Source: TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY submitted to
EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY SYSTEMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
REVISED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0177289
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
TEX08586
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Mar 22, 2010
Project End Date
Mar 21, 2015
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Friend, T. H.
Recipient Organization
TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
750 AGRONOMY RD STE 2701
COLLEGE STATION,TX 77843-0001
Performing Department
Animal Science
Non Technical Summary
This project will serve as the main vehicle for research conducted in the Applied Ethology/Animal Welfare Science Program of the Department of Animal Science. This is a broad program involving basic research on methods of assessing behavior, stress, animal cognition, and immune function that help provide a basis for applied studies that evaluate and seek to improve a variety of animal husbandry systems. An important component of the applied projects will also be evaluating the efficacy of proposed animal welfare related regulations.
Animal Health Component
75%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
75%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3153399106010%
3153499106010%
3153599106010%
3153610106012%
3153810106023%
3153820106010%
3153830106010%
3153899106015%
Goals / Objectives
1. Determine if there are changes in the inflammatory response genes of horses and cattle when they are subjected to long periods of transport. Inflammatory response genes may be very useful in discriminating between eustress (beneficial stress) and distress, and animals that are being transported long distances as a course of normal business are an excellent model for studying chronic stress. 2. Quantify the time-course of the cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and inflammatory gene response of horses housed in groups on pasture versus in individual stalls. This basic research project will compliment Objective 1in our quest for finding a successful method of discriminating between eustress (beneficial stress) and distress. 3. Identify potential areas to improve the comfort of dairy cattle and calves on large dairy farms. This exploratory set of experiments will be conducted on cooperating Texas dairy farms and will involve both adult cows and calves. If periods of heat stress occur and can be identified, farmers will then be able to take remedial action. 4. Determine if horses are less stressed by transportation if they are transported in individual stalls or in loose groups. Several European horse welfare groups and legislative bodies are moving toward requiring that all transported horses be maintained in individual stalls, which could adversely affect horses that are not accustomed to stalls. 5. Determine the relationship between the amount of milk replacer powder that calves are offered and their growth and heat load during periods of heat stress. Dairy farmers are having good results when feeding calves up to twice the normal about of milk replacer. However, we do not know what effect the added energy has on the calf's ability to cope with extremely hot weather.
Project Methods
Objective 1. The horses used in this study will belong to a rodeo stock contractor and will be transported as a part of business. The the transported horses will be on the road for periods of up to 6 days, whereas the control horses will remain on the home ranch. The cattle used in this study will also be subjected to a long period of transport and arousal, approximately 4 days. The cattle used in this project will be going through the normal marketing system that weaned calves routinely experience in North America, with sampling occurring when the calves are going through routine processing (weighing, ear tagging & vaccinating) at the receiving feedyards. Objective 2. The basic procedure will involve housing horses in individual stalls for periods of up to 21 days while comparable control groups are maintained on pasture. Following standard management practices, the stalled horses will have regular turn-out and exercise periods. Objective 3. Experiment 1 will determine the impact of providing shade for calves maintained in hutches. Body temperature and behavior of the calves will be recorded at 5 min intervals for two 4-day periods. Experiment 2 will involve recording the body temperature of adult dairy cows as they go about their daily cycle to determine what aspects of their environments may cause an increase in heat load. Experiment 3 will involve surveying the lots on the two cooperating dairies during the hottest times of the day to determine if all cattle can access shade. The temperature of the soil in the lots will also be determined to help assess whether the cows have a cool surface on which to lie. Objective 4. Trials will consist of transporting 6 individually stalled horses and a group of 6 lose horses in the same trailer for 6 hours or longer. Plasma samples for glucocorticoid determinations will be obtained from each horse by jugular vena puncture at regular intervals before, during and after transport. Objective 5. Groups of Holstein or Jersey bull calves will be used to determine how neonatal growth and heat load is impacted by amount of milk replacer fed, heat stress and housing. Half of the calves will be housed indoors in a controlled environment (75-80 F) while the other half will be housed in small shaded pens. The calves will be given two hours of exercise weekly. During the exercise period they will be fitted with pedometers to monitor their activity, while direct observations will also be used to quantify running, walking, or lying down.

Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The experiment on the effect of accelerated feeding of dairy calves on heat load was completed and is in the review process. The trials determining the time-course of the cortisol, DHEA and inflammatory gene response of horses housed on pasture versus individual stalls have been completed and a manuscript for submission to a scientific journal is being completed. This will also serve a part of a PhD dissertation, which is expected to be completed during 2013. The experiment determining the effects of long-distance transport on inflammatory response genes in cattle was completed and served as the basis of a thesis for a M.S. student. A manuscript is being completed for that project that will be submitted to a scientific journal during 2013. An initial comparison of two conventional horse feeders with the Pre-Vent feeder was completed and has been accepted for publication in a scientific journal. Trials that are part of a study determining inflammatory and immunity related gene expression in horses during weaning were also completed and will serve as a part of a PhD dissertation in 2013. The results from the new Objectives 6, 7 and 8 should be available in 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The results from Objectives 1, 2, and 4 that were measuring the expression of pro and anti-inflammatory and immune related genes found that 36 genes were particularly useful in characterizing aspects of severe stress in livestock. This important finding led to a series of additional Objectives and experiments using cattle and goats during 2011 that were conducted to further characterize the time course of the up and down regulation of those genes. The results of those studies served as a basis for an M.S. thesis and are being prepared for submission to a scientific journal in 2013. These results could be very useful in helping determine the relationships between eustress and distress, and in developing interventions that will improve animal health and wellbeing.

Publications

  • Carter, M. J., T. H. Friend, J. Coverdale, S. M. Garey, A. L. Adams, and C. L. Terrill. 2012. A comparison of two conventional horse feeders with the Pre-Vent feeder. J. Equine Vet Sci. 32:252-255. Doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2011.09.073.
  • Adams, A.L., T. H. Friend, G. A. Holub, L. R. Berghman, P. K. Riggs, S. M. Garey, C. L. Terrill, and M. J. Carter. 2012. Stress affects plasma serotonin, but not tryptophan, in Holstein steer calves. J. Animal Sci. 90, Suppl 1, p. 105.
  • Garey, S. M., T.H. Friend, P.K. Riggs, L.R. Berghman, J.E. Sawyer, M.M. Vogelsang, A.L. Adams, C.L. Terrill, and M.J. Carter. 2012. Expression of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor is down-regulated in young quarter horses housed in isolated stalls versus group pasture. Texas Genetics Society Meeting, March 22 - 24, San Antonio, Texas.
  • Friend, T. H. 2012. Academic response to animal welfare issues. Forward In: Animal Welfare in Animal Agriculture. Pond W, Bazer FW, Rollins B, Eds., Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, Boca Raton, FL, pp275-290.
  • Terrill, C. 2012. Effects of acute and chronic stress on immune and inflammatory-response gene expression in beef calves. M.S. Thesis, Texas A&M University.
  • Carter, M. 2012. Inflammatory gene expression in goats in response to transport. M.S. Thesis, Texas A&M University.
  • Adams, A. 2012. Acclimation of Holstein calves to transit stress: The integration of endocrine, immune, and behavior systems. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University.
  • Farrow, R.L., T. S. Edrington, B. Carter, T. H. Friend, T. R. Callaway, R. C. Anderson and D. J. Nisbet. 2012. Influence of winter and summer hutch coverings on fecal shedding of pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves. Agr. Food and Analytical Bacteriology. 1:98-104.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The experiment on relieving transport stress in slaughter horses, loose versus individual stalls, was successfully completed and has been published in a scientific journal. The series of experiments on the relationship between residual feed intake and feeding behavior have been completed and were published in two scientific journals. The experiment on the effect of accelerated feeding of dairy calves on heat load was completed and is being reviewed by a scientific journal. The trials determining the time-course of the cortisol, DHEA and inflammatory gene response of horses housed on pasture versus individual stalls have been completed and a manuscript for submission to a scientific journal is being completed. This will also serve a part of a PhD dissertation. The experiment determining the effects of long-distance transport on inflammatory response genes in cattle was completed and served as the basis of a thesis for a M.S. student. A manuscript is being completed for that project that will be submitted to a scientific journal during 2012. The results of the study on search dog competency factors was completed and published in a scientific journal. An initial comparison of two conventional horse feeders with the Pre-Vent feeder was completed and the resulting manuscript has been accepted for publication in a scientific journal. Trials that are part of a study determining inflammatory and immunity related gene expression in horses during weaning were also completed and will serve as a part of a PhD dissertation. The results from Objectives 1,2, and 4 have lead to another series of objectives and research projects. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators: Glenn Holub, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Penny Riggs, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Luke Burgman. Department of Poultry Science, TAMU, Gordon Carstens, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Mike Tomaszewski, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Tom Edrington, FFSRU, USDA, College Station; Jason Sawyer, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Penny Riggs, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station. Professional training: Wade Binion, Ph.D. graduate student; Cooper Terrill, M.S. graduate student; Boone Carter, M.S. graduate student; Mark Carter, M.S. graduate student; Shannon Garey, Ph.D. graduate student; Amber Adams, Ph.D. graduate student; Robbie Calabrese, undergraduate student. TARGET AUDIENCES: The initial target audience is the scientific community involved in advising people in agriculture. Reaching that audience is being achieved through publication in scientific journals and by presenting talks on the work at national scientific meetings. Presentations are also being made at meeting with stake holders. The results of these projects are also being used by specialists with the Texas AgriLife Extension Service. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: The results of the equine and cattle studies that were measuring the expression of pro and anti-inflammatory and immune related genes led to the following new objectives and associated experiments being conducted during 2011. Objective 6. Determine differences in inflammatory and immunity related gene expression in calves exposed to a recurring stress, transport for 6 hours at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. Nothing is known about adaptation and habituation to repeated stresses, and this may also serve as a useful model for studying aspects of child obesity. The trials and analysis have been completed, and a graduate student is now using this as a basis of her dissertation and is also preparing a manuscript. Objective 7. Determine the time line in which 36 genes that we have identified in other studies as being important in the stress response, begin to increase or decrease in activity during 12 hours of simulated market conditions. The trials were completed during the summer and the laboratory analysis is presently underway. Objective 8. Determine the time line in which 36 genes that we have identified in other studies as being important in the stress response, begin to increase or decrease in activity during 8 hours of simulated market conditions. This study is somewhat similar to the above project on cattle, except because we used tame goats, we were able to conduct much more frequent blood sampling, something that is important when trying to determine the time line of expression of these genes.

Impacts
The results from Objectives 1, 2, and 4 that were measuring the expression of pro and anti-inflammatory and immune related genes found that 36 genes were particularly useful in characterizing aspects of severe stress in livestock. This important finding led to a series of additional Objectives and experiments using cattle and goats during 2011 that were conducted to further characterize the time course of the up and down regulation of those genes. The results of those studies could be very useful in helping determine the relationships between eustress and distress, and in developing interventions that will improve animal health and wellbeing.

Publications

  • Alexander, M. B., T. Friend and L. Haug. 2011. Obedience training effects on search dog performance. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 132:152-159. Doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.04.008.
  • Edrington, T. S., B. H. Carter, R. L Farrow, A. Islas, G. R. Hagevoort, T. H. Friend, T. R. Callaway, R. C. Anderson and D. J. Nisbet. 2011. Influence of weaning on fecal shedding of pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves. Foodborn Pathogens and Disease 8:395-401. Doi: 10.1089/fpd.2010.0686.
  • Mendes, E. D. M., G. E. Carstens, L. O. Tedeschi, W. E. Pinchak and T. H. Friend. 2011. Technical note: Validation of a system for monitoring feeding behavior in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2904-2910. Doi: 10.2527/jas.2010-3489.
  • Garey, S. M., T. H. Friend, L. R. Berghman, J. E. Sawyer, M. M. Vogelsang, A. L. Adams, C. L. Terrill, and M. J. Carter. 2011. Cortisol and DHEA concentrations in foals identified as high versus low behavioral responders during weaning. J. Animal Sci. 89, Suppl 1, p.467.
  • Garey, S. M., T. H. Friend, L. R. Berghman, J. E. Sawyer, M. M. Vogelsang, A. L. Adams, C. L. Terrill, and M. J. Carter. 2011. Group pasture versus stall housing effects on cortisol and DHEA concentrations in young Quarter Horses. J. Animal Sci. 89, Suppl 1, p.466-467.
  • Terrill, C. L., T. H. Friend, J. E. Sawyer, P. K. Riggs, S. M. Garey, A. L. Adams, D. G. Riley, and M. J. Carter. 2011. Effects of acute and chronic stress on immune- and inflammatory-response gene expression in beef calves. J. Animal Sci. 89, Suppl 1, p.465.
  • Adams, A. L., T. H. Friend, G. A. Holub, S. M. Garey, C. L. Terrill, M. J. Carter, and A. J. Krenek. 2011. Lack of acclimation in Holstein calves exposed to repeated transport. J. Animal Sci. 89, Suppl 1, p.467-468.
  • Adams, A. L., G. A. Holub, T. H. Friend, A. J. Krenek, S. M. Garey, C. L. Terrill, and M. J. Carter. 2011. Repeated transport influences feed intake, but not feed efficiency in Holstein calves. J. Animal Sci. 89, Suppl 1, p.716.
  • Carter, M. J., T. H. Friend, J. Coverdale, S. M. Garey, A. L. Adams, and C. L. Terrill. 2011. A comparison of two conventional horse feeders with the Pre-Vent feeder. J. Animal Sci. 89, Suppl 1, p.675.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The experiment on relieving transport stress in slaughter horses, loose versus individual stalls, was successfully completed. Measurements on the animals included: cortisol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), C-reactive protein and a Cytokine panel of 84 key genes involved in the inflammatory response. The results of the study have been accepted for publication in a scientific journal. The experiment on the relationship between residual feed intake and feeding behavior led to a study to validate Grow Safe technology as a measure of certain types of feeding behavior. The results from that study have been accepted for publication in a scientific journal. The experiment on the effect of accelerated feeding of dairy calves on heat load was completed and summaries were presented at a national meeting. A manuscript summarizing the results has been submitted to a scientific journal. The trials determining the time-course of the cortisol, DHEA and inflammatory gene response of horses housed on pasture versus individual stalls have been completed. The laboratory work and analysis of the data are nearing completion. The second year's trials for the experiment determining the effects of long-distance transport on inflammatory response genes in cattle was completed. The laboratory work and analysis of the data is nearing completion. A manuscript summarizing the results of the study on search dog competency factors was completed and submitted to a scientific journal. An initial comparison of two conventional horse feeders with the Pre-Vent feeder was completed and a manuscript is in the final stages of preparation. Trials that are part of a study determining inflammatory and immunity related gene expression in horses during weaning was also completed. The laboratory work for that project is now underway. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators: Gordon Carstens, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Mike Tomaszewski, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Tom Edrington, FFSRU, USDA, College Station; Jason Sawyer, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Penny Riggs, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station. Professional training: Cooper Terrill, M.S. graduate student; Boone Carter, M.S. graduate student; Shannon Garey, Ph.D. graduate student; Amber Adams, Ph.D. graduate student; Robbie Calabrese, undergraduate student. TARGET AUDIENCES: The initial target audience is the scientific community involved in advising people in agriculture. Reaching that audience is being achieved through publication in scientific journals and by presenting talks on the work at national scientific meetings. Presentations are also being made at meeting with stake holders. The results of these projects are also being used by specialists with the Texas AgriLife Extension Service. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The results of the experiment on relieving transport stress in slaughter horses: loose versus individual stalls were very important to international regulations regarding the transport of horses. There has been major disagreement regarding whether horses unaccustomed to transport should be transported loose in groups or tied in individual stalls. This study found that there is not a meaningful difference. The experiments validating the use of Grow Safe technology as a measure of certain types of feeding behavior determined the correct setting that are required for the software so that researchers can accurately quantify feeding behavior, a trait that is very important in attempting to reduce the carbon foot-print of feedyard cattle. The experiment on the effect of accelerated feeding of dairy calves on heat load found that increasing the amount of energy calves consume does not increase the heat load on calves during hot weather to the point of being adverse to the calves. This is important to the welfare of calves because there was concern that accelerated feeding, which does improve the health of calves in cooler environments, could adversely influence calves in regions of the U.S. that are subject to high ambient temperatures. Although the laboratory analysis for the experiment determining the time-course of the cortisol, DHEA and inflammatory gene response of horses housed on pasture versus individual stalls and the experiment determining the effects of long-distance transport on inflammatory response genes in cattle are underway, preliminary results appear to be very useful in helping us understand how to improve their overall well-being. The experiment determining search dog competency factors found that reward based training regimens are more useful in training dogs to achieve national certification. The Pre-Vent feeder increased time the horses spent eating and reduced feed dropped on the ground, so this feeder will be beneficial for certain types of horses.

Publications

  • Garey, S. M., T. H. Friend, L. R. Berghman, D. L. Golden, A. L. Adams, and C. L. Terrill. 2010. Effects of pasture versus stall housing on cortisol and DHEA concentrations in young quarter horses. J. Animal Science 88, Suppl 2, p. 464.
  • Adams, A. L., T. H. Friend, G. A. Holub, S. M. Garey, and C. L. Terrill. 2010. Behavioral responses to feeding regimens, housing and heat stress in dairy calves. J. Animal Science 88, Suppl 2, p.790.
  • Garey, S. M., T. H. Friend, D. H. Sigler, and L. R. Berghman. 2010. The effects of transport in loose groups vs. individual stalls on glucocorticosteroids and DHEA in yearling horses. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 30:696-700. Doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2010.11.003.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The results from the study determining the relationship of feeding behavior on residual feed intake (a measure of feed and growth efficiency) have been published. A paper was presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Animal and Dairy Science that summarized the results of a study determining the effect of two common calf supplements on calf heath and well-being during hot summer conditions. Another set of trails with calves was completed during the summer of 2009 that determined the influence of accelerated feeding schedules on the response of calves to heat stress. There is some concern that greatly increasing energy intake in calves above traditional amounts may contribute to heat stress. The results of that study will be presented at the annual ASAS/ADSA meeting during the summer of 2010. A national survey of Search and Rescue dog handlers that determined factors that influence performance success on certification testing for search dogs was completed. A manuscript is being prepared for submission to a journal and the data served as a basis for an M.S. thesis. A series of trials determining whether it is less stressful to transport horses in loose groups or in individual stalls were completed. That study served as the basis for an M.S. thesis and has been submitted to a journal for publication. A paper summarizing the results was give at the Equine Science Society meeting. The results of a study that determined how much slaughter horses move about in trucks while being transported to slaughter at two densities was recently published. Another set of trials were completed during the summer of 2009 that quantified the response of 80 inflammatory related genes in horses housed in individual stalls versus housed in a group on pasture. Laboratory analysis of those samples is ongoing. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators: Gordon Carstens, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Mike Tomaszewski, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Tom Edrington, FFSRU, USDA, College Station; J.H. Matis,Department of Statistics, TAMU, College Station; Jason Sawyer, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Penny Riggs, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station. Professional training: Glenda Bingham, M.S. graduate student; Boone Carter, M.S. graduate student; Shannon Garey, Ph.D. graduate student; Amber Adams, Ph.D. graduate student; Robbie Calabrese, undergraduate student. TARGET AUDIENCES: The initial target audience is the scientific community involved in advising people in agriculture. Reaching that audience is being achieved through publication in scientific journals and by presenting talks on the work at national scientific meetings. Presentations are also being made at meeting with stake holders. The results of these projects are also being used by specialists with the Texas AgriLife Extension Service. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Our studies on RFI have clearly showed that automated systems used to quantify eating behavior can often generate erroneous data. Several studies have been initiated by ruminant nutritionists validate the use of automated systems. Predicting residual feed intake is important in research studies attempting to improve the efficiency of beef cattle because the precise measurement of feed intake that is otherwise necessary is very expensive to obtain. The supplements Betaine and Protimax did not improve the health or well-being of dairy calves, as indicated by the motivation of the calves to exercise and growth. Farmers should likely cease feeding both supplements. As reported last year, the national survey of Search and Rescue dog handlers found that more aversive training aids were used as the dogs aged. The type of training method (positive vs negative reinforcement) did not influence performance success on certification testing for search dogs. Although the European Union is mandating that non-registered (slaughter) horses be transported in individual stalls, our studies did not show an advantage over loose groups. Horses kept in individual stalls prior to transport, however, showed a greater stress response to transport than when those horses that were kept in groups prior to transport. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) plasma concentrations are not useful as an indicator of isolation stress in horses. Cortisol was the most useful single measure of stress. Mean movement rate of slaughter horses tended to be higher during travel (4.23 m/hr) than during the 1-hr periods when the truck was stopped (2.75 m/hr), but did not appear to be influenced by group density. Movement was stimulated by the availability of water during the rest stops. In general, movement was strongly influenced by one or two horses causing disruption of the group, and was not often caused by independent actions of members of the group.

Publications

  • Edrington, T. S., B. H. Carter, T. H. Friend, G. R. Hagevoort, T. L. Poole, T. R. Callaway, R. C. Anderson and D. J. Nisbet. 2009. Influence of sprinklers, used to alleviate heat stress, on fecal shedding and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria in lactating dairy cattle. Letters in Appl. Micro. 48:738-743. Doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765x.2009.02603.
  • Garey, S. M., T. H. Friend, D. H. Sigler, L. R. Berghman, S. C. Turr, A. D. Hayes, D. Golden, and K. Johnson-Schroeder. 2009. The effects of loose groups vs. individual stalls during transport and group vs. stall housing on glucocorticosteroids and DHEA in naive yearling horses. Equine Science Society Proceedings, J. Equine Vet. Sci. 29:413-414.
  • Friend, T. H. 2009. Transportation of Horses. In: N. E. Robinson. Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. 6th edition. Saunders, New York. P 119-123.
  • Calabrese, R, and T. H. Friend. 2009. Effects of density and rest stops on movement rates of unrestrained horses during transport. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 29:782-785. Doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2009.10.005.
  • Bingham, G.M., T. H. Friend, P. A. Lancaster, and G. E. Carstens. 2009. Relationship between feeding behavior and residual feed intake in growing Brangus heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2685-2689. Doi:10.2527/jas.2009-1851.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The results from a study determining the relationship of feeding behavior on residual feed intake (a measure of feed and growth efficiency) were presented at a scientific meeting, were the subject of an M.S. thesis and were submitted to a scientific journal for publication. A paper will be presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Animal and Dairy Science that summarizes the results of a study determining the effect of two common calf supplements on calf heath and well-being during hot summer conditions. A national survey of Search and Rescue dog handlers that determined factors that influence performance success on certification testing for search dogs was completed. The data are now being analyzed and are serving as a basis for an M.S. thesis. The results of a study evaluating the behavior patterns of laying hens on alfalfa molt diets was completed. A dissertation in Poultry Science and two behavior related journal papers came from this project. A series of trials determining whether it is less stressful to transport naive horses in loose groups or in individual stalls was completed. Analysis of plasma concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and a Cytokine panel of 84 key genes involved in the inflammatory response have been completed. A paper summarizing the results will be give at the Equine Science Society meeting, and will be the subject of a M.S. thesis. The results of our transportation studies are the subject of a chapter in a very popular veterinary reference book, Current Therapy in Equine Medicine, 6th edition, that was just published. A study that determined how much slaughter horses move about in trucks while being transported to slaughter at two densities was completed and has been submitted to a journal. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators: Gordon Carstens, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Mike Tomaszewski, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station; Tom Edrington, FFSRU, USDA, College Station; J.H. Matis,Department of Statistics, TAMU, College Station; Jason Sawyer, Department of Animal Science, TAMU, College Station. Professional training: Glenda Bingham, M.S. graduate student; Boone Carter, M.S. graduate student; Heath Neville, M.S. graduate student; Shannon Garey, M.S. graduate student; Ben Alexander, M.S. graduate student; Sara Tutt, undergraduate student; Robbie Calabrese, undergraduate student. TARGET AUDIENCES: The initial target audience is the scientific community involved in advising people in agriculture. Reaching that audience is being achieved through publication in scientific journals and by presenting talks on the work at national scientific meetings. Presentations are also being made at meeting with stake holders. The results of these projects are also being used by specialists with the Texas AgriLife Extension Service. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Head-down eating is a much better predictor of residual feed intake (a measure of feed and growth efficiency) than the present predictor "meals". Predicting residual feed intake is important in research studies attempting to improve the efficiency of beef cattle because the precise measurement of feed intake that is otherwise necessary is very expensive to obtain. The supplements Betaine and Protimax did not improve the health or well-being of dairy calves, as indicated by the motivation of the calves to exercise. The national survey of Search and Rescue dog handlers found that more aversive training aids were used as the dogs aged. The type of training method (positive vs negative reinforcement) did not influence performance success on certification testing for search dogs. Alfalfa molt diets are useful in improving the well-being of hens during molts, as indicate by more normal behavior patterns. There appears to be little difference in the stress responses of horses being transported in loose groups or in individual stalls. Horses kept in individual stalls prior to transport, however, showed a greater stress response to transport than when those horses that were in kept in groups prior to transport. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) plasma concentrations appear to be useful as an indicator of isolation stress in horses. Twelve of the 84 key genes involved in the inflammatory response that were tested showed increased expression during transport. Those 12 genes will be further investigated. Mean movement rate of slaughter horses tended to be higher during travel (4.23 m/hr) than during the 1-hr periods when the truck was stopped (2.75 m/hr), but did not appear to be influenced by group density. Movement was stimulated by the availability of water during the rest stops. In general, movement was strongly influenced by one or two horses causing disruption of the group, and was not often caused by independent actions of members of the group.

Publications

  • Krawczel, P. D., T. H. Friend and G. S. Archer. 2008. Behavior of lambs in rest pens during long-distance transport. J. Applied Anim. Welfare Sci. 11:337-345. Doi: 10.1080/10888700802329996.
  • Dunkley, C. S., T. H. Friend, J. L. McReynolds, C.L. Woodward, W. K. Kim, K.D. Dunkley, L. F. Kubena, D. J. Nisbet and S. C Ricke. 2008. Behavioral Responses of Laying Hens to Different Alfalfa-Layer Ration Combinations Fed During Molting. J. Poultry Sci. 87:815-822. Doi:10.3382/ps.2006-00385.
  • Dunkley, C. S., T. H. Friend, J. L. McReynolds, W. K. Kim, K.D. Dunkley, L. F. Kubena, D. J. Nisbet and S. C Ricke. 2008. Behavior of Laying Hens on Alfalfa Crumble Molt Diets. J. Poultry Sci. 87:1005-1011. Doi:10.3382/ps.2006-00386.
  • Archer, G. S., T. H. Friend, D. Caldwell, P. D. Krawczel, C. M. Iacono, H. Keen and T. Martin. 2008A. The impact of feeding several components of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum on transported lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology140:258-271.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The project developed a practical on-board watering system for single-deck semi trailers and the research evaluating the watering system was presented at scientific meetings and published in scientific journals. This project also determined the efficacy of a set of proposed regulations governing the transportation of horses and sheep that are currently being considered by the European Union. The proposed E.U. regulations mandate a series of rest stops that will increase the duration that an animal spends in transit on a 24 hour long trip to 54 hours. The results of that study were presented at scientific meetings, communicated to the E.U., and have either been published or are accepted for publication. The last data from a series of studies that determined the impact that access to exercise pens and daily performances has on circus tigers has been accepted for publication. The results from a study determining the influence of behavior on residual feed intake (a measure of feed and growth efficiency) were presented at a scientific meeting and are in the final stages of review before being submitted to a scientific journal for publication. Two studies were also completed on the usefulness of on-board rest stops for slaughter horses being transported long distances. The results of one study were published while the results of a second study have been submitted to a journal for publication. Another project determining the usefulness of a seaweed based supplement on mediating transportation stress was completed. The results of that project were presented at scientific meeting and were published or have been accepted for publication. Preliminary experiments evaluating the usefulness of creating cross ventilation in commercial cattle trailers on reducing weight loss, heat stress, animal borne pathogens, post-transport morbidity, and fuel consumption were completed and the results presented at scientific meetings. PARTICIPANTS: People who participated as individuals are listed as coauthors. The major partner for the transport related studies was the USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services and the Department of Poultry Science at Texas A&M. The major partner for the circus tiger study (and other circus related projects) was the USDA, APHIS, Animal Care. TARGET AUDIENCES: The results of these studies were first presented at international scientific meetings as oral presentations (American Society of Animal Science, International Society for Applied Ethology, Equine Science Society) and then were subjected to peer review and published in international scientific journals. The transportation studies are also the subject of a soon to be published chapter in a very popular reference book (Friend, T. H. 2008. Transportation of Horses. In: N. E. Robinson. Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. 6th edition. Saunders, New York. (In press).) The circus related studies were the subject of many popular articles and were in a British report "Circus Working Group - Academic Sub-Group, for the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs, UK." The report concluded that there is no scientific basis for banning elephants or other species from UK circuses.

Impacts
The on-board watering system is now available should transport times for slaughter horses greatly increase. The watering system also has application for other species, however, the project found that on-board watering will not be very useful unless animals are transported longer than 24 h during hot conditions. The studies that evaluated the proposed E.U. regulations found that the rest stops did reduce physiological signs of hunger and suppression of humoral immune function when compared to sheep that were transported straight through. However, the rest stops did not alter other measure of stress or the animals' motivation to eat or drink. Also, the initial 6 h long rest stop that followed 8 h of transport was not useful. Also, it appears that the longer 24 h rest stop need only be 10 h long for animals to get adequate rest. The information provided by these studies have had direct impact in the U.S. and E.U. as legislators consider regulations for the transport of livestock. The studies on circus animals have been pivotal in decisions regarding the banning of exotic animals in circuses in the UK. The study determining whether on-board rest stops for slaughter horses being transported to slaughter are efficacious found that horses do not get meaningful rest. The horses maintained a high level of activity during the rest stops, indicating that even after 24 hours of transport horses are not fatigued to the point that they cease activity and rest. It is much more useful to complete the trip as soon as possible than to extend the time horses spend in trials to have on-board rest stops. Although the seaweed supplement appeared to help mediate heat stress during long-distance transportation, it consistently suppressed aspects of immune function, which could help lead to increased post-transport morbidity. Some people had been advocating the feeding seaweed supplements to reduce stress, but we now know it is not efficacious.

Publications

  • Iacono, C. M., T. H. Friend, H. Keen, T. Martin, and P. Krawczel. 2007. Effects of density and water availability on the behavior, physiology, and weight loss of slaughter horses during transport. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 27:355-361.
  • Iacono, C. M., T. H. Friend, R. D. Johnson, P. D. Krawczel and G. S. Archer. 2007. A preliminary study on the utilization of an onboard watering system by horses during commercial transport. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 105:227-231.
  • Krawczel, P. D., T. H. Friend, D. J. Caldwell, G. Archer and K. Ameiss. 2007. Effects of continuous versus intermittent transport on plasma constituents and antibody response of lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 85:468-476.
  • Archer, G. S., T. H. Friend, D. Caldwell, K. Ameiss and P. D. Krawczel. 2007. Effect of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum on lambs during forced walking and transport. J. Anim. Sci. 85:225-232.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
A practical on-board watering system for single-deck semi trailers was developed and successfully tested. The results of several studies related to that project have been published or are accepted for publication in scientific journals. Another set of studies that determined the efficacy of a set of proposed regulations governing the transportation of horses and sheep that are currently being considered by the European Union. The proposed E.U. regulations mandate a series of rest stops that will increase the duration that an animal spends in transit on a 24 hour long trip to 54 hours. The results of that project have been accepted for publication. The results of a projects determining the impact that access to exercise pens or the number of daily performances circus tigers have on stereotypic behavior was completed and the results were published. The animal trials for a study determining the influence of behavior on the efficiency of beef cattle was completed. The data are now being analyzed and prepared for publication. Two studies were also completed on the usefulness of on-board rest stops for slaughter horses being transported long distances. The results of one study were published while the results of a second study have been submitted to a journal for publication.

Impacts
The on-board watering system is now available should transport times for slaughter horses greatly increase, which could happen if the slaughter plants in the U.S. close and horses are exported to Mexico. The project that evaluated the proposed E.U. regulations found that the rest stops did reduce physiological signs of hunger and suppression of humoral immune function when compared to sheep that were transported straight through. However, the rest stops did not alter other measure of stress or the animals motivation to eat or drink, and the added costs of having a driver and truck idle for 6 or 24 hours during rest stops is problematic. The information provided by the project has been extremely valuable to decision makers as they attempt to develop regulations for transport of livestock. The projects on circus animals have been pivotal in decisions regarding the banning of exotic animals in circuses in the UK. The projects determining whether on-board rest stops for slaughter horses being transported to slaughter are efficacious found that horses do not get meaningful rest. They maintain a high level of activity during the rest stops, indicating that even after 24 hours of transport, horses are not fatigued to the point that they cease activity and rest. It is much more useful to complete the trip as soon as possible than to extend the time horses spend in trials to have on-board rest stops.

Publications

  • Nevill, C. H. and T. H. Friend. 2006. A preliminary study on the effects of limited access to an exercise pen on stereotypic pacing in circus tigers. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 101:355-361.
  • Friend, T. H., H. A. Keen, C. M. Iacono. 2006. Activity of unrestrained horses during on-truck rest stops. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 26:573-577.
  • Krawczel, P. D., T. H. Friend and R. Johnson. 2006. A note on the preference of naive horses for different water bowls. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 100:309-313.
  • Krawczel, P.D., T.H. Friend and A. Windom. 2006. Stereotypic behavior of circus tigers: Effects of performance. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 95:189-198.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
A practical on-board watering system for single-deck semi trailers was developed and successfully tested. Trials were completed during the summer of 2004 and 2005 to determine the effects that density of horses had on utilization of the watering system and on aggression. The results of that project have been submitted to a scientific journal for publishing. Another set of studies were completed that compared a set of proposed regulations governing the transportation of horses and sheep that are currently being considered by the European Union to current U.S. regulations. The proposed E.U. regulations mandate a series of rest stops that will increase the duration that an animal spends in transit on a 24 hour long trip to 54 hours. The results of that project are in the final stages of publication. The results of a project determining the impact that the number of daily performances circus tigers have on stereotypic behavior was completed and the results were published. A study determining the influence of behavior on the efficiency of beef cattle was initiated during the Fall of 2005. Trials were completed using 160 heifers and the behavioral data are now in the process of being complied.

Impacts
Horses could utilize the on-board water system equally when loaded at high, medium or low density. Overall, the truck mounted watering system reduced shrink only during the hottest weather. Aggression was not influenced by density, but mostly by the personality of individual horses. This project will have significant impact on the transportation of slaughter should slaughter in the U.S. be banned and time in transport greatly increases as horses are transported to Mexico. The project evaluating the proposed E.U. regulations found that the rest stops did reduce physiological signs of hunger and suppression of humoral immune function when compared to sheep that were transported straight through. However, the rest stops did not alter the animals motivation to eat or drink, and the added costs of having a driver and truck idle for 6 or 24 hours during rest stops is problematic. The project determining whether stereotypic behavior in circus tigers is important because it found that stereotypic behavior was not related to a lack of exercise. Stereotypic pacing was stimulated by external stimuli, and hence, the behavior is not indicative of chronic stress.

Publications

  • Krawczel, P.D., T.H. Friend and A. Windom. 2005. Effects of performance on stereotypic behavior in circus tigers. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 95:189-198.
  • Williard, S. T., D. C. Lay Jr., T. H. Friend, D. A. Neuendorff, and R. D. Randel. 2005. Plasma progesterone response following ACTH administration during mid-gestation in the pregnant Brahman heifer. Theriogenology 63:1061-1069.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
A practical on-board watering system for single-deck semi trailers was developed and successfully tested. Trials were completed during the summer of 2004 to determine the effects that density of horses had on utilization of the watering system and on aggression. Another set of studies were completed that compared a set of proposed regulations governing the transportation of horses and sheep that are currently being considered by the European Union to current U.S. regulations. The proposed E.U. regulations mandate a series of rest stops that will increase the duration that an animal spends in transit on a 24 hour long trip to 54 hours. The results of that project are in the final stages of publication. The results of a project determining the utilization of exercise pens by circus tigers are in the final stages of being published. The project determining the efficacy of clicker training in horses was also recently completed and the results were published. The study comparing the variation in behavior and physiology of the offspring of identical clone and naturally bred pigs is in the final stages of completion.

Impacts
Horses could utilize the on-board water system equally when loaded at high, medium or low density. Overall, the truck mounted watering system appears to reduced shrink by approximately half, although we expect that water consumption and shrink will vary with environmental temperature. The effect of density on aggression is still being determined from video taken during the trips. The project evaluating the proposed E.U. regulations found that the rest stops did reduce physiological signs of hunger and suppression of humoral immune function when compared to sheep who were transported straight through. However, the rest stops did not alter the animals motivation to eat or drink, and the added costs of having a driver and truck idle for 6 or 24 hours during rest stops is problematic. The use of a clicker in training horses to a specific task did not have an advantage over traditional training methods.

Publications

  • Williams, J. L., T. H. Friend, C. H. Nevill, and G. Archer. 2004. The efficacy of a secondary reinforcer (clicker) during acquisition and extinction of an operant task in horses. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.88:331-341.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
A series of experiments were conducted that determined behavioral, physiological and production responses of livestock and other species used by humans to certain acute and chronic stressors, and provide information useful to improving the well-being of livestock and other species. One major project that was recently started involved the development of a practical on-board watering system for single-deck semi trailers. A prototype was constructed and improved during the course of four trails. Those trials proved that the watering system was worthy of further evaluation and study. Another set of studies are being initiated that will compare a set of proposed regulations governing the transportation of horses and sheep that are currently being considered by the European Union to current U.S. regulations. The proposed E.U. regulations mandate a series of rest stops that will increase the duration that an animal spends in transit on a 24 hour long trip to 54 hours. Our objective is to determine if the mandated unloading and rest periods are efficacious in improving the welfare of transporte livestock. A manuscript is being prepared on the utilization of exercise pens by circus tigers. The project determining the efficacy of clicker training in horses was also recently completed and the results are being published. The study comparing the variation in behavior and physiology of idential clone and naturally bred pigs was completed and recently published. An experiment conducted in Slovakia found that the way dairy calves are managed prior to weaning can significantly influence the behavior of the calves after weaning.

Impacts
Overall, the truck mounted watering system appears to reduced shrink by approximately half, although we expect that water consumption and shrink will vary with environmental temperature. In one of our trials, one compartment of 10 horses that was offered water twice during a 16 hour trip had a 1.06% increase in body weight. The studies on circus animals are being used by the circus industry and USDA to formulate guidelines for the transport and management of elephants and tigers. Imprint training of foals and clicker training in general has become very popular in the horse industry. However, the results of this research indicate that both imprint training and clicker training are of no value. The study on behavioral variation of cloned pigs had a major impact on the world's perception of cloning. Cloning is no more likely to produce an animal with personality traits similar to the donor than conventional breeding.

Publications

  • Broucek, J., M. Uhrincat, C. W. Arave, T. H. Friend, S. Mihina, P. Kisac and A. Hanus. 2002. Effects of rearing methods of heifers during milk replacement period on their postweaning behaviour in the maze. Acta Vet. Brno. 71:509-516.
  • Williams, J. L., T. H. Friend, M. J. Toscano, M. N. Collins, A. Sisto-Burt, and C. H. Nevill. 2003. The effects of an imprint training procedure conducted at birth on the reactions of foals at six months of age. Equine Veterinary J. 35:127-132.
  • Archer, G. S., T. H. Friend, J. Piedrahita, C. H. Nevill, and S. Walker. 2003. Behavioral variation among cloned pigs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 82:151-161.
  • Archer, G. S., S. Dindot, T. H. Friend, S. Walker, G. Zaunbrecher, B. Lawhorn and J. A. Piedrahita. 2003. Hierarchial phenotypic and epigenetic variation in cloned swine. Biol. Reprod. 69:430-436.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
A series of experiments are being conducted that will determine behavioral, physiological and production responses of livestock and other species used by humans to certain acute and chronic stressors, and provide information useful to improving the well-being of livestock and other species. The field trials have been completed for a project determining the exercise requirements of circus tigers, results should be available next year. A related project that is nearing completion is determining the activity patterns of tigers in enriched zoo environments. Another series of projects that were recently completed involve determining the effect imprint training of foals has on the foals' later responses to training and stress. A project determining the effects of season on coping strategies of dairy cattle was also recently completed and results will be available shortly. A project determining the efficacy of clicker training in horses was also recently completed and the results are being published. Another sutdy was recently completed that compared the variation in behavior and physiology of idential clone and naturally bred pigs, the results of which will be published by the summer of 2003. Because of the success of an earlier series of studies on the transportation of slaughter horses, a new project was recently initated to investigate methods of reducing stress on horses transported long distances to salughter. Trials for this project are expected to last through the summer of 2004.

Impacts
The horse transport studies have been instrumental in providing a basis for USDA and Canada to formulate regulations for the transport of slaughter horses. They have also provided important information for all people who transport horses. Similarly, the studies on circus animals are being used by the circus industry and USDA to formulate guidelines for the transport and management of elephants and tigers. Imprint training of foals and clicker training in general has become very popular in the horse industry. However, the results of this research indicate that both imprint training and clicker training are of no value. The study on behavioral variation of cloned pigs was the first of its kind to prove that there is as much behavioral and physiological variation in cloned animals as in naturally bred animals.

Publications

  • Archer, G. 2002. Behavioral, Physical,a nd Physiological Variation Among Litters of Cloned Pigs. M.S. dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station.
  • Sisto, Anne. 2002. Effects of Seasons on Coping Strategies of Low and High Producing Dairy Cows. Ph.D. dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station.
  • Williams, J. L. 2002. Clicker Training: Operant Conditioning and Secondary Reinforcers in Horse Training. Ph.D. dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station.
  • Williams, J. L., T. H. Friend, M. J. Toscano, M. N. Collins, A. Sisto-Burt, and C. H. Nevill. 2002. The effects of imprint training on the reactions of foals at one, two, and three months of age. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 77:105-114.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
A series of experiments are being conducted that will determine behavioral, physiological and production responses of livestock and related species to certain acute and chronic stressors, and provide information useful to improving the well-being of livestock and other species. A series of studies have been completed that investigated various aspects of the transportation of slaughter and performance horses. Another project that determined the effect of confinement of young calves on stress and their motivation to exercise has also been successfully completed. A project that is investigating the ability of pigs to form mental maps has also just been completed. A partially completed project is determining the exercise requirements of circus tigers, results should be available next year. A related project that is nearing completion is determining the activity patterns of tigers in enriched zoo environments. Another series of projects that are in the final stages of completion involve determining the effect imprint training of foals has on the foals' later responses to training and stress.

Impacts
The horse transport studies have been instrumental in providing a basis for USDA to formulate regulations for the transport of slaughter horses. They have also provided important information for all people who transport horses. Similarly, the studies on circus animals are being used by the circus industry and USDA to formulate guidelines for the transport and management of elephants and tigers. Imprint training of foals has become very popular in the horse industry. However, there have not been any scientific studies that have determined whether imprint training is efficacious. The results of this reserach indicate that imprint training is of no value.

Publications

  • Sisto, A. M. and T. H. Friend. 2001. The effect of confinement on motivation to exercise in young dairy calves. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 73:83-91.
  • Toscano, M.J. and T. H. Friend. 2001. A note on the effects of forward and rear-facing orientations on movement of horses during transport. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 73:281-287.
  • Friend, T. H. 2001. A review of recent research on the transportation of horses. J. Anim. Sci. 79(E.Suppl.):E32-E40.
  • Toscano, M. 2001. Environmental Conditions and Responses of Circus Elephants Transported by Truck and Railcar during Relatively High and Low Temperatures. M.S. Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station.
  • Scallan, E. M. 2001. Mental Mapping Abilities in Domestic Swine. M.S. Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
A series of experiments are being conducted that will determine behavioral, physiological and production responses of livestock to certain acute and chronic stressors, and provide information useful to improving the well-being of livestock and other species. A series of studies have been completed that investigated various aspects of the transportation of slaughter and performance horses. Another project that determined the effect of confinement of young calves on stress and their motivation to exercise has also been successfully completed. Partially completed projects include a series determining the responses of circus elephants and tigers to transportation during extreme climatic conditions. Another partially related project is determining the exercise requirements of circus tigers. Another series of projects that are partially completed involves determining the effect imprint training of foals has on the foals' later responses to stress. There is also a project underway that is investigating the ability of pigs to form mental maps.

Impacts
The horse transport studies have been instrumental in providing a basis for USDA to formulate regulations for the transport of slaughter horses. They have also provided important information for all people who transport horses. Similarly, the studies on circus animals are being used by the circus industry and USDA to formulate guidelines for the transport and management of elephants and tigers. Imprint training of foals has become very popular in the horse industry. However, there have not been any scientific studies that have determined whether imprint training is efficacious.

Publications

  • Collins, M. N., T. H. Friend, F. D. Jousan and S. C. Chen. 2000. Effects of density on displacement, falls, injuries, and orientation during horse transportation. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 67:169-179.
  • Gruber, T. M., T. H. Friend, J. M. Gardner, J. M. Packard, B. Beaver, and D. Bushong. 2000. Variation in stereotypic behavior related to restraint in circus elephants. Zoo Biology 19:209-221.
  • Friend, T. H. 2000. Dehydration, stress and water consumption in horses during long-distance commercial transport. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2568-2580.
  • Gibbs, A. E. and T. H. Friend. 2000. Effect of animal density and trough placement on drinking behavior and dehydration in slaughter horses. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 20:643-650.
  • Collins, M. N. 2000. Effects of density on displacement, falls, injuries, and orientation during horse transportation. M.S. Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
A series of experiments are being conducted that will determine behavioral, physiological and production responses of livestock to certain acute and chronic stressors, and provide information useful to improving the well-being of livestock and other species. One completed experiment characterized dehydration, health and behavioral responses of horses transported long distances in commercial trailers under hot weather conditions. An additional series of experiments are being couducted that are determining the effects of density on the ability of horses to maintain their balance, their preferred orientation during transport and their coping strategies during changes in speed and direction. Another set of experiments is evaluating the use of swim training as a model for differentiating between eustress and distress. A series of experiments are also being conducted that are determining the effects of close confinement on the motivation of animals (calves and elephants) to perform coping behaviors and the relationship of close confinement to health and immune function.

Impacts
Although commercial shipments may last for 36 hours, the research found that horses should not be transported for more than 24 hours under hot conditions without access to water. Catecholamines appear to be a useful means of paritioning the psuchological component of stress. Stereotypic behavior increases in circus elephants prior to feeding, watering and performances, while maintaining them in pens will reduce stereotypic behavior by almost fifty percent.

Publications

  • Anderson, M. K., T. H. Friend, J. W. Evans and D. M. Bushong. 1999. Behavioral assessment of horses in therapeutic riding programs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 63:11-24.
  • Friend, T. 1999. Behavior of picketed circus elephants. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 62:73-88.
  • Friend, T. H. and M. L. Parker. 1999. The effect of penning versus picketing on stereotypic behavior of circus elephants. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 64:213-225.
  • Sisto, A. M. 1999. The effect of confinement on motivation to exercise in young dairy calves. M.S. Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
A series of experiments are being conducted that will determine behavioral, physiological and production responses of livestock to certain acute and chronic stressors, and provide information useful to improving the well-being of livestock and other species. One completed experiment characterized dehydration, health and behavioral responses of horses transported long distances in commercial trailers under hot weather conditions. Although commercial shipments may last for 36 hours, the research found that horses should not be transported for more than 24 hours under hot conditions without access to water. An additional series of experiments are being couducted that are determining the effects of density on the ability of horses to maintain their balance, their preferred orientation during transport and their coping strategies during changes in speed and direction. Another set of experiments is evaluating the use of swim training as a model for differentiating between eustress and distress. Catecholamines appear to be a useful means of paritioning the psuchological component of stress. A series of experiments are also being conducted that are determining the effects of close confinement on the motivation of animals (calves and elephants) to perform coping behaviors and the relationship of close confinement to health and immune function.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Friend, T. H., M. Martin, D. Householder and D. M. Bushong. 1998. Stress responses of horses during commercial truck transport. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 212:838-844.
  • Friend, T. H. 1998. Behavior of picketed circus elephants. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 62:73-88.
  • Bjorge, M. K., T. H. Friend, J. W. Evans and D. M. Bushong. 1998. Behavioral assessment of horses in therapeutic riding programs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. (in press).
  • Gibbs, A. E. and T. H. Friend. 1998. Horse preference for orientation during transport and the effect of orientation on balancing ability. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. (accepted).
  • Lanier, E. K. 1998. Eustress versus Distress in Swine. M.S. Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station.