management, and fine fescue responses to plant growth regulators and residue management.
Project Methods
Measure seed shattering losses in greenhouse and field trials. Determine seed yield components by sampling near peak anthesis. Measure seed yield responses to shattering control agents, irrigation management and residue management by combine harvesting of field plots.

Progress 01/01/03 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: PI has no new information to report. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
PI has no new information to report.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Irrigation of winter canola rotation crops for grass seed production was investigated. Irrigation was applied in the autumn to aid in crop establishment, in the spring to support flowering and seed filling, at both times, and was compared to no irrigation. Irrigation and its timing had no effect on seed yield of winter canola. The addition of water through irrigation might have been negated by high rainfall (122% of normal) in the autumn from planting until canopy closure and normal rainfall in spring. Seed yields of winter canola varied among the cultivars and advanced lines tested, and ranged from 2669 kg/ha to 3753 kg/ha. Seed yield of spring-planted canola rotation crops were 2118 kg/ha and yield of yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba) was 1922 kg/ha.

Impacts
Biodiesel feedstock crops grown in rotation with grass seed crops may increase the profitability of grass seed production enterprises while reducing weed and disease problems. The introduction of non-grass rotation crops is essential to maintain the long-term health and economic viability of the Willamette Valley's grass seed industry. Non-grass rotation crops that have shown promise include winter canola, spring canola, and yellow mustard. Oils produced from seeds of all three crops can be used in the manufacture of biodiesel, a renewable fuel. The seed of yellow mustard may also be used for making the condiment.

Publications

  • Chastain, T.G., C. J. Garbacik, D. T. Ehrensing, and D. J. Wysocki. 2006. Biodiesel feedstock potential in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 125:46-47.
  • Silberstein, T.B, M.E. Mellbye, T.G. Chastain, and W. C. Young III. 2006. Response of seed yield to swathing time in annual and perennial ryegrass. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 125:20-23.
  • Zapiola, M. L., T. G. Chastain, C. J. Garbacik, T. B. Silberstein, and W. C. Young III. 2006. Trinexapac-ethyl and open-field burning maximize seed yield in creeping red fescue. Agron. J. 98:1427-1434.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Spring irrigation of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seed crops was examined under three irrigation treatment regimes: 1. no irrigation, 2. irrigation to fill the soil profile to rooting depth of the crop prior to peak anthesis, and 3. irrigation to maintain minimal water deficit stress. In tall fescue, seed yield was increased by up to 38% with irrigation in four of the six cultivars evaluated. In perennial ryegrass, seed yield was increased up to 21% with irrigation. Timing the irrigation to fill the soil profile once produced seed yield results similar to frequent irrigation to prevent water stress but with less water used. A spring nitrogen x cultivar interaction was evident in winter canola seed yield in 2005. All cultivars responded to a topdressing of 56 kg N/hectare with increased seed yield, but some cultivars benefited more by an additional 56 kg N/hectare (112 kg total spring N) than did others. Yields of Athena, UIC 02.2, UIC 3.1 were highest with 100 lbs spring N/acre while yields of Baldur, Ceres, and Kronos were equal at 56 and 112 kg spring N/hectare. Maximum yield of all cultivars exceeded 4,480 kg/hectare.

Impacts
Winter canola grown for biodiesel has the potential of becoming a useful, economic rotational tool for Willamette Valley grass seed producers. Lack of rotation crops in the valley have lead to the build up of weed populations and the development of herbicide-resistant weeds. Production of canola for biodiesel could diversify grass seed production enterprises while providing a renewable fuel oil and protein-rich feed meal for the economies in the local area. Spring irrigation of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass has become a more widespread practice in the Willamette Valley, but little information was available to assist producers with irrigation management. Using a custom-designed linear irrigation system, we were able to demonstrate that timely spring irrigation is an economically viable practice in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seed production.

Publications

  • Orthel, K.D., Chastain, T.G.,Garbacik, C.J., and Young III, W.C. 2005. Spring irrigation management of tall fescue seed crops in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 124:3-6.
  • King, C.M.,Chastain, T.G.,Garbacik, C.J., and Young III, W.C. 2005. Spring irrigation management of perennial ryegrass seed production in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 124:1-2.
  • Silberstein, T.B., Mellbye, M.E.,Chastain, T.G., and Young III, W.C. 2005. Response of seed yield to swathing time in annual and perennial ryegrass. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 124:27-30.
  • Schumacher, D.D., Chastain, T.G., Garbacik, C.J., and Young III, W.C. 2005. Response of fine fescue seed crop cultivars to residue management practices in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 124:34-36.
  • Zapiola, M.L., Chastain, T.G., Young III, W.C., Garbacik, C.J., and Silberstein, T.B. 2005. Palisade and field burning in creeping red fescue in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 124:31-33.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Field trials were conducted on spring irrigation of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seed crops. Three irrigation treatment regimes were established: 1. no irrigation, 2. irrigation to fill the soil profile to rooting depth of the crop prior to peak anthesis, and 3. irrigation to maintain minimal water deficit stress. In four cultivars of tall fescue, seed yield was increased by 25 to 38% with irrigation while two cultivars did not respond to irrigation. In perennial ryegrass, seed yield was increases resulting from spring irrigation ranged from 17 to 21%. Irrigation to fill the soil profile once produced seed yield results similar to frequent irrigation to prevent water stress but with less water used. Increased seed weight and number were the yield components responsible for the observed increases in seed yield due to irrigation. Field experiments were conducted with trinexapac-ethyl (TE) to determine the effect of this plant growth regulator on the seed yield of creeping red fescue. Spring applications of TE increased seed yield by 44% when crop residue was removed by burning. This work showed that TE does not have promise as an alternative to open-field burning in grass seed crops such as creeping red fescue as originally thought.

Impacts
The climate of Oregon's Willamette Valley provide sufficient water for the normal development of grass seed crops during fall and winter. However, water deficit stress in spring during flowering and seed filling can limit seed yield of grasses in this region. Virtually no previous work had been done on spring irrigation of grass seed crops in Oregon or elsewhere in the world. Using a custom-designed linear irrigation system, we were able to establish in two of Oregon's most important grass seed crops, tall fescue and perennial ryegrass, that spring irrigation economically increases seed yield. Field trials also demonstrated that trinexapac-ethyl application consistently increased seed yield of creeping red fescue, but was found not to be an alternative practice to field burning, a long-time contributor to air pollution in Oregon.

Publications

  • Young, W.C. III, Silberstein, T.B.,Chastain, T.G. and Garbacik, C.J. 2004. Fall nitrogen on tall fescue. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 123:1-5.
  • Orthel, K.D., Chastain, T.G., Garbacik, C.J. and Young III, W.C. 2004. Spring irrigation management of tall fescue seed crops in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 123:14-16.
  • King, C.M., Chastain, T.G., Garbacik, C.J. and Young III, W.C. 2004. Spring irrigation management of perennial ryegrass seed production in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 123:17-19.
  • Schumacher, D.D., Chastain, T.G.,Garbacik, C.J. and Young III, W.C. 2004. Response of fine fescue seed crop cultivars to residue management practices in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 123:20-22.
  • Zapiola, M.L., Chastain, T.G., Young III, W.C., Garbacik, C.J. and Silberstein, T.B. 2004. Palisade and field burning in creeping red fescue in the Willamette Valley. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 123:23-25.
  • Lee, S.K., Chastain, T.G. and Garbacik, C.J. 2004. Decreasing shattering losses by application of AVG in perennial ryegrass. In W.C. Young III (ed.) Seed Production. Crop Sci. Ext. Rep. 123:26-27.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Potential loss of field burning acreage in creeping red fescue seed production has created the need to find alternative methods. Trinexepac-ethyl (TE), an inhibitor of the 3 beta-hydroxylation of GA20 to GA1 increased seed yield in creeping red fescue by 40% or more. TE effects on seed yield were simila whether the crop residue was managed after harvest by burning or by non-thermal means. Seed yield was improved by TE as a result of increased conversion of florets to seed. Loss of seed due to shattering before harvest is one of the major causes of low and unpredictable seed yields in grasses. The effect of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on seed shattering and plant maturity in vernalization-insensitive clones of perennial ryegrass was dependent on the stage of plant development at the time of application. AVG reduced seed shattering and delayed maturity, especially when the application was made after emergence of the inflorescence.

Impacts
Seed losses by shattering greatly increase the cost of seed production in cool-season grasses and lead to greater herbicide useage.

Publications

  • Silberstein, T. B., W. C. Young III, T. G. Chastain, and C. J. Garbacik. 2003. Response of perennial ryegrass to spring nitrogen fertility and plant growth regulator applications, 2002. 2002 Seed Production Research at OSU/USDA-ARS Cooperating pp. 15-18.
  • Silberstein, T. B., W. C. Young III, T. G. Chastain, and C. J. Garbacik. 2003. Response of perennial ryegrass to timing of plant growth regulator applications, 2002. 2002 Seed Production Research at OSU/USDA-ARS Cooperating pp. 19-23.
  • Chastain, T. G., W. C. Young III, C. J. Garbacik, and T. B. Silberstein. 2003. Palisade and field burning in creeping red fescue. 2002 Seed Production Research at OSU/USDA-ARS Cooperating pp. 24-25.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Potential loss of field burning acreage in creeping red fescue seed production has created the need to find alternative methods. Trinexepac-ethyl (TE), an inhibitor of the 3 beta-hydroxylation of GA20 to GA1 increased seed yield in creeping red fescue by 40% or more. TE effects on seed yield were similar whether the crop residue was managed after harvest by burning or by non-thermal means. Seed yield was improved by TE as a result of increased conversion of florets to seed. Loss of seed due to shattering before harvest is one of the major causes of low and unpredictable seed yields in grasses. The effect of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on seed shattering and plant maturity in vernalization-insensitive clones of perennial ryegrass was dependent on the stage of plant development at the time of application. AVG reduced seed shattering and delayed maturity, especially when the application was made after emergence of the inflorescence.

Impacts
Seed losses by shattering greatly increase the cost of seed production in cool-season grasses and lead to greater herbicide useage.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Trinexapac-ethyl (TE), an inhibitor of gibberellic acid biosynthesis, increased seed yield by 23 to 41% in perennial ryegrass and by 40% in creeping red fescue. TE improved reproductive efficiency in both species through an increase in the conversion of flowers to seed (seed set), and by increasing the overall numbers of flowers produced. Seed yield in several species of perennial grass seed crops was influenced by root biomass early in the stand life of the crop, but not in older stands. Controlled environment studies demonstrated that rhizome and root formation in red fescue species is mediated by phytochrome responses to light quality of the growth environment.

Impacts
Seed yield of cool-season grasses is limited by several constraints including poor reproductive efficiency. Production costs are lessened and environmental protection is optimized when reproductive efficiency is improved.

Publications

  • MEINTS, P.D., T.G. CHASTAIN, W.C. YOUNG III, G.M. BANOWETZ, AND GARBACIK, C.J. 2001. Stubble management effects on three creeping red fescue cultivars grown for seed production. Agron. J. 93:1276-1281.
  • CHASTAIN, T.G., W.C. YOUNG III, C.J. GARBACIK, P.D. MEINTS, AND SILBERSTEIN, T.B. 2000. Alternative residue management and stand age effects on seed quality in cool-season perennial grasses. Seed Technology 22:34-42.
  • CHASTAIN, T.G., AND W.C. YOUNG III. 1998. Vegetative plant development and seed production in cool-season perennial grasses. Seed Science Research 8:295-301.
  • CHASTAIN, T.G., G.L. KIEMNEC, G.H. COOK, C.J. GARBACIK, B.M. QUEBBEMAN, AND CROWE, F.J. 1997. Residue management strategies for Kentucky bluegrass seed production. Crop Sci. 37:1836-1840