Source: SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
RANGE AND LIVESTOCK RESEARCH STATION
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0153393
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
SD00952
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jan 1, 1991
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2019
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Oedekoven, D.
Recipient Organization
SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY
PO BOX 2275A
BROOKINGS,SD 57007
Performing Department
ANIMAL & RANGE SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
60%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
60%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1210790107030%
1210790101010%
3010790107020%
3010790101010%
3070790107020%
3070790101010%
Goals / Objectives
To provide field facilities for the maintenance of the cow-calf research herd and range grazing research facilities for nutrition and management of livestock and rangelands.
Project Methods
120 Angus x Simmeotal beef cow herd maintained for winter nutritin research. 100 steer calves are purchased annually for grazing studies.

Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Tiller density was recorded on Western wheatgrass tillers in June and July of 2010, and short grass (buffalo and blue grama) tiller densities were recorded in July. Biomass data collection was conducted in July 2010 on the seven summer pastures. Data is currently being analyzed to determine 2010 biomass. In Jan-March of 2010, the second year of a novel DDGS (high protein ethanol co-product resulting from removal of corn germ before ethanol fermentation) vs. SBM (traditional protein supplement) trial was conducted at the Cottonwood Station feedlot. Cows in their last trimester of pregnancy were placed on low quality forage and supplemented with either DDG or SBM high protein supplement to determine performance of each supplement. Once cows began calving, they ended this trial. Additionally, 6 young cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in an in situ digestibility study to determine rates of digestion of DDGS and SBM. The 2 and 3 yr old cows were then placed on a glucogenic precursor supplement while on low-quality pasture to determine if supplementing glucogenic precursors in young lactating cows improves cyclicity and fertility. Cows remained on this study until grass green up in May. All calves were then bled immediately prior spring vaccinations to determine genetic response to vaccinations. Propionate Salt Supplementation: Sixty cows were supplemented with one of three treatments of propionate salt. Cows (2- and 3-year old) were individually fed their supplement twice weekly with blood samples collected once a week. Treatments were 1) protein supplement plus 0 g of propionate salt, 2) protein supplement plus 80 g of propionate salt per day, and 3) protein supplement plus 160 g of propionate salt per day. Cows were fed supplemented for 60 days until turnout to green grass and reduced consumption of supplement. Cows were weighed and body condition scores assigned every 14 days from being placed on project to start of breeding season. Dr. Weaver: Following summer grazing at the Ft. Meade pastures, cows were returned to Cottonwood and placed into one of 2 treatments (reduced DMI vs winter grazing) during the second trimester. The reduced DMI treatment cows were placed in the feedlot pens. PARTICIPANTS: Kenneth C. Olson: Coordinated efforts of research team, managed DDGS research, established specific data collection protocols, participated in livestock data collection efforts. Julie Walker: Managed glucogenic precursor research, established specific data collection protocols, participated in livestock data collection efforts. Patricia S. Johnson: Provided GIS expertise for mapping research pastures and range biomass data collection. Mindy Hubert: Managed and participated with crews to collect livestock and range biomass data. Recorded and entered data on computers. David Gay: Managed daily tasks at research station. Participated with crews to collect livestock and range biomass data. Kristi Cammack, Katie Kessler: wrote publications based on research conducted in 2009. TARGET AUDIENCES: The primary target audience for this research is ranchers in general, and ranchers in the Northern Great Plains in particular. Another target audience is the animal science community. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Cattle performance and in situ digestibility was similar between DDGS and soybean meal supplementation treatments, suggesting the high-protein DDGS is a viable protein supplement for cattle consuming low-quality forage. Preliminary results suggest that glucogenic precursors did not alter cyclicity or fertility in this trial. Evaluation of range biomass responses is ongoing. Field day was attended by 25 local producers, including 10 students from the Beginning Farmer and Rancher class on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. SDSU Faculty spoke on topics such as calf performance as feedlot animals, yellow flowered alfalfa and heifer development on range. All groups of cows gained weight from calving to start of breeding season, 0.61 kg, 0.85 kg, and 0.73 kg ADG for 0, 80 and 160 g propionate salt cows, respectively. Body condition scores improved from calving to breeding season, 0.56, 0.39 and 0.35 for 0, 80, and 160 g propionate salt cows, respectively. Blood samples analyzed for progesterone.

Publications

  • Dunn, B.H., A.J. Smart, R.N. Gates, P.S. Johnson, M. Beutler, M.A. Diersen, and L.L. Janssen. 2010. Long-term production and profitability from grazing cattle in the northern mixed grass prairie. Rangel. Ecol. Manage.63:233-242. Cammack, K.M., C.L. Wright, K.J. Austin, P.S. Johnson, P.A. Ludden, R.R. Cockrum, and K.C. Olson. 2010. Effects of High-sulfur Water and Clinoptilolite on Health and Growth Performance of Steers Fed Forage-based Diets. J. Anim. Sci. (in press). Smart, A.A., J.D. Derner, J.R. Hendrickson, R.L. Gillen, B.H. Dunn, E.M. Mousel, P.S. Johnson, R.N. Gates, K.K. Sedivec, K.R. Harmoney, J.D. Volesky, and K.C. Olson. 2010. Effects of grazing pressure on efficiency of grazing on North American Great Plains rangelands. J. Rangel. Ecol. Manage. 63:397-406. Kessler, K.L., K.C. Olson, C.L. Wright, K.J. Austin, K. McInnerney, P.S. Johnson, R.R. Cockrum, and K.M. Cammack. 2010. Effects of high-sulfur water on hepatic gene expression of steers fed forage-based diets. J. An. Sci. (in review) Kessler, K.L., K.C. Olson, C.L. Wright, K.J. Austin, P.S. Johnson, and K.M. Cammack. 2010. Effects of molybdenum supplementation on performance of forage-fed steers receiving high-sulfur water. South Dakota State University Beef Report. Beef 2010-06:27-30. Kessler, K.L., K.C. Olson, C.L. Wright, K.J. Austin, P.S. Johnson, and K.M. Cammack. 2010. Copper supplementation of grazing yearling steers supplemented with molybdenum while consuming high-sulfur water. South Dakota State University Beef Report. Beef 2010-07:31-33.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: In Jan-March of 2009, a novel DDGS (high protein ethanol co-product resulting from removal of corn germ before ethanol fermentation) vs. SBM (traditional protein supplement) trial was conducted at the Cottonwood Station feedlot. Cows in their last trimester of pregnancy were placed on low quality forage and supplemented with either DDG or SBM high protein supplement to determine performance of each supplement. Once cows began calving, they ended this trial. The 2 and 3 yr old cows were then placed on a glucogenic precursor supplement while on low-quality pasture to determine if supplementing glucogenic precursors in young lactating cows improves cyclicity and fertility. Cows remained on this study until grass green up in May. All calves were then bled immediately prior spring vaccinations to determine genetic response to vaccinations. Range biomass data was collected in July to determine vegetation responses in a long-term grazing utilization experiment. Yearling steers were used to conduct 2 high sulfate water experiments during June-Aug. One experiment was conducted in the feedlot with 4 treatments: low-sulfate water, high sulfate water, and high sulfate water with two levels of supplemental Mo to test the ability of Mo to reduce S bioavailability in the rumen. The other experiment was conducted on pasture with 3 treatments: all included steers receiving high-sulfate water and supplemental Mo, with the treatments being 3 levels of supplemental copper. PARTICIPANTS: Kenneth C. Olson: Coordinated efforts of research team, managed DDGS and high-sulfate water research, established specific data collection protocols, participated in livestock data collection efforts. Julie Walker: Managed glucogenic precursor research, established specific data collection protocols, participated in livestock data collection efforts. Patricia S. Johnson: Provided GIS expertise for mapping research pastures and range biomass data collection. Kristi Cammack, Univ. of Wyoming: Participated in high-sulfate water project. Cody Wright: Participated in high-sulfate water project George A. Perry: Worked with Kenneth C. Olson to manage breeding program for all cows and heifers in the projects. David Gay: Station superintendent who coordinated and managed all effort at the station. Mindy Hubert: Managed and participated with crews to collect livestock and range biomass data. Recorded and entered data on computers. Heather Richter: MS graduate assistant. Katherine Kessler: Univ. of Wyoming MS graduate assistant. TARGET AUDIENCES: The primary target audience for this research is ranchers in general, and ranchers in the Northern Great Plains in particular. Another target audience is the animal science community. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Cattle performance was similar between DDGS and soybean meal supplementation treatments, suggesting the high-protein DDGS is a viable protein supplement for cattle consuming low-quality forage. Preliminary results suggest that glucogenic precursors did not alter cyclicity or fertility in this trial. Evaluation of range biomass responses is ongoing. Preliminary results suggest that supplemental Mo did not reduce ruminal concentration of hydrogen sulfide, suggesting it was not viable at reduce sulfate toxicity.

Publications

  • Richter, H., K. Olson, P.S. Johnson. Clinoptilolite as a supplement to reduce the toxic effects of high-sulfate water. 2009 Abstract, SRM Meeting, Albuquerque, NM.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: In 2008, low-level (100 m altitude), very-large scale aerial (VLSA) images were taken of large (150 x 150 m) grazed plots on northern mixed prairie in western ND. Within these plots, 10-15 transects at least 10 m long were established across grazed patches. Transect starting points were positioned to include a landmark identifiable in aerial photographs. Transects were segmented based on changes in average height of the vegetation. For each segment, average height of the vegetation was recorded, as well as whether or not the segment had been grazed. A general species list was also collected for each segment. Textural analysis of the aerial photographs was used to map structural characteristics of each site, which was then compared to the structural characteristics of the transects (SD00H183). Biomass data was collected at the Cottonwood Research Station in July of 2008. PARTICIPANTS: Drs. Patricia Johnson, Kenneth Olson, George Perry, Cody Wright, Roger Gates, and Kristi Cammack (Univ. Wyoming) provided technical expertise. Mindy Hubert and Joshua Peterson conducted patch-grazing experiments and reviewed results. TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audiences for these research activities are livestock producers, range managers, and animal and range scientists. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Results suggest that textural analysis of aerial images provides statistically similar results to transect data. However, further evaluation of aerial image analysis is needed before it can be considered a valid technique to measure patchiness of vegetation structure (SD00H183). Results from the 2007 high sulfate water research that were analyzed in 2008 showed that clinoptilolite had no effect on average daily gain, water intake, or feed efficiency. Dry matter intake was reduced for all animals receiving high-sulfate water, regardless of level of clinoptilolite. Morbidity and mortality were higher for animals receiving high-sulfate water, with no difference in animal health among clinoptilolite levels. Further in vitro evaluation of higher dosages of clinoptilolite indicated that it is ineffective at reducing formation of hydrogen sulfide in the rumen. Clinoptilolite was found to be ineffective as a supplement to reverse or lessen the effects of water-induced sulfate toxicity (SD00H224).

Publications

  • C. E. Engel, H. H. Patterson, and G. A. Perry. 2008. Effect of dried corn distillers grains plus solubles compared to soybean hulls, in late gestation heifer diets, on animal and reproductive performance. J. Anim. Sci.86:1697-1708.
  • Olson, K.C., P.S. Johnson, and R.N. Gates. 2008. Evaluation of the Influence of Grazing Systems on Patterns of Rangeland Utilization by Beef Cattle Grazing Northern Great Plains Rangelands. SDSU In-house Research Project Final Report.
  • Richter, H., K. Olson, P.S. Johnson. Clinoptilolite as a supplement to reduce the toxic effects of high-sulfate water. 2009 Abstract, SRM Meeting, Albuquerque, NM.
  • Peterson, J., M.B. Hubert, A. Gearhart, C. Schauer, P.S. Johnson, K.C. Olson, and T.D. Booth. 2009. Geospatial Analysis of Aerial Photography to Identify Patterns of Grazing on Northern Great Plains Rangelands. Abstract, SRM National Meeting, Albuquerque, NM


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Activities: Resources were used to maintain land, equipment, and livestock so that they are available for research purposes. Funding for actual research comes from other sources. Projects that supported research on this study site included NCR-SARELNC05-260, SD00174, SD00H183, SD00213, SD00216, SD00351-H and SD00292-H. These included evaluation of range and beef cattle management practices. We were invited to submit a poster presentation to the National SARE meeting in 2008. PARTICIPANTS: K. Olson: PD,PI P. Johnson: PD,PI R. Gates: PD,PI R. Perry: PD,PI A. Smart: PD,PI C. Wright: PD,PI K. Cammack: PD,PI M. Hubert: PD,PI University of Wyoming USDA NCR-SARE trained H. Richter, student C. Knight, student L. Parr, student K. Bridges, student TARGET AUDIENCES: agriculture producers, including Native Americans PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: No Project Modifications information reported.

Impacts
Knowledge has been gained to improve range and livestock management. This knowledge ranges from understanding patterns of forage production and livestock grazing on rangelands, to preventing sulfate toxicity in livestock, and improving estrus synchronization protocols.

Publications

  • Smart, A.J., B.H. Dunn, P.S. Johnson, Lan Xu, and R.N. Gates. 2007. Using weather data to explain herbage yield on three Great Plains plant communities. Rangel. Ecol. And Manage. 60:146-153.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Resources were used to maintain land, equipment, and livestock so that they are available for research purposes. Funding for actual research comes from other sources. Projects that supported research on this study site included SD00351-H and SD00292-H. In brief, both of these projects focused on predicting range forage production from weather information, particularly spring precipitation.

Impacts
Once current spring precipitation is known, predicted forage production can be used by livestock producers and range managers to adjust stocking rates to adjust livestock forage demand to match the predicted forage supply. This will be invaluable in ensuring that adequate forage nutrients will be available to support animal performance and that range utilization levels are appropriate to maintain or improve range vegetation health and productivity.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Research conducted at this sitte is reported in individual CRIS reports ( AD-421). The projects that are involved at this site are SD00132-H, SD00292-H, and SD00351-H

Impacts
Research conducted at the Range and Livestock Research Station provides critical information to livestock producers and range resource managers to allow them to develop economically and environmentally sustainable livestock production systems.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS reports (AD-421). The projects that are involved at this site are SD00033-H, SD00132-H, SD00292-H, and SD00351-H.

Impacts
Research conducted at the Range and Livestock Research Station provides critical information to livestock producers and range resource managers to allow them to develop ecnomically and environmentally sustainable livestock production systems.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS reports (AD-421). The projects that are involved at this site are SD00033-H, SD00132-H, SD00292-H,and SD00351-H.

Impacts
Research conducted at the Range and Livestock Research Station provides critical information to livestock producers and range resource managers to allow them to develop ecnomically and environmentally sustainable livestock production systems.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS reports (AD-421). The projects that are involved at this site are SD00037-H, SD00050, SD00287-H and SD00351-H.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS reports (AD-421). Ths projects that are involved at this site are SD00037-H, SD00050, SD00286-H and SD00287-H.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS reports (AD-421). The projects that are involved at this site are SD00037-H and SD00287-H.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS reports (AD-421). The projects that are involved at this site are SD00087-H, SD00286-H, and SD00327-G.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS reports (AD-421).

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS annual progress reports (AD-421).

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
Research conducted at this site is reported in individual CRIS annual progress reports (AD-421).

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

    Outputs
    Administrative Project - Progress Report not required.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • NO PUBLICATIONS REPORTED THIS PERIOD.


    Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

    Outputs
    Administrative Project - Progress Report not required.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • NO PUBLICATIONS REPORTED THIS PERIOD.