Source: NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV submitted to
MANAGEMENT OF WHEAT FOLIAR DISEASES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0176611
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ND02343
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 1997
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2004
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Rasmussen, J.
Recipient Organization
NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV
(N/A)
FARGO,ND 58105
Performing Department
PLANT PATHOLOGY
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
60%
Applied
40%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2121541116010%
2121541117010%
2121545116010%
2121545117010%
2124020116010%
2124020117010%
2161541116010%
2161541117010%
2161545116010%
2161545117010%
Goals / Objectives
1. Analyze the primay and secondary cycles of a tan spot epidemic. 2. Develop a near-real time forecasting system of wheat foliar diseases based on prediction of daily infection. 3. Contribute to genetic, biochemical, and physiological research on the tan spot-wheat interaction.
Project Methods
1. Component parts of a tan spot epidemic will be measured experimentally and analyzed statistically. 2. Artificial neural networks will optimally predict daily infection and disease management scenarios based on prediction and will be field tested. 3. Additiional phytotoxins will be sought in fungal isolates from nature. Germplasm will be screened for sensitivity to toxins. Inheritance will be analyzed with traditional and molecular genetics.

Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/04

Outputs
Research was conducted to improve management of foliar and head diseases of wheat. Advanced breeding lines of hard red spring wheat (n= 46) and white spring wheat (n=114) were tested for their reaction to tan spot, Stagonospora nodorum leaf blotch. Some of the tested lines exhibited resistance to both diseases. These lines will be utilized as sources of resistance in the appropriate breeding program to manage leaf diseases in the state. 388 RI lines developed from the cross between Wangshuibai and ND671 were screened to identify the chromosomal location of genes responsible for the resistance to FHB of Wangshuibai. Diseased wheat leave samples were collected from NDSU Experimental Research Stations and farmers fields to monitor the predominant leaf spotting pathogens. Leptosphaeria avenaria f sp. triticea, previously thought to be a minor pathogen of wheat, was found to be the most prevalent species in the eastern part of the state. Pyrenophra tritici-repentis (Tan spot) and Stagnospora nodorum were also observed on most of the samples analyzed. Fifty-one isolates of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis obtained from the Czech Republic and Poland were analyzed for their race structure. The isolates were grouped into races 1, 2, 3, and 4. Race 1 was the most prevalent race in both countries. Effect of inoculum levels on the development of Fusarium head scab of wheat was studied under field conditions. FHB disease incidence was significantly different among the inoculum levels. NDSU Small Grain Disease Forecasting System was deployed via the internet and toll-free number. The system provided forecasts for tan spot, Stagnospora nodorum leaf blotch, leaf rust, and Fusarium head blight. Regionally specific forecasts were provided for 56 locations in Minnesota and North Dakota. The leaf diseases forecasts were based on prediction of infection period while Fusarium head blight forecasts were based on weather variables (rain, humidity, temperature etc) crucial for the disease development.

Impacts
Diseases take an annual and in some years a heavy toll on northern Great Plains wheat production. FHB alone has caused millions of dollars losses to ND wheat farming community in the last decade. Wheat producers suffer economic loss, which impacts farm sustainability, and the viability of the entire industry is threatened. This research program consists of multiple projects that attack the problem from basic host-parasite genetics research to decision support system for the farming community.

Publications

  • Ali, S., J. Sarova, and W. Wakulinski. 2004. Pyrenophora tritici-repentis races in Czech Republic and Poland. Phytopathology 94:S3.
  • Ali, S., M. McMullen, and T. Adhikari 2004. Effect of inoculum levels on head scab of wheat under field conditions in North Dakota. Proceeding of the Second International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight held at Orlando, Florida. p. 431.
  • Liu, Z. H., J. Farris, S. W. Meinhardt, S. Ali, J.B. Rasmussen, and T. Friesen. 2004. Genetic and physical mapping of a gene conditioning sensitivity in wheat to a partially purified host-selective toxin produced by Stagnospora nodorum. Phytopathology 94:1056-1060.
  • Liu, Z. H., T. L. Friesen, J. B. Rasmussen, S. Ali, S. W. Meinhardt, and J. D. Farris. 2004. Quantitative trait loci analysis and mapping of seedling resistance Stagnospora leaf blotch in wheat. Phytopathology 94:1061-1067.
  • B.L. Gebhard, W.A. Berzonsky, S. Ali, and G. Leach. 2004. Backcross reciprocal monosomic analysis of Fusarium Head Blight resistance in Frontana wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Proceeding of the Second International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight held at Orlando, Florida .
  • Hernandez J. L.G., A. Del Blanco, S. Ali, W.A. Berzonski, and S. F. Kianian. 2004. Genetics of the resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in the hexaploid wheat Wangshuibai: the role of epistatic interactions. Proceeding of the Second International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight held at Orlando, Florida.
  • Molineros, J., L. Madden, P. Lipps, G. Shaner, L. Osborne, S. Ali, and L. Francl. 2004. Comparison of methods for developing Fusarium head blight disease forecasting models. Proceeding of the Second International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight held at Orlando, Florida . p. 475.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
Research was conducted to improve management of foliar and head diseases of wheat. Advanced breeding lines of hard red spring wheat (n= 67) and white spring wheat (n=142) were tested for their reaction to tan spot, Stagonospora nodorum leaf blotch, and Fusarium head blight. A new host-selective toxin produced by Stagonosopra nodorum was isolated. The toxin seems to be a protein and acts as a virulence, not a pathogenicity factor in the host-pathogen interaction. A new host selective toxin Ptr ToxD produced Pyrenophora tritici-repentis race 7 was isolated. The role of the toxin is under investigation. Wheat crop was monitored from seedling to adult stages under different regimes (fungicide sprayed/unsprayed) to see if the leaves serve as an additional avenue for source of inoculum for Fusarium head blight. Fusarium graminearum was recovered consistently in high frequency under the unsprayed treatment from the leaves during all plant stages. DON was detected in wheat leaves inoculated with F. graminearum under greenhouse conditions. Disease forecasting models for tan spot, Stagonospora leaf blotch, leaf rust, and Fusarium head blight were deployed via the internet and toll-free number. Regionally specific forecasts were provided for 56 locations in Minnesota and North Dakota. Leaf diseases forecasts were based on prediction of infection period while Fusarium head blight forecasts were based on airborne spore counts, humidity, temperature, etc.

Impacts
Diseases take an annual and in some years a heavy toll on northern Great plains wheat productivity and quality. Wheat producers suffer economic loss, which impacts farm sustainability, and the viability of the entire industry is threatened. This research program consists on multiple projects that attack the problem from basic host-parasite genetics research to decision support system for the farming community.

Publications

  • Ali, S., and L. J. Francl 2003. Population race structure of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis prevalent on wheat and non-cereal grasses Plant Disease 87:418-422.
  • Friesen, T.L., S. Ali, S. Kianian, L. J. Francl, and J. B. Rasmussen 2003. Role of host sensitivity to Ptr ToxA in development of tan spot. Phytopathology 93:397-401.
  • Ali, S., R. Cartwright , J. Rasmussen , T. Friesen ,and G. Milus 2003. Novel Pyrenophora tritici-repentis isolates from Arkansas wheat. Phytopathology 92:S
  • Ali, S., J. Rasmussen , T. Friesen , M. Mergoum, and E. Elias 2003. Reaction of hard red spring and durum wheat breeding lines to Ptr ToxA and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Phytopathology 92:S
  • Liu Z. H., T. L. Friesen, J. D. Faris, S. Meinhardt, S. Ali, and J. B. Rassmussen 2003. Mapping of wheat sensitivity to a partially purified host-selective toxin produced by Stagonospora nodorum. Global Insights into the Septoria and Stagnospora Diseases of Cereals. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Septoria and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals. Tunis, Tunisia. Gert H. J. Keema, M. Ginkel, and M. Harrabi (eds.). pp 139-142.
  • Ali, S. 2003. Recovery of Fusarium graminearum, cause of wheat head scab, and deoxynivalenol from inoculated leaves at adult plant stage in the greenhouse . National Fusarium Head Blight Forum Proceedings held at Bloomington, MN. pp 121.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
Research was conducted to improve management of foliar and head diseases of wheat. Advanced breeding lines of hard red spring wheat, white spring wheat, and durum were tested for their reaction to tan spot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch, and Fusarium head blight. All, except two, isolates of P. tritici-repentis recovered from various non-cereal grasses leaf samples collected from norther Great Plains belonged to race 4; therefore, these grasses may not have any significant role in tan spot disease epidemiology. Two new races of P. tritici-repentis were identified. Host-parasite genetics of Ptr ToxC sensitivity in the tan spot-wheat system was determined at both seedling and adult plant stages of 114 spring wheat inbred lines and the QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 1A was associated with the toxin insensitivity. Wheat crop was monitored from seedling to adult stages to see if the leaves serve as an additional avenue for source of inoculum for Fusarium head blight, and Fusarium graminearum was recovered consistently from the leaves during all plant stages. Disease forecasting models for tan spot, Stagonospora leaf blotch, leaf rust, and Fusarium head blight were deployed via the internet and toll-free number. Regionally specific forecasts were provided for 43 locations in Minnesota and North Dakota. Leaf diseases forecasts were based on prediction of infection period while Fusarium head blight forecasts were based on airborne spore level.

Impacts
Diseases take an annual and often large toll on northern Great plains wheat productivity and quality. Wheat producers suffer economic loss, which impacts farm sustainability, and the viability of the entire industry is threatened. This research program consists on multiple projects that attack the problem from basic host-parasite genetics research to decision support system for the farming community.

Publications

  • Effertz, R. J., Meinhardt, S. W., Anderson, J. A., Jordahl, J. G., and Francl, L. J. 2002. Identification of a chlorosis inducing toxin from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and chromosomal location of an insensitivity locus in wheat. Phytopathology 92:527-533
  • Ali, S., and Francl, L. J. 2001. Progression of Fusarium species on wheat leaves from seedling to adult stages in North Dakota. Proceedings of the 2001 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Erlanger, KY. pp 99.
  • Ali, S., and Francl, L. J. 2002. A new race of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis from Brazil. Plant Disease 86:1050.
  • Ali, S. Ling, H., Meinhardt, S., and Francl, L. J. 2002. A new race of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis that produces a host selective toxin. Phytopathology 92: S3.
  • De Wolf, E., Lipps, P., Madden, L., and Francl, L. J. 2002. Influence of corn residue and cultivar susceptibility on the accuracy of Fusarium head blight risk assessment models. Proceedings of the 2002 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Erlanger, KY. pp 137.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
Research was conducted to improve management of wheat foliar and head diseases. Advanced breeding lines of spring wheat and durum were screened for reaction to tan spot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch, and Fusarium head blight. Host-parasite genetics of phytotoxin sensitivity in the tan spot-wheat system was determined in several adult spring wheat populations and the QTL located on chromosome 1AS was associated with resistance, as was previously found for seedlings. Also, the DNA code for Ptr ToxB from a race 5 isolate of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis was sequenced and the protein was characterized biochemically. Most isolates of P. tritici-repentis collected in a survey of barley fields belonged to race 1 but barley was resistant to all races, suggesting an minor role for barley in the development of epidemics. Disease forecasting models for Fusarium head blight, tan spot, leaf rust, and Stagonospora leaf blotch were deployed via the Internet and toll-free number. Regionally specific forecasts were provided for 33 locations in Minnesota and North Dakota. Leaf disease forecasts were based on prediction of infection period while Fusarium head blight forecasts were based on airborne spore level. A sample collection protocol for reducing retention error was developed for the Burkard cyclone sampler. Air samples downwind from wheat fields being harvested contained high populations of urediniospores of Puccinia recondita and conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana. Harvest operations may produce an epidemiologically significant source of inoculum in areas of intensive wheat production.

Impacts
Diseases take an annual and often large toll on northern Great Plains wheat productivity and quality. Wheat producers suffer economic loss, which impacts farm sustainability, and the viability of the entire industry is threatened. This research program encompasses multiple projects that attack the problem from basic molecular genetics research to decision support systems for the farm manager.

Publications

  • Friesen, T.L., De Wolf, E.D., and Francl, L.J. 2001. Source strength of wheat pathogens during combine harvest. Aerobiologica 17:293-299.
  • Larson, C., Francl, L., and Friesen, T. 2001. Evaluation of the Burkard cyclone sampler for ascospore collection efficiency. Plant Disease 85:1249-1252.
  • Ali, S. and Francl, L.J. 2001. Recovery of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis from barley and reaction of 12 cultivars to five races and two host-specific toxins. Plant Disease 85:580-584.
  • Effertz, R.J., Anderson, J.A., and Francl, L.J. 2001. Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping of resistance to two races of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in adult and seedling wheat. Phytopathology 91:572-578.
  • Martinez, J.P., Ottum, S.A., Ali, S., Francl, L.J., and Ciuffetti, L.M. 2001. Characterization of the ToxB gene from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interact. 14:675-677.
  • Ali, S., and Francl, L.J. 2001. First report of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in Pakistan. Plant Disease 85:1031.
  • Francl, L.J. 2001. Past, Present, and Future of Forecasting Small Grain Diseases. Proceedings of the 2001 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum, Erlanger, KY.
  • Friesen, T.L., Rasmussen, J.B., Ali, S. and Francl, L.J. 2001. Recombinant inbred population of wheat that segregates for tan spot susceptibility. Phytopathology 91:S30.
  • Friesen, T.L., Rasmussen, J.B., Ali, S. and Francl, L.J. 2001. Reaction of Ptr ToxA-insensitive mutants to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis race 2. Phytopathology 91:S29.
  • Ali, S. and Francl, L.J. 2001. A differential medium for discriminating between Drechslera bromi and D. tritici-repentis. Phytopathology 91:S2.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
Wheat foliar diseases were researched to find improved management methods. Host-parasite genetics of phytotoxin sensitivity was determined in additional spring and durum wheat populations and the gene tsn1 was located on chromosome 5BL as previously found. Most isolates of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis collected in a field survey belonged to race one but race five was discovered in North America for the first time. Disease forecasting models for tan spot and Stagonospora blotch were developed and deployed. Forecasts were based on prediction of infection period by a neural network. Air samples downwind from wheat fields being harvested contained high populations of urediospores of Puccinia recondita and conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana. Harvesting may produce an epidemiologically significant source of inoculum in areas of intensive wheat production.

Impacts
Wheat diseases take an annual toll on North Dakota productivity and quality, leaving wheat producers at a competitive disadvantage. This research program encompasses multifaceted projects that attack the problem from different angles from the most basic genetic research to high-tech computer-assisted decision making.

Publications

  • Friesen, T.L., De Wolf, E.D., and Francl, L.J. 2000. Source strength of wheat pathogens during combine harvest. Physical Aerobiol. 2: www.isao.bo.cnr.it/aerobio/ai/PA/2000/2/friesen/
  • De Wolf, E.D. and Francl, L.J. 2000. Neural network classification of tan spot and Stagonospora blotch infection periods in a wheat field environment. Phytopathology 90:108-113.


Progress 10/01/98 to 09/30/99

Outputs
Wheat foliar diseases were researched to find improved management methods. Host-parasite genetics of phytotoxin sensitivity was determined in additional spring and durum wheat populations and the gene tsn1 was located on chromosome 5BL as previously found. Most isolates of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis collected in a field survey belonged to race one but race five was discovered in North America for the first time. Disease forecasting models for tan spot and Stagonospora blotch were developed and deployed. Forecasts were based on prediction of infection period by a neural network. Air samples downwind from wheat fields being harvested contained high populations of urediospores of Puccinia recondita and conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana. Harvesting may produce an epidemiologically significant source of inoculum in areas of intensive wheat production.

Impacts
Wheat diseases take an annual toll on North Dakota productivity and quality, leaving wheat producers at a competitive disadvantage. This research program encompasses multifaceted projects that attack the problem from different angles from the most basic genetic research to high-tech computer-assisted decision making.

Publications

  • CHTIOUI, Y., FRANCL, LJ., AND PANIGRAHI, S. 1999. MOISTURE PREDICTION FROM MICROMETEOROLOGICAL DATA BY A GENERALIZED REGRESSION NEURAL NETWORK. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 89:S16.
  • CHTIOUI, Y., FRANCL, LJ., AND PANIGRAHI, S. 1999. MOISTURE PREDICTION FROM SIMPLE MICROMETEOROLOGICAL DATA. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 89:668-672.
  • CHTIOUI, Y., PANIGRAHI, S., AND FRANCL, L. 1999. A GENERALIZED REGRESSION NEURAL NETWORK AND ITS APPLICATION FOR LEAF WETNESS PREDICTION TO FORECAST PLANT DISEASE. CHEMOMETRICS AND INTELLIGENT LABORATORY SYSTEMS 48:55-67.
  • DE WOLF, ED., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1999. INFECTION PERIOD MODELS FOR WHEAT TAN SPOT AND STAGONOSPORA BLOTCH. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 89:S20.
  • FRIESEN, TL., DE WOLF, ED., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1999. AERIAL SPORE DISPERSAL OF WHEAT PATHOGENS DURING COMBINE HARVEST. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 89:S105.
  • ALI, S., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1999. FIRST REPORT OF PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS RACE 5 IN NORTH AMERICA. PLANT DISEASE 83:591.
  • ALI, S., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1999. RACES OF PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS ON DURUM IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS OF THE U.S. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 89:S2.
  • ANDERSON, JA., EFFERTZ, RJ., FARIS, JD., FRANCL, LJ., MEINHARDT, SW. AND GILL, BS. 1999. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SENSITIVITY TO A PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS NECROSIS-INDUCING TOXIN IN DURUM AND COMMON WHEAT. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 89:293-297.


Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

Outputs
Wheat foliar diseases were researched to find improved management methods. Sources of tan spot [Pyrenophora tritici-repentis] resistance were identified in hard red spring and durum wheats. Host-parasite genetics and potential of phytotoxins for resistance screening were explored. Most of the isolates from wheat fields belonged to race one and produced Ptr ToxA but isolates from grasses were generally avirulent on wheat. Insensitivity to the necrosis toxin Ptr ToxA was related to resistance but ToxA was not the only virulence factor. Iodated ToxA showed binding activity to plasma membranes of toxin-sensitive wheat cells. Adults and seedlings of wheat segregated for sensitivity to ToxA in the same manner as a independent population previously found to have a gene conditioning reaction located on chromosome 5BL. A major QTL associated with tan spot resistance and previously mapped to chromosome 1AS conditioned insensitivity to partially purified Ptr ToxC. Air samples from wheat fields being harvested contained high populations of urediospores of Puccinia recondita and conidia of Bipolaris sorokiniana. Harvest operations may produce an epidemiologically significant source of wheat inoculum.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • ANDERSON, JA., COX, DJ., MOORE, W., MILLER, JD., RASMUSSEN, JB., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1998. REGISTRATION OF `ELKHORN' WHEAT. CROP SCIENCE 38:1403.
  • FRIESEN, TL., DE WOLF, ED., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1998. A PORTABLE AERIAL SPORE COLLECTING SYSTEM. NORTH DAKOTA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH:WWW.AG.NDSU.NODAK.EDU/NDAGRES/SPRING98/ ARSPNG98.HTM.
  • ALI, S., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1998. RACE STRUCTURE OF PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS ISOLATED FROM WHEAT AND GRASSES IN THE US GREAT PLAINS. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 88:S114.
  • EFFERTZ, RJ., ANDERSON, JA., JORDAHL, JG., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1998. RFLP MAPPING OF RESISTANCE TO MULTIPLE RACES OF PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS IN ADULT WHEAT PLANTS AND SEEDLINGS. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 88:S24.
  • EFFERTZ, RJ., MEINHARDT, SW., ANDERSON, JA., JORDAHL, JG., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1998. IDENTIFICATION OF A CHLOROSIS-INDUCING TOXIN FROM PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS AND CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION OF A GENE CONDITIONING INSENSITIVITY IN WHEAT. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 88:S25.
  • FRIESEN, TL., DE WOLF, ED., AND FRANCL, LJ. 1998. A HELIUM BALLOON SPORE SAMPLING PLATFORM. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 88:S115.
  • FRIESEN, T., RASMUSSEN, J.B., KWON, CY., JORDAHL, J., FRANCL, L., AND MEINHARDT, S. 1998. MUTATIONS IN WHEAT FOR INSENSITIVITY TO PTR TOXA. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 88:S30.
  • MEINHARDT, SW., CHENG, W. AND FRANCL, L. 1998. BINDING OF PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS PTR TOXA TO WHEAT PLASMA MEMBRANES. PHYTOPATHOLOGY 88:S62.
  • EFFERTZ, RJ. 1998. RFLP MAPPING OF RESISTANCE TO CHLOROSIS INDUCTION BY PYRENOPHORA TRITICI-REPENTIS IN WHEAT. MS THESIS, NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY.