Source: MICHIGAN STATE UNIV submitted to
WATER SECURITY IN OUR RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0173577
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MICL01817
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Feb 1, 2003
Project End Date
Jan 31, 2008
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Witter, S.
Recipient Organization
MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
(N/A)
EAST LANSING,MI 48824
Performing Department
DEPT OF COMMUNITY, AGRICULTURE, RECREATION & RESOURCE STUDIES
Non Technical Summary
The research proposed in this project will focus on the distribution of surface water, pollution and health concerns, community development, and uncontrolled development as they are related to E coli pollution regulated by Phase II of the Clean Water Act. This project is designed to have an impact on providing a more secure surface water system in our rural and urban communities.
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
30%
Applied
40%
Developmental
30%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1110310205025%
1120320310025%
1110210205025%
1120210310025%
Goals / Objectives
My research objectives are to: 1. Model the relationship between weather events, land use, and E. coli loading of both human and animal fecal matter in the Red Cedar River. 2. Evaluate the level of stakeholder acceptance of best management practices that will reduce both animal and human E. coli loading. 3. Integrate the information learned in objectives 1 and 2 to help develop water management alternatives for MSU and the surrounding communities that will result in a more water secure future. 4. Determine the relationship between land use type and stakeholder BMP preferences.
Project Methods
For the past two years water samples have been taken weekly from thirty sites along the Red Cedar from its headwaters to where it flows into the Grand River in Lansing, Michigan. The samples have been tested for E. coli, N, and P. The sample sites were selected to represent a cross section of the watershed's land use patterns. In ten instances additional samples were taken around several large cattle operations that were shown to be contributing significant loads of E. coli to the river. The same was done with each of the cites located on the river. These data will be used with water balance equations and multiple regression analysis to determine a best fit between weather events, surface runoff from various land use types, and resulting E. coli levels. This model will be used to predict future discharges into the river and compared to ongoing sampling taking place on MSU's campus, up stream at Williamston, and downstream where the Red Cedar enters the Grand River. If needed additional loading factors will be added during the analysis to obtain a best fit among the factors considered. During the last year three major surveys (1000 for each) were conducted as a part of the Red Cedar Watershed Coordinating Committee and MSU-WATER. These surveys were designed to evaluate stakeholder preference and willingness to support various best management practice bundles designed to greatly limit non-point source pollution. These surveys will be statistically analyzed to determine what practices the stakeholders were willing to accept given the land use type they reside in across the watershed. This will be used to make recommendations to local and state regulatory agencies about which BMP's stakeholders are willing to support. The results from the modeling will be used to help finalize a watershed management plan for MSU and to work with the upstream communities to attempt to limit the flow of E. coli and other non-point source pollutants from flowing through campus. This will help MSU and the Communities gain a higher degree of water security.

Progress 02/01/03 to 01/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Termination Report: Three surveys were developed during these projects to evaluate the level of stakeholder acceptance of best management practices. The results of the surveys were shared with local communities and agencies working on Phase II Clean Water plans. Water quality data was collected in cooperations with the Ingham County Environmental Health Department at ten sites in East Lansing and Lansing, Michigan. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Michael Kaplowitz, Associate Professor, Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation, and Resource Studies. Ingham County Environmental Health Department, Lansing, Michigan Ingham County Drain Commission Office, Mason Michigan Michigan State University TARGET AUDIENCES: Research output was designed for state and community level watershed managers and practitioners. The results were shared with communities, consultants, and state government agencies working on watershed management.

Impacts
The most important accomplishment of these projects was working with six communities along the Red Cedar River. Information generated from the survey's and water quality data were shared with the communities and used in Phase II reports and plans. MSU used this effort as part of their Phase II plans. The work was also used in MSU-WATER, which brought together over thirty faculty from eight departments and four colleges to work on water management issues. Projects created under MSU-WATER resulted in not only faculty research and publications, but a number of student thesis.

Publications

  • M.D. Kaplowitz and S.G. Witter. 2007. Agricultural and Residential Stakeholder Input for Watershed Management in a Mid-Michigan Watershed. Landscape and Urban Planning. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.06.004.
  • Pennington, S.R., M. D. Kaplowitz, and S.G. Witter. Re-Examining Best Management Practices for Improving Water Quality in Urban Watersheds. Journal of American Water Resources Association. Vol. 39(5), October 2003.
  • Witter, S. G. Renewing Local Watersheds: Community Leaders Guide to Building Watershed Communities. Review in Rural Development News. December 2003
  • Witter, S.G., et al., MSU-WATER. Michigan State University, $1,400,000, September 2000 to June 2008.
  • R. Godbold and S.G. Witter (PIs) Water Quality Sampling on the Grand River. City of Lansing, Public Works Department, $24,000, January 1999 to January 2005.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
During 2006 one journal article was written and submitted for review. We are currently in third revision and expect it to be accepted for publication during 2007. One grant for $80,000 was funded by the MI Department of Agriculture. We have also started working with Dr. Alex Mayer, Director of the Michigan Tech Center for Water and Society in Houghton, MI. Currently we are planning a forum on the role of water in Michigan's economy. The purpose is to look for new ways to use Michigan's waters that will make our businesses and industries more competitive, increase job opportunities for our residents, and at the same time be environmentally responsible. We are planning on holding the forum on May 10th and 11th at the Waterfront Conference Center in Traverse City, Michigan. We expect several publications and grant proposals will come from the forum.

Impacts
We expect the forum on "A New Vision for the Role of Water in Michigan: Towards Sustainable Use and Economic Growth" to: 1. Bring stakeholder together to develop relationships and consider the signifance of the economic potential of the Great Lakes. 2. Evaluate ways to increase the number and success of sustainable water use operations in Michigan and the Great Lakes Region. 3. Help local/state/regional action planning for sustainable water use initatives after the forum. 4. Establish an annual conference on high profile and regional water programs and events.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Last year was the fourth of the MSU-WATER project ($1.4 million). The purpose of the project was to develop and implement a watershed management plan that will allow MSU to meet Phase II requirements of the Clean Water Act and to set benchmarks for water quality in the Red Cedar watershed. We now have four years of water quality data taken on campus and down stream to Grand River. Additionally we have one year of data from up stream water quality data taken by the Livingston County Drain Commissioner's office. These data are being used in publications and to help set management goals in Livingston and Ingham Counties. The data collected on campus is being used by Dr. David Long and Dr. Thomas Voice and their graduate students to develop water quality and monitoring models that can be used by county and state agencies to evaluate pollution loading. These models will be available in 2007. Two major surveys were completed during this project of the stakeholders in the watershed and are being used to connect water quality data with public opinion and involvement. Several journal articles have been written about the process and the results.

Impacts
The MSU-WATER project has had a dramatic impact on how MSU manages it green space, animal operations, and building on campus. These experiences are being shared with the seven surronding communities who are also involved in Phase II permitting. We are also working with local county health departments, drain commissioners, and state agencies to share our findings. These are being used to set new expectations and standards for stakeholders in the region.

Publications

  • Kaplowtiz, M.D., F. Lupi, and J.P. Hoehn. 2005. Public Understanding and Perceptions of Michigan Wetlands. Michigan Academician. In Press.
  • Kaplowitz, M.D. and others. 2005. Socio-Economics of Ecosystem Valuation, Valuation of Ecological Resources. Pensacola, FL: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). In Press.
  • Kaplowitz, M.D. and others. 2005. Inland Water Systems, Chapter 20, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Current State and Trends. Washington DC: Center for Resource Economics/Island Press.
  • Additionally an article entitled AGRICULTURAL AND RESIDENTIAL STAKEHOLDER INPUT FOR WATERSHED MANAGEMENT IN A MID-MICHIGAN WATERSHED, Kaplowitz and Witter, 2005 was written and submitted for review and publication in 2006.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Last years was the third in of the MSU-WATER project($1.4 million). The purpose of the project is to develop and implementa watershed management plan the will allow MSU to meet the Phase II requirements of the Clean Water Act, conduct important water quality and transport load modeling of non-point source pollutants. This information is being shared with seven communities located in the Red Cedar watershed to help them with planning and implementation of their Phase II plans. Faculty from five colleges and 15 departments at MSU, as well as Campus Parks and Planning are involved in a wide variety of water projects related to documenting pollution sources and abatement proceedures. To date four graduate student research thesis have been completed, seven classes created, and over $800,000 in additional grant funding. This project is currently in its last year. During this year the project will focus primarly on e-coli pollution from animal production opertions both on campus and off.

Impacts
Completion of the Red Cedar watershed management plan will impact Phase II (CWA) planning and NPDES permitting for seven communities, Michigan State University, and Livingston and Ingham counties. These communities, counties, and MSU are taking a watershed management approach to their Phase II permit applications. MSU has been awarded its Certificate of Coverage. Each of the seven communities have applied and are in the process of gaining coverage. Our research is helping with the permitting and the modification of BMPs in the watershed. Our evaluation of outfalls has resulted in corrections being made to 13 of the 21 with CSO problems.

Publications

  • G.B. Habron,M.D. Kaplowitz, and R. Levine. 2004. ASoft Systems Approach to Watershed Management: A Road Salt Case Study," Environmental Management. 33 (6): 776-787.
  • M.D. Kaplowitz, T.D. Hadlock, and R. Levine. 2004. A Comparision of Web and Mail Survey Response Rates. Public Opinion Quarterly. 68(1): 98-101.
  • M.D. Kaplowitz and F. Lupi. 2004. Color Photographs and Mail Survey Response Rate," International Journal of Public Opinion Research 16(2): 199-206.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Two articles were prepared and published during 2003. Additional work is underway to evaluate two large surveys regarding stakeholder acceptance of best management practices. This information is being used to help write a watershed management plan for the Red Cedar River, which is located in Livingston and Ingham County MI. We have also been working on modeling four years of water quality data to evaluate E-coli loading along the Red Cedar and Grand River. During this next year survey and water sampling data will be combined with farm survey assessments to try to link farming types with E-coli and sediment loading during this next year.

Impacts
Completion of the Red Cedar watershed management plan will impact Phase II (CWA) planning and NPDES permitting for seven communities, Michigan State University, and Livingston and Ingham counties. These communities, counties, and MSU are taking a watershed management approach to their Phase II permit applications. MSU has been awarded its Certificate of Coverage. Each of the seven communities have applied and are in the process of gaining coverage. Our research is helping with the permitting and the modification of BMPs in the watershed. Our evaluation of outfalls has resulted in corrections being made to 13 of the 21 with CSO problems.

Publications

  • Pennington, S.R., M. D. Kaplowitz, and S.G. Witter. Re-Examining Best Management Practices for Improving Water Quality in Urban Watersheds. Journal of American Water Resources Association. Vol. 39, No.5, October, 2003.
  • Witter, S. G. Renewing Local Watersheds: Community Leaders Guide to Building Watershed Communities. Review in Rural Development News. December 2003


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
This MAES project has resulted in two major research programs. The first was the Red Cedar Watershed Assessment and the second was the creation of the MSU-WATER project. The Red Cedar Watershed Assessment was a two and half year program funded by the EPA through the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. The project was carried out in collaboration the Ingham and Livingston County Drain Commissioner's Offices and the Ingham, Livingston County Environmental Health Offices, and the local Soil Conservation Districts and Natural Resource Conservation Service. The project included one and half years of water quality testing at 50 sites along the river, as well as site impact analysis of a half of a mile on each side of the main branch of the river and along all 18 of the major tributaries. The MSU portion of the project was focused on a survey (n=1000) of residential and agricultural residents in the watershed. The survey was designed to gain background information for the assessment and look at residential preference for four sets of water management BMPs. One of the major tributaries (Sycamore Creek) was also surveyed (n=1200 residents) in more depth regarding their preference for various BMP packages. Surveys included four different sets of BMPs in four different combinations. Surveys were sent out in color and in black and white. The data has resulted in one dissertation, several conference presentations, and two manuscripts. These data are still being analyzed and will result in further manuscripts. The goal of MSU-WATER is to link the university's water science research, outreach, and teaching programs to help manage and protect Michigan's, the nation's, and the world's surface and groundwater resources that sustain all life. The overall objectives of the MSU-WATER include: To create a watershed management plan for the East Lansing campus; To collaborate with upstream and downstream partners in an attempt to meet and surpass relevant water quality standard requirements; To work towards elimination of point- and the reduction of non-point source pollution along the Red Cedar River and its tributaries; To increase awareness of water quality issues and encourage the adoption of individual actions that protect water among all stakeholders within the watershed; To integrate the new graduate program and new research projects and outreach programs into MSU's international programs; and To conduct semi-annual water conferences at MSU which are problem-driven and solution-focused with colleagues from around the world This project has received $1.4 million in internal funding and almost $800,000 in external funding at this point. MSU-WATER is currently focusing on the creation of a transport load modeling effort to analyze non-point source pollutants. MSU's campus is being used as the study site. The modeling is focused on a 1400 acre section of campus that drains into the Red Cedar at one major outfall. This work is in its early stages, but has result in a number of publications for participants and graduate students.

Impacts
Research from the Red Cedar Watershed Assessment is already being used by local agencies to look at what types of BMPs should be used. It is expected that this will expand as the analsis of the data collected continues. This work is also being connected to analsis of effectiveness of certain BMPs in reducing non-point source pollution.

Publications

  • Valtierra, E. and Witter, S.G. 2002. Impact of the Panuco River Irrigation Project on Eidatario-Farmers Between 1987 and 1995. In Protecting A Sacred Gift: Changes in Water Management in Mexico. S. Whiteford and R. Melville (eds.) Center for Mexico/U.S. Studies, University of California, San Diego. pp. 51-64.
  • Kaplowitz, M. and Witter, S.G. 2002. Identifying Water Security Issues at the Local Level: The Case of Michigan's Red Cedar River. Water International. Vol. 27(3).
  • Bruhn, L., Wayland, K., Bartholic, J.F., Witter, S.G., and Fridgen, C. 2002. Michigan State University's Virtual Watershed Program: Developmnet and Delivery of an Internet-Based Academic Credit or Professional Certificate Program in Watershed Management. Environmental Practices, Vol. 4(4).
  • Euan-Avila, J.I. and Witter,S.G. 2002. Promoting Integrated Coastal Management in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Journal of Policy Studies, Vol. 12.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Launched during the fall of 2000 MSU-WATER is now well underway. The project has $1.4 million in funding and incorporates faculty from 6 colleges and 17 departments. Project collaborators, with significant contributions from MSU students, are currently assessing the status of the natural resources on campus, including river and groundwater quality, fish, wildlife and aquatic habitat, soils and wetlands. They are also in the process of reviewing historic river quality data, developing a campus-wide watershed management plan, and planning for additional research studies pertaining to the Red Cedar River watershed. Funding for the sub-projects began in January 2001. Four major activities are underway linking the campus project to an EPA funded project for the upper watershed. The Red Cedar Watershed Coordinating Committee (Brian Jonckheere, Pat Lindemann, Scott G. Witter, Robert Godbold, and Diane McCormick )were awarded $195,000 in 1999 to complete watershed assessment of the Red Cedar. Two major surveys were developed and field-tested during 2001 to determine stakeholder preference for a menu of best management practices. One was sent out in 2001 and the other will be mailed in February 2002. Second involves the development of a watershed management plan for campus. The plan is being developed to apply for a voluntary permit under Phase II of the Clean Water Act. This plan will be submitted to the MI Department of Environmental Quality in 2002. Third, a Clean Michigan Initiative proposal will be submitted to construct best management practice research sites on campus. The goal is to measure the impact of various BMP's on surface water quality over the long term. Fourth is to establish research sites in an enhanced 12+ acre wetland on south campus that was completed during December 2001.

Impacts
MSU-WATER is the most comprehensive water program that I know of in the United States (Lewicki, EPA). MSU-WATER offers a multidisciplinary approach to watershed science that incorporates collaborative university research, public education, public service, planning, and BMP implementation on a multi-watershed scale (EPA Non-Point Source News, July 2001). Similar comments have come from reports, articles, and radio interviews. This project will help MSU develop a unique and powerful watershed management coalition across campus and with local, county, and State officials. A number of related funding proposals are being developed.

Publications

  • Witter, S.G., Kline-Robach, R., Long, D.L., Bartholic, J. and Poston, F. 2001. MSU-WATER: A New way of Addressing Water Quality Challenges. Water Resource Update, Vol. 119, Universities Council on Water Resources, April 2001.
  • Witter, S.G., McKenna, B., Glandon, R., Godbold, R., Paulson, S. and Kamrin, M. 2000. Ingham County's Surface and Groundwater Resources. Ingham County Health Department, January, 2001. (in its second printing)


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
Three major projects were funded in 2000. The first was a $207,000 USDA grant entitled Water Quality Improvement by Agricultural Systems Management. The seconded was he Red Cedar Watershed Management Initiative, funded ($195,00)by EPA in conjunction with Livingston and Ingham Counties;and the third is a $1.4 million project entilted MSU-WATER. All three projects are linked and focus on watershed management. The USDA grant allowed for the recuritment of 3 doctoral students working in water. Two of which are doing research related to MSU-WATER. The Red Cedar project's primay goal is to create a watershed management plan to better manage the water resources in watershed in a sustainable, equitable, and cost-effective manner. This project includes community, township, county and state officials as partners and co-PIs. MSU-WATER is major program designed to link the university's water science research, outreach, and teaching programs to help manage and protect our water resources. It is a proactive pollution prevention program that incorporates faculty from 6 colleges and 16 departments, plus local and stage government agencies. A series of demonstration sites (i.e., constructed wetlands and bio-engineered stream bank restoration)will be developed over the next four years. This work will include the development and implementation of a watershed management plan for the 5400 main campus area. Dr. Witter is a co-PI on the first two grants and coordinator of MSU-WATER. Additionally two requested presentations were made: Witter, S. G. and J. Bartholic. Watershed Management Training and Certification Program for Michigan Drain Commissioners and Associate Members. Michigan Association of County Drain Commissioners' Annual Winter Conference, Gaylord, Michigan. March 2, 2000. Witter, S. G. Watershed Management: A Study of the Red Cedar River. Michigan Chapter of North American Lake Management Society, Michigan State Section American Water Resources Association, and Michigan Lake & Stream Associations, Inc. Managing Landscapes to Protect Water Quality, Michigan State University. March 10, 2000.

Impacts
The three projects have been providing service to 3 counties, 15 communities, 10 townships, and 3 state agencies. The MSU Natural Resource Coalition identified water and land use management the two most important research and outreach areas in the state. Information, interviews, and articles have been requested about MSU-WATER by EPA and several other universities; US Water News, local news papers, radio and TV stations, and the University Council on Water Resources.

Publications

  • Hernandez, C., Witter, S.G., Fridgen,C. and Hall, C.A.S. 2000. The Costa Rican Banana Industry. In Hall, C.A.S.(ed). Quantifying Sustainable Development: The Future of Tropical Economies. Academic Press, San Diego. pp.763-801.
  • Witter, S.G., Kline-Robach, R, Poston, F. and Lang, M. 2000. MSU-WATER. Water Resources IMPACT, Vol. 2 (6).
  • Witter, S.G., McKenna, B., Glandon, R., Godbold, R., Paulson, S. and Kamrin, M. 2000. Ingham County's Surface and Groundwater Resources. (peer reviewed) Ingham County Health Department, November, 2000.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Third year projects and accomplishments include: 1) 5 publications in print; 2) secured $313,168 in funding; 3) successfully held a Water Security workshop with 50 participants; 4) expand 2 year water quality sampling program on the Grand and Red Cedar Rivers; and 5) established two new research projects.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Witter, S.G. and Whiteford, S, Edition Editors. 1999. Water Policy: Security Issues. Series Editors, N. Mercuro and P. Smith. Vol. 11, International Review of Comparative Public Policy. JAI Press Inc. Greenwich, Connecticut.
  • Witter, S.G. and Whiteford. S. 1999. Water Security: The Issues and Policy Challenges. In Water Policy: Security Issues. Series Editors, N. Mercuro and P. Smith. Vol. 11 International Review of Comparative Public Policy. JAI Press inc. Greenwich, Connecticut. pp. 1-25.
  • Wayland, K.G., Witter, S.G., and C.M. Purdy. 1999. Rural Wastewater Management: How a County in Michigan Tackles Big Problems. In Water Policy: Security Issues. Series Editors, N. Mercuro and P. Smith. Vol. 11. International Review of Comparative Public Policy. JAI Press Inc. Greenwich, Connecticut. pp. 41-61.
  • Witter, S.G., Godbold, R. and Wayland, K. 1999. Combined Sewer Overflows Impact on the Grand River. Pipeline 8 (2) June 1999, of Soil and Water Conservation 51 (3), May 1996.
  • Witter, S.G., Pennington, S.R., and Kline-Robach, R. 1999. A Need to Certify Watershed Managers. Water Resources Impact 1 (4), July 1999.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
Second year projects and accomplishments include: 1) Weekly data collection (21 samples) of water quality data at 7 sites in Lansing, MI; 2) Completion and submission of an joint EPA proposal for the protection of well heads and redevelopment of brownfields with the director of the Lansing Department of Planning and Neighborhood Development; 3) Completion and presentation of a watershed management plan for Gladwin County Michigan to address wastewater treatment needs; 4) Jointly wrote and submitted a research article on urban watershed management to the Journal of the Human Environment; 4) Established a Red Cedar Watershed Assessment Committee with the drain commissioners and environmental health directors of Ingham and Livingston counties to develop a watershed management plan for the Red Cedar Watershed, and to evaluate the impact of BMPs on water quality; 5) Established a Water Security working committee to put on 3 workshops (one each in Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Michigan), $50,000 in funding secured; 6) Asked to Chair the development of Ingham County Environmental Health's research and outreach priorities for the next 5 years; 7) Jointly establish a water quality sampling program with the director of Ingham County's Environment Health Department on the Red Cedar River.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Witter, S.G., Wayland, K. 1998. Watershed Management Plan for High Priority/Demand Areas and Wastewater Treatment Priorities in Gladwin County. East Central Michigan Planning and Development Regional Commision, Grand Rapids, MI.


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
First year projects established are:1) A water quality evaluation of the combined sewer overflow pollutants in Lansing, MI (Ingham Co. Public Health, Mayor Hollister, Department of Environmental Quality, and Lansing Waste Water Treatment); 2) An evaluation of brown fields and well head protection in Lansing, MI - policy documentation and EPA proposal writing (with Economic Development Corporation and The Department of Planning and Neighborhood Development Planning); 3) An evaluation and construction of the Tollgate Drainage District to manage urban runoff and combined sewer overflows (with Ingham Co. Drain Commissioner); and 4)The development of a targeted watershed management plan for Gladwin Co. MI (with Gladwin Co. Com. and East Central MI Planning & Development Region). Two articles & two reports in progress.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period