Source: COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
CROPS AND CROPPING SYSTEMS IN WESTERN COLORADO FOR TRADITIONAL/ALTERNATIVE AND INDUSTRIAL/BIOENERGY USES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0151594
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
COL00672
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2007
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Pearson, C. H.
Recipient Organization
COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
FORT COLLINS,CO 80523
Performing Department
SOIL & CROP SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
We are beginning to transition from a petroleum-based economy to a renewable/green energy economy. Agriculture will affected by and will play an important role in a renewable energy economy. Not only must agriculture produce traditional food, feed, and fiber crops affordably, but it must also produce energy, industrial, and pharmaceutical crops and products. This production diversity must be integrated on farm with other crops and into new cropping systems. The change to a green economy has numerous implications that provide many agronomic research opportunities and challenges. The evaluation, development, and production of traditional/alternative and industrial/bioenergy crops and cropping systems and the diversity they provide will have many benefits to Colorado agriculture and the citizens of Colorado. The overall purpose of the project is to promote the profitability of agriculture, be environmentally enhancing, and create sustainability for agriculture and society.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2051599106025%
2051699106025%
2051899106025%
2052299106025%
Goals / Objectives
1) Evaluate, develop, and integrate traditional/alternative and industrial/bioenergy crops and cropping systems into the agriculture of western Colorado. 2) Develop linkages, partnerships, and multi-disciplinary collaborations with researchers at CSU and at other universities, institutions, private industry, and organizations who are conducting agronomic, marketing, processing technology, feasibility and market potential studies, and product development research on traditional/alternative and industrial/bioenergy crops and cropping systems that may be of value to Colorado. 3) Monitor and identify pest and disease issues/problems in traditional/alternative and industrial/bioenergy crops and cropping systems for Colorado and develop measures to understand and control insect, disease, weed, and other related agricultural production problems. 4) Conduct applied research on traditional crops grown in western and northwestern Colorado that are a basis to complement and support traditional/alternative and industrial/bioenergy crops and cropping systems. Applied research will include, but may not be limited to, cultivar performance tests in crops such as corn, alfalfa, pasture grasses, dry bean, sunflower, canola, and small grains; soil fertility studies; tillage; irrigation; contemporary agronomic problems (blunt ear syndrome in corn) and issues, and agricultural product evaluation. 5) Communicate the findings of this research project to broad audiences including scientific and agricultural groups and organizations; governmental agencies; private industry; service organizations; and policymakers using a diversity of technical and popular media in written, oral, and electronic forms.
Project Methods
The objectives of this research project will be addressed through experimentation under field conditions in western and northwestern Colorado, in greenhouse conditions, and controlled laboratory environments. The following general procedures will be used to achieve the objectives: 1. Identify, introduce, evaluate, and integrate traditional/alternative and industrial/bioenergy crops and cropping systems. Conduct agronomic research to determine production potential and constraints using field testing, greenhouse, and controlled environments. Perform field testing using farmer-cooperators as warranted. Alternative and industrial/bioenergy crops and cropping systems are of primary interest in this research project and will target plant species such as specialty crop plants such as nuna beans; living mulches; sunflower as an industrial crop, and other non-feed, non-food crops, and others. 2. Partner and coordinate research activities with other scientists at the Western Colorado Research Center and at other research centers in Colorado, faculty on campus at CSU and at other institutions, personnel with Cooperative Extension, professionals in private industry, and others. Involvement of private industry is essential to successful production of many new/alternative crops. Identifying and including private industry as early as possible in the research process will be a high priority of this research project. 3. Use accepted statistical procedures in research protocols and analyses of data. Plots sizes, treatments, replications, and randomization will be used that are appropriate for the experimental material and conditions. 4. Identify and use appropriate treatments and procedures to test developed hypotheses. Treatments may include plant/crop species, cultivars, plant suppressions, fertilizers, tillage, irrigation, etc. 5. Consider market potentials, production constraints, post-harvest handling, co- and by-product utilization, partners for processing and manufacturing, and regulatory and environmental considerations. 6. Conduct crop enterprise budget analysis and costing analysis of processing and product development as warranted. 7. Prepare publications, field days and tours, and poster and Powerpoint presentations for appropriate outlets and audiences.

Progress 07/01/07 to 06/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Colorado State University has been conducting agricultural research in western Colorado for nearly 86 years. The overall purpose of agricultural research in western Colorado is to promote the profitability of agriculture, be environmentally enhancing, and create sustainability for agriculture and society. The mission of the Western Colorado Research Center is to plan, implement, and conduct research and outreach programs to address the needs of western Colorado agriculture. A broad research approach has been taken in order to address as many needs and create as many opportunities as possible. Over the 5-year span of this project, we have conducted studies on alternative crops that could be produced in western Colorado. We completed a 6-year study in 2005 on the performance of hybrid poplar when grown under an intensive, short-term rotation. Teff (Eragrostic tef Zucc.) is a warm-season annual grass recently promoted as a forage crop in the United States. Teff was evaluated as a potential alternative crop in western Colorado during 2008 and based on one year of data this crop may have potential when grown to meet specific production objectives. Alternatives to traditional corn/wheat/forage production is an important research topic for the land currently in production to remain in agriculture. Production research must include evaluating and integrating new technology into production practices and evaluating the cost/benefit relationship of such alternatives. Examples of the new technologies include genetically-altered crops such as Roundup-Ready corn, soybeans and alfalfa, new production technology to increase production efficiency, improved irrigation practices to increase efficiency and decrease erosion, and alternative cropping systems such as living mulches. Production of biofuel in western Colorado will open the possibility of growing alternative crops as energy crops such as perennial energy grasses, sunflower, and canola. We have conducted field trials with canola for several years. In 2006 and 2007, we conducted field trials with thirty-two sunflower varieties for seed and oil yield and other agronomic characteristics to determine the potential for commercial production of sunflower under irrigation in western Colorado. Much more transdisciplinary research and development is needed on all aspects of the supply chain to commercialize biomass to biofuel in western Colorado and the surrounding region. PARTICIPANTS: Denis Reich, M.S., Water Resource Specialist, Colorado Water Institute, Colorado State University, Grand Junction, Colorado, Collaborator; Joe Brummer, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences, Collaborator; Neil Hansen, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences, Collaborator; Jerry Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences, Collaborator; Mark A. Brick, Ph.D., Department of Soil & Crop Sciences, Collaborator; Ardell Halvorson, Ph.D., Research Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Fort Collins, CO, Collaborator; Ron Follett, Ph.D., Supervisory Research Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Fort Collins, CO, Collaborator; Harry R. Beller, Ph.D., Director of Biofuels Pathways, Joint Bioenergy Institute, Collaborator; Catherine Keske, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Ag & Resource Economics, Dept. of Soil & Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Collaborator; Nancy Genova, Ph.D., Vice President Rifle Campus, Executive Vice President, Colorado Mountain College, Collaborator; Steven Bobzin, Director of Technology Planning, Protection, and Acquisition, Ceres, Inc., Collaborator; Roger Pennell, Ph.D., Vice President/Director of Trait Development, Ceres, Inc., Collaborator; Taek Soon Lee, Ph.D., Director of Metabolic Engineering, Joint Bioenergy Institute, Collaborator; Dominique Loque, Ph.D., Director of Cell Wall Engineering, Joint Bioenergy Institute, Collaborator; Blake Simmons, Ph.D., Vice President of Deconstruction, Joint Bioenergy Institute, Collaborator; Pamela Ronald, Ph.D., Professor, UC Davis, Collaborator Miguel Vega-Sanchez, Ph.D., Director of Grass Genetics, Joint Bioenergy Institute, Collaborator; Daniel MacEachran, Ph.D., Microbiologist, Logos Technologies, Inc, Collaborator Morgan Williams, B.S., Flux Farm Foundation, Collaborator; Steve Larson, Ph.D., Research Genetist, Forage & Range Research Lab, USDA-ARS, Logan, Utah, Collaborator; Kevin Jensen, Ph.D., Research Genetist, Forage & Range Research Lab, USDA-ARS, Logan, Utah, Collaborator; Steve Parr, Manager, Upper Colorado Environmental Plant Center, Meeker, Colorado, Collaborator; Katrina Cornish, Professor, Ohio State University, Collaborator; Peter Reisen, Ph.D., Forage Genetics International, Nampa, ID, Collaborator; Maynard Ochs, Product Development Agronomist, Dow AgroSciences, Collaborator TARGET AUDIENCES: Agricultural research findings conducted in the western Colorado region are communicated to broad audiences including scientific and agricultural groups and organizations, governmental and non-governmental agencies, private industry, service organizations, and policymakers by using a diversity of technical and popular media in written, oral, and electronic forms. Specific outreach products depends on the topic and target audience and include the following: refereed journal articles, book chapters, proceedings, management guides, abstracts, newsletters, annual reports, technical reports, industry reports, progress reports, Powerpoint presentations, large format posters for technical and general audiences, popular magazine articles, websites (www.colostate.edu/programs/wcrc), conferences, field tours, workshops, personal consultations, videos, broadcasts, and interviews. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Over the 15 years of conducting alfalfa trials from 1995-2010 working with private industry we conducted ten trials, three of which evaluated Roundup-Ready alfalfa material. Over twenty alfalfa varieties were developed by our private industry partner for commercial production in the 15 years of testing. The decision on marketing these cultivars was due, in large part, to their performance in the trials at Fruita. Estimates of acres of these alfalfa varieties planted between 2005 and 2010 (based on seed sales and an 18 Megagram per hectare seeding rate) are in excess of 1.3 million hectares annually. We evaluated corn (Zea mays L.) grain breeding material at the Western Colorado Research Center (WCRC) at Fruita in 2007 through 2010 to identify material best adapted and desirable to western Colorado and other similar production environments. Over the four years of testing Grand Valley Hybrids (GVH) advanced corn genetic material we planted and harvested 4,889 plots at WCRC-Fruita and 264 plots at Olathe, CO. Over the testing period for GVH at WCRC-Fruita and at Olathe, approximately 10 new commercial corn hybrids were selected for commercial release by GVH. Typically, 2-3 new hybrids were identified each year. Estimates are that these new corn hybrids were used to plant 8,000 - 9,000 hectares acres across the GVH sales area. These new corn hybrids were estimated to have a 627 kilogram per hectare yield increase over current GVH commercial hybrids. New GVH corn silage hybrids were estimated to have a 5.6 Megagram per hectare yield increase over current GVH silage hybrids. A 2-year field study conducted during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons was to evaluate four MillerCoors malting barley varieties when fall-planted in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Planting occurred during mid October and harvest occurred during mid- to late July each year, depending on the harvest maturity of each variety. Weed control was excellent in both years. Adequate irrigation water was available during both growing seasons and was not a limiting factor for crop production. No winter injury or winter kill was observed for any of the malting barley varieties in both years. M116 had the highest 2-year average yield at 10.3 Megagram per hectare and Charles had the lowest 2-year average yield at 6.8 Megagram per hectare. The results of this research indicate that fall-planted malting barley with several of the new MillerCoors varieties has commercial crop production potential for the Grand Valley and other similar locations in western Colorado.

Publications

  • Pearson, C.H. 2010. Western Colorado alfalfa variety performance test at Fruita 2010. [Online] Available at http://www.csucrops.com/alfalfa.html. (verified 1 Jan. 2011).
  • Pearson, Calvin. 2010. AGVA Units to be Evalauted in 2010 at WCRC-Fruita. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ramesh Pokharel, ed.). Spring 2010. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.
  • Pearson, Calvin. 2010. Local Weather Data Available on the Internet. pp. 3. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ramesh Pokharel, ed.). Fall 2010. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.
  • Pearson, C.H., Ernst, S.M., Barbarick, K.A., Hatfield,J.L., Peterson, G.A., and Buxton, D.R. 2008. Agronomy Journal turns one hundred. Agron. J. 100:1-8.
  • Pearson, C.H., Ernst, S.M., Barbarick, K.A., Hatfield,J.L., Peterson, G.A., and Buxton, D.R. 2008. Agronomy Journal turns one hundred. Pp. S19-26. In: Celebrate the Centennial: A collection of articles to commemorate 100 years of Agronomy Journal. A supplement to Agronomy Journal. American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2008. Western Colorado alfalfa variety performance test at Fruita 2008. [Online] Available at http://www.csucrops.com. (verified 31 Jan. 2008).
  • Pearson, Calvin. 2010 Research Project Initiated in 2010 on Biomass and Bioenergy in Western Colorado. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ramesh Pokharel, ed.). Spring 2010. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: In western Colorado we have a severe infestation of alfalfa stem nematodes (Ditylenchus dipsaci). These microscopic round worms have an adverse affect on forage yields of alfalfa and as the alfalfa stand gets older the nematode population increases. A diagnostic tool for stem nematodes is white flagging that can be visually observed by the white stems sporadically occurring in a field. In western Colorado we have observed white flagging to occur in all four cuttings, although white flagging occurs more often in the second and third cuttings. The economic means of coping with stem nematodes is to identify alfalfa varieties that are tolerant to these round worms. We have conducted cooperative research with Forage Genetics International since 1995 to test alfalfa germplasm developed by Forage Genetics International for its forage performance in western Colorado. The data obtained at Western Colorado Research Center (WCRC) Fruita are invaluable to Forage Genetics International's evaluation and selection process for developing new alfalfa varieties. Many new alfalfa varieties developed by Forage Genetics International have been subsequently made available to producers for planting, not only for our producers in western Colorado but in many other locations in the country. The objective of our research was to evaluate alfalfa breeding material at CSU-WCRC-Fruita during 1995-2010 to identify experimental varieties developed by Forage Genetics International that are best adapted to western Colorado and other similar production environments where alfalfa stem nematodes are present. The ultimate goal is to provide new and better alfalfa varieties developed by Forage Genetics International to producers in the region. *** Corn hybrids perform differently in different locations creating what is termed a "genotype x environment interaction." Thus, it is important to test corn breeding material in a sufficient number of environments to determine in which locations corn hybrids are best adapted. This is of critical importance to allow companies to determine which hybrids to commercialize and how to market them. Much of the past corn grain breeding efforts and R&D of new corn grain hybrids have been on grain yield, grain quality, disease resistance, stalk strength, root strength, plant height, and others. With the advent of biotechnological tools, new crop traits of commercial value include herbicide resistance, insect resistance, environmental tolerance such drought, with many others either in the development process or envisioned. Since 2007, we at WCRC-Fruita, have conducted advanced corn hybrid genetics testing for Grand Valley Hybrids. The Grand Valley of western Colorado historically experiences hot, dry weather that can limit the yield potential of grain corn; however, western Colorado has been recognized as an environment in the U.S. for high corn yields. The objective of this research was to evaluate corn grain breeding material at WCRC-Fruita and with a farmer-cooperator at Olathe, CO during 2007-2010 to identify corn hybrid genetic material from Grand Valley Hybrids that is best adapted to western Colorado and other similar production environments. PARTICIPANTS: Peter Reisen, Plant Breeder, Forage Genetics International; Maynard Ochs, Product Development Agronomist, Dow AgroSciences; Wayne Fithian, Syngenta Seeds; Jon Prater, Process Technologist, Colorado Mountain College, Bob Rayer, Soil Scientist, USDA-NRCS; Morgan Williams, Executive Director, Flux Farm Foundation; Steven R. Larson, Research Genetist, USDA-ARS, Logan, UT; Kevin B. Jensen, Research Genetist, USDA-ARS, Logan, UT; Robbi J. Jackson, CEO, Enviro Consultant Service, LLC; Denis Reich, Water Resources Specialist, Colorado State University; Ardell D. Halvorson, Research Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Fort Collins, CO; Ronald F Follett, Research Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Fort Collins, CO; Katrina Cornish, Professor, Ohio State University; Colleen McMahan, USDA-ARS, Albany, CA; Steven Bobzin, Director, Technology Planning, Protection, and Acquisition, Ceres, Inc.; Dominique Loque, Director of Cell Wall Engineering, JBEI; Roger Pennell, Vice President/Director of Trait Development, Ceres, Inc.; Harry Beller, Director of Biofuels Pathways, JBEI; Swapnil Chhabra, Director of Host Engineering, JBEI; Taek Soon Lee, Director of Metabolic Engineering, JBEI; Pamela Ronald, Director of Grass Genetics, U.C. Davis/JBEI; Miguel Vega-Sanchez, Deputy Director of Grass Genetics, JBEI; Blake Simmons, Vice President of Deconstruction, JBEI; Jim Engler, Senior Scientist/Engineer, Logos Technologies, Inc.; Catherine Keske, Assistant Professor of Ag. Economics, Colorado State University; Gregg Deluga, Director of Biofuels, Logos Technologies, Inc.; Joe Brummer, Associate Professor, Colorado State University; Jerry Johnson, Associate Professor, Colorado State University; Scott Haley, Professor, Colorado State University; TARGET AUDIENCES: Research findings of this project are communicated across many target audiences including scientific and agricultural groups and organizations, farmers/producers, policymakers, scientists, private industry representatives, oil and gas representatives, city and couny governments, private foundations, state and federal agencies, farmer coops, and soil conservation districts, governmental and non-governmental agencies, service organizations, Extension agents, and media outlets using a diversity of technical and popular media in written, oral, and electronic forms. The following outreach activities/products have and will continue to be used: newsletter articles, annual report articles, Powerpoint presentations, large format posters, website development, workshops, and field tours each year. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Over twenty new alfalfa varieties have been developed by Forage Genetics International for commercial production in the 15 years of testing at WCRC-Fruita for Forage Genetics International. The decision on marketing these new alfalfa cultivars was due in large part to their performance in the trials at Fruita. Estimates of hectares of these new alfalfa varieties planted between 2005 and 2010 (based on seed sales and an 8 kilogram seeding rate) are in excess of 1.3 million hectares annually. Primary states in the western U.S. where stem nematode can be a particular problem are Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Northern California. There are various primary audiences we target as outlets for our research results and outreach efforts. For our traditional clientele, the hay grower, the information from these trials can help them in selecting adapted varieties best suited for their production practices. For private companies the data from these trials are essential in determining which of their products are best adapted for their market areas in the western states where nematodes are present. *** Over the four years of testing advanced corn genetic material for Grand Valley Hybrids at WCRC-Fruita and at Olathe, CO approximately 10 new commercial corn hybrids were selected for commercial release by Grand Valley Hybrids. Typically, 2-3 new hybrids were identified each year. Estimates are that these new corn hybrids were used to plant 8,000 - 9,000 hectares across the Grand Valley Hybrids sales area. These new corn hybrids were estimated to have a 630 kilogram per hectare yield increase over current Grand Valley Hybrids commercial hybrids. New Grand Valley Hybrids corn silage hybrids were estimated to have a 5.6 megagram per hectare yield increase over current Grand Valley Hybrids commercial corn silage hybrids. Additionally, these new hybrids carried special traits such as glyphosate resistant and/or insect resistance. These corn traits were estimated to add another 3% yield increase over current Grand Valley Hybrids commercial corn hybrids. Many of the corn hybrids selected for commercial release and production are dual-purpose hybrids, meaning these hybrids can be grown for both corn silage and grain. Developing strong university/industry collaborative relationships are valuable in conducting research that not only benefit the university and private industry but are also highly beneficial to the agricultural industry.

Publications

  • Pearson, C.H. 2011. Alfalfa Introduction. p. 91. Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual, 2nd edition. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-02. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2011. Field performance of oat varieties at Fruita, Colorado 2009-2010. pps. 13- 19. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2010 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-11. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Brummer, J.E., Hammon, R. and Franklin, M.L. (eds.). 2011. Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual (2nd edition). Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Colorado State University, Technical Bulletin TB11-02. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2011. Harvest. pps. 163-175. In: Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual, 2nd edition. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-02. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. and Mucklow, C.J. 2011. Stand establishment (irrigated and dryland). pps. 111-119. In: Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual, 2nd edition. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-02. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2011. The impact of field evaluations of alfalfa breeding material at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita 1995- 2010. pps. 8-12. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2010 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-11. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2011. The impact of field evaluations of corn grain breeding material at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita 2007-2010. pps. 20-26. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2010 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-11. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. and Sharp, R. 2011. Variety selection and budget. pps. 93-109. In: Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual, 2nd edition. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-02. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Hammon, R., and Page, E. 2011. Weed control in alfalfa. pps. 149-162. In: Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual, 2nd edition. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-02. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Brummer, J.E., and Hammon, R. 2011. Organic production of alfalfa and grass. pps. 177- 184. In: Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual, 2nd edition. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR11-02. Fort Collins, Colorado.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The U.S. imports approximately 568 billion liters of petroleum each year. At a price of $90 per 150 liters (barrel) this equates to more than $321 billion per year of wealth that flows out the United States. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set a goal of achieving a production of 136 billion liters per year of renewable fuel by 2022. In 2009, slightly more than 38 billion liters of ethanol was produced in the United States. In 2010, the USDA published the Biofuels Strategic Production Report, which noted that 61 billion liters year of biofuels is targeted for production from lignocellulosic energy crops. For biomass production in western Colorado a reasonable goal is 6.7 megagram per hectare and a biofuel yield of 333 liters per megagram of biomass, which would produce 2230 liters per hectare. Western Colorado consists of nearly 1.7 million hectares of pasture or idle cropland. If 400,000 hectares could be used for biofuel production, this land has the potential to produce 900 million liters of biofuel in western Colorado. In fall 2007, the City of Rifle received a grant to conduct a feasibility study on the potential for bioenergy in western Colorado. In December 2008, CSU scientists from the Western Colorado Research Center met with City of Rifle officials to discuss biomass/biofuels in the region. In December 2009, a year after initial meetings, the Western Colorado Biofuels Consortium was organized by representatives from the City of Rifle, professors from Colorado State University, professors and administrators from Colorado Mountain College, and the Executive Director from Flux Farm Foundation. The goal of the Consortium is to conduct applied research on biomass and biofuels in western Colorado and produce biobutanol and mixed alcohols- second generation transportation fuels. Monthly meetings are held (except during the growing season) to discuss the various activities, outputs, and outcomes of our biofuel efforts in western Colorado. In December 2009, the Consortium was awarded its first research grant from the Colorado Dept of Agriculture to conduct research on biomass and biofuels in western Colorado. This research focuses on the capacity of the region to grow low-input, hi-biomass, cellulosic perennial bioenergy crops at three locations (Carbondale, Rifle, and Fruita, Colorado). A website was created in 2010 and is regularly updated to document and promote biomass to biofuels in western Colorado (www.wccnbc.org). A press release that occurred in February 2010 resulted in numerous articles that were published in local papers and interviews with local television and radio. To summarize the activities of the Consortium during 2010, a video has been posted on YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watchv=VhICEkWDInQ). On September 9, 2010 a media day was held at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita in which local media were invited to view current research being conducted on location. A local television station and a local newspaper attended the event from which they produced a news segment and a printed article. PARTICIPANTS: Morgan Williams, Executive Director, Flux Farm Foundation; Jon Prater, Professor, Colorado Mountain College, Rifle Campus; Nephi Thompson, Scientist, Colorado Mountain College, Rifle Campus; Charlie Stevens, Utility Director, City of Rifle. Students are and will continue to be involved in the construction and operation of the pilot plant at Colorado Mountain College on the Rifle campus. TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers/producers; policy makers; scientists; private industry representatives; oil and gas industry representatives; city and county governments; private foundations. We have developed brochures, handouts, a website, large format posters, Powerpoint presentations, and regular planning meetings that are open to the public, and a symposium is planned for late March 2011. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Since the formation of the Western Colorado Biofuels Consortium a number of impacts have occurred though changes in knowledge and actions and to a lesser extent changes in conditions. When the Western Colorado Biofuels Consortium was formed there were approximately ten people directly associated with the group. At the end of 2010, a year later, approximately 20 people attended our December 2010 meeting. At this meeting, I presented a Powerpoint presentation to summarize the status of biomass/biofuel and Consortium efforts over the past year. The presentation was scheduled for 20 minutes and it lasted 1.5 hours. There were many questions and much discussion about biomass to biofuels in western Colorado and the engaging interaction among the attendees was invigorating. There were several people who attended for the first time. Those in attendance particularly the newcomers were informed about biomass/biofuel production and the conversion/processing potential in western Colorado. The initial 2010 data obtained from biomass field research at Fruita was also presented. This was a significant change in knowledge for many of those in attendance even those who had been coming to the meetings. There were so many requests for the Powerpoint presentation that it was emailed to everyone on our list serve and it was also posted on our website (www.wccnbc.org). The change in action for this activity was the decision to extend our educational efforts more into the community to engage more stakeholders about the potential for the production of biomass to biofuels in western Colorado. As a group we decided to host a symposium in late March 2011. The goal is to have 150-200 people from around western Colorado attend the symposium. We will have several speakers including a keynote speaker during the morning and then after lunch we will tour the pilot-scale facility that is under construction and nearing completion at Colorado Mountain College on the Rifle campus. The pilot-scale biofuel processing facility is having a powerful impact on the institutional infrastructure at Colorado Mountain College, Rifle campus even before it becomes operational in early 2011. The progress that has been made over the past year on the construction of the pilot facility has been exciting. Photos of the facility are available at http://www.youtube.com/watchv=VhICEkWDInQ. We have had a three members of the agricultural community attend our meetings over the past year and based on the information that has been presented and the knowledge they have obtained, these producers are supportive and excited about the potential for biofuels to promote rural development in western Colorado.

Publications

  • Pearson, C.H. and Sharp, R.L. 2010. Double-cropping pinto bean after winter barley in western Colorado USA. J. Agricultural Science and Technology 4:1-7.
  • Pearson, C.H., Halvorson, A.D., Moench, R.D., and Hammon, R.W. 2010. Production of hybrid poplar under short-term, intensive culture in western Colorado. Ind. Crops Prod. 31:492-498.
  • Pearson, C.H., Cornish, K., McMahan, C.M., D.J. Rath, and Whalen, M. 2010. Natural rubber quantification in sunflower using an automated solvent extractor. Ind. Crops Prod. 31:469-475.
  • Pearson, C.H., Cornish, K., McMahan, C.M., D.J. Rath, Brichta, J.L., and Van Fleet, J.E. 2010. Agronomic and natural rubber characteristics of sunflower as a rubber-producing plant. Ind. Crops Prod. 31:481-491.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2010. Performance of fall-planted malting barley at Fruita, Colorado 2008-2009. p. 20-27. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2009 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR10-07. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Brummer, J., and Beahm, A. 2010. Co-establishment of legumes and corn in a living mulch cropping system under furrow irrigation. p. 10-19. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2009 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report 10-07. Fort Collins, Colorado.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Short-term, intensive culture of woody crop species was first considered 30 years ago as a rapid means to produce feedstock for fiber and energy applications. Production of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) was initiated on large-scale, short-term intensive culture in the 1990s on farmland where agronomic crops have traditionally been produced. Production practices for short-term, intensive rotations with hybrid poplar typically have high plant densities of approximately 1700 trees per hectare when production cycles are completed in less than 8 years. An irrigated study was conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita for 6 years to evaluate eight hybrid poplar clones under short-term, intensive culture. The eight clones included in the study were Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii (NM6), P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides (52225, OP367), and P. deltoides x P. nigra (Norway, Noreaster, Raverdaus, 14274, 14272). Data were collected for growth, aerial biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, carbon sequestration, and insect and disease infestation. Of the eight clones tested, OP367 was the most adapted and productive clone in this short-term, intensive culture system in the arid environment of the Grand Valley of western Colorado as evidenced by its productive growth, yield, insect resistance, winterhardiness, and tree architecture. The output for this research over the years of this study included several field days (approx. 10) and numerous on site visits by local clientele. Furthermore, I had telephone consultations with a diversity of people (approx. 50) who were interested in hybrid poplars. Of the field research I have conducted over the years, the hybrid poplar project drew more local attention and off-the-street, drop-in visitors than any research I have performed (approx. 50). This research project fostered a new collaboration with researchers at the USDA-ARS Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit in Fort Collins. Additional output forthcoming is a scientific journal article summarizing the results of this research. The manuscript has been peer reviewed and is currently in revision, and is to be published in the Journal of Industrial Crops and Products. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
In the past, hybrid poplar has been grown for a variety of uses and more recently hybrid poplar has been promoted as a source of biofuel and for carbon sequestration. Various plant species, including hybrid poplar, have been evaluated for their potential to sequester C, but little data are available on how poplar clones differ in the ability to sequester C. OP367 and 52225 consistently had larger tree diameters than other hybrids for each of the six years. Averaged across clones, yield was 58.4 Mg per hectare. OP367 had the highest yield at 72.2 Mg per hectare and 14274 had the lowest yield at 41.0 Mg per hectare. The yield of OP367 was 1.8 times greater than that of 14274. Carbon yield over the 6 years of testing was highest for OP367 at 33.4 Mg C per hectare and lowest for 14274 at 18.8 Mg C per hectare. Other researchers found that above-ground tree components for 13-year-old hybrid poplar in southern Ontario, Canada sequestered 15.1 Mg C per hectare when grown at a density of 111 trees per hectare. In our 6-year hybrid poplar study, OP367, the clone with the highest aerial C production, sequestered 33.4 Mg C per hectare during this growth period. The tree density used in our study was 1,681 trees per hectare. Our data are for C production of trunk and branches, and does not include C for leaves and roots. In work by other researchers, they found that leaves of hybrid poplar contributed approximately 10% to total aerial C and that 85% of the total tree C was stored in aerial biomass with the remaining 15% being stored in roots. Even without the C contribution from leaves and roots in our study, short-term intensive culture production of hybrid poplar has potential to sequester considerably more C than traditional hybrid poplar production systems. Researchers have postulated that short rotation woody crops, such as hybrid poplar, and other herbaceous crops could assimilate 50 MMT C per year if grown on 10 M hectares. These researchers used a net C assimilation rate of 5 Mg per hectare per year in their calculations. Their assumption of 5 Mg per hectare per year is similar to what we found for some of the hybrid poplar clones grow in western Colorado. The findings obtained in our study are valuable to aid economists in developing crop enterprise budgets for hybrid poplar grown under short-term, intensive culture. If C sequestration is a production objective for hybrid poplar, it is important to realize that hybrid poplar clones do not sequester C equally and that it is important to select a suitable clone for planting. Carbon production among the clones in our study ranged from 33.4 Mg per hectare for OP367 to 18.8 t per hectare for 14274, a difference of 14.6 Mg per hectare. Thus, the most productive poplar clone in our study increased C sequestration by as much as 90% compared to the least productive clone. Furthermore, data obtained in this study is of value to policymakers and others as issues related to carbon sequestration, such as carbon offsets and credits, are debated and considered.

Publications

  • Pearson, C.H. 2009. Fall-planted malting barley at Fruita, Colorado 2008. p. 7-10. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2008 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR09-12. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2009. Seed yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower at Fruita, Colorado. p. 11-16. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2008 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR09-12. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., and Brummer, J.E. 2009. Evaluation of teff as an alternative crop for western Colorado 2008. p. 17-20. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2008 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR09-12. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., and Johnson, J.J. 2009. Winter canola variety performance trials at Fruita, Colorado 2005-2008. p. 21-24. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2008 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR09-12. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Haley, S.D., and Johnson, J.J. 2009. Winter wheat variety performance trial at Fruita, Colorado 2008. p. 25-29. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2008 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR09-12. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2009. Western Colorado alfalfa variety performance test at Fruita 2009. [Online] Available at http://www.csucrops.com/alfalfa.html. (verified 24 Dec. 2009).
  • Pearson, C.H. 2009. Winter wheat variety performance test at Hayden, Colorado 2009. [Online] Available at http://www.csucrops.com/wheat.html. (verified 24 Dec. 2009).
  • Pearson, C.H. 2009. 2009 National winter canola variety trial. Fruita, CO. p. 34. M Stamm and Cynthia La Barge (senior authors). Report of Progress 1026. Kansas State Univ., Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. (I conducted a variety trial at Fruita and the data were published in this report along with numerous other locations around the country.)
  • Pearson, C.H. 2009. 2008 National winter canola variety trial. M Stamm and Cynthia La Barge (senior authors). Report of Progress 1009. Kansas State Univ., Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Manhattan, KS. (I conducted a variety trial at Fruita and the data were published in this report along with numerous other locations around the country.)
  • Pearson, C.H. 2009. Management of Alfalfa Forage Trials Changed during 2009. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ramesh Pokharel, ed.). Fall 2009. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2009. Alfalfa Continues to be a Valuable Crop for Western Colorado. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ramesh Pokharel, ed.). Spring 2009. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Oilseed sunflower cultivar performance tests were conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita, Colorado during 2006 and 2007 to evaluate thirty-two sunflower varieties for seed and oil yield and related agronomic characteristics to assess the potential for commercial production of sunflower under irrigation in western Colorado. In 2006, seed yields averaged 2710 kg/ha and ranged from a high of 3920 kg/ha for HySun 454 to a low of 785 kg/ha for Croplan Genetics 3080 DMR. Seed oil concentrations averaged 443 g/kg. Oil concentrations ranged from a high of 470 g/kg to a low of 420 g/kg. Oil yield averaged 1201 kg/ha. Oil yields among the sunflower varieties ranged from a high of 1714 kg/ha to a low of 347 kg/ha. In 2007, seed yields averaged 2372 kg/ha and ranged from a high of 3975 kg/ha for Producers Hybrids 7203 to a low of 1118 kg/ha for Croplan Genetics 308 NS. Seed oil concentration averaged 453 g/kg, which is typical for many sunflower varieties. Oil concentrations ranged from a high of 490 g/kg for 8N453DM to a low of 410 g/kg for DKF 35-10 NS. Oil yield averaged 1074 kg/ha. Oil yields among the sunflower varieties ranged from a high of 1814 kg/ha for Triumph 645 to a low of 504 kg/ha for Croplan Genetics 308 NS. Varieties with the highest seed yields did not necessarily have the highest oil yields. Most sunflower varieties established well and exhibited good growth during the growing season. Many sunflower varieties produced good seed yields, had low seed moisture at harvest, and had good seed oil concentrations and thus good oil yields. These findings indicate many sunflower varieties are adapted and would likely perform well under commercial production in the furrow-irrigated, high desert arid environment of western Colorado. PARTICIPANTS: Joe Brummer, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences; Neil Hansen, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences; Jerry Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences; Maureen Whalen, Ph.D., Research Leader, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Albany, CA; Colleen McMahan, Ph.D., Polymer Chemist, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Albany, CA; Candace Gardner, Ph.D., Research Leader/Coordinator, USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station; Laura F. Marek, Ph.D., Oilseeds Curator, USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station; Allison Snow, Ph.D., Plant Ecologist, Ohio State University; Mark A. Brick, Ph.D., Department of Soil & Crop Sciences; J. Barry Ogg, M.S., Department of Soil & Crop Sciences; Katrina Cornish, Ph.D., Senior Vice President, Yulex Corporation, Maricopa, AZ; Wayne Fithian, M.S., J.C. Robinson Co., Inc.; Peter Reisen, Ph.D., Forage Genetics International, Nampa, ID; Donna Rath, B.S., Research Associate, Western Colorado Research Center; Rod Sharp, M.S. Ag. Economist and Extension Specialist, Western Colorado Region, Colorado State University; Bill Rooks, Grand Valley Hybrids. Others people, companies, and organizations who contribute in some manner to the project are seed companies, breeding companies, fertilizer companies, crop protection companies, agribusinesses; state agencies (i.e. Colorado State Department of Agriculture, Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment) and federal agencies (i.e. USDA-ARS, NRCS, BOR, DOE, DOD, USGS, DHS); state water boards and agencies; soil conservation districts; plant material centers; and local governments such as cities and counties within the region. TARGET AUDIENCES: Agronomic research findings conducted in the western Colorado region are communicated to broad audiences including scientific and agricultural groups and organizations, governmental and non-governmental agencies, private industry, service organizations, and policymakers by using a diversity of technical and popular media in written, oral, and electronic forms. Specific outreach products depends on the topic and target audience and include the following: refereed journal articles, book chapters, proceedings, management guides, abstracts, newsletters, annual reports, technical reports, industry reports, progress reports, Powerpoint presentations, large format posters for technical and general audiences, popular magazine articles, websites (www.colostate.edu/programs/wcrc), conferences, field tours, workshops, personal consultations, videos, broadcasts, and interviews. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Following harvest and data collection each year, seed from these two trials was sold to a local buyer/processor. At the completion of the project, the buyer wanted to contract with the research center to grow more sunflowers for him. We had discussions with the buyer and he identified a local grower with whom he contracted a commercial acreage of sunflower for production during 2008. As the scientist, I met with both the buyer and the grower to provide information transfer and training on sunflower production under the irrigated conditions of western Colorado. During the 2008 cropping season the grower periodically met with me to ask questions about sunflower production. At the conclusion of harvest, the buyer also met with me to review the cropping season. During the 2008 growing season, the grower planted Triumph 645, one of the superior-performing varieties identified from our field research for which seed was readily available in our area. The 2008 planting was on 20 ha with a resulting production of approximately 45,000 kg at an estimated value of $25,000 US. The buyer was pleased with the 2008 sunflower crop and maintains he has a reliable and enthusiastic multi-state distribution system for the sunflower seed. Production plans for 2009 include a doubling of the sunflower aceage and another contract with the same grower. The sunflower project was an ideal situation of conducting local research and then extending the results to commercial agriculture and buyer with all players involved experiencing a positive outcome. The results of these sunflower variety performance trials conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita will be of value to others in western Colorado to support the emerging sunflower production industry for uses including biodiesel, cooking oil, birdseed, and other value-added enterprises. For example, these sunflower data were used by growers and a buyer/processor in an overall effort to support a new regional oilseed extraction facility in southwest Colorado.

Publications

  • Pearson, C.H., Haley, S., and Johnson, J.J. 2008. Small grain variety performance test at Hayden, Colorado. p. 31-35. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2007 Research Report. Colorado State Univ., Agric. Exp. Stn. and Extension, Technical Report TR08-10. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., and Rath, D.J. 2008. A hydraulic press for extracting fluids from plant tissue samples. Industrial Crops and Products doi:10.1016/j.indrop.2008-08-006. available online 10/23/2008.
  • Pearson, C.H., Rath, D.J., McMahan, C.M., Cornish, K., and Whalen, M. 2008. Standard operating protocol for growing transgenic sunflower plants in contained environments. Online. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2008-0910-01-PS. Published 09/10/2008.
  • Ogg, J.B., Brick, M.A., and Pearson, C.H. 2008. Introgression of popping ability into common beans adapted to temperate regions. In: Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative. Vol 51:114-115.
  • Pearson, C.H., and Larsen, H.J. 2008. The value of agriculture and conducting agricultural research in western Colorado. p. 7-30. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2007 Research Report. Colorado State Univ., Agric. Exp. Stn. and Extension, Technical Report TR08-10. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Haley S., and Johnson, J.J. 2008. Winter wheat variety performance trial at Fruita, Colorado 2007. p. 36-39. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2007 Research Report. Colorado State Univ., Agric. Exp. Stn. and Extension, Technical Report TR08-10. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2008. Spring-planted malting barley at Fruita, Colorado 2007. p. 63-65. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2007 Research Report. Colorado State Univ., Agric. Exp. Stn. and Extension, Technical Report TR08-10. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., and Haley, S. 2008. Irrigated winter wheat variety performance trial at Fruita, Colorado 2007. p. 44-46. In: Making Better Decisions: 2007 Colorado Winter Wheat Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State Univ., Agric. Exp. Stn. and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR08-08. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Haley, S., and Johnson, J. 2008. Small grain variety performance test at Hayden, Colorado 2007. p. 47. In: Making Better Decisions: 2007 Colorado Winter Wheat Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State Univ., Agric. Exp. Stn. and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR08-08. Fort Collins, Colorado.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: After years of limited production, producers in the area have again become interested in growing winter wheat. Furthermore, it has been several years since we have conducted a winter wheat variety performance test in the Grand Valley. Production technology is continually changing and this creates a need to evaluate winter wheat varieties, particularly those that have been recently developed in the intervening years and compare them to winter wheat varieties that were poplar in past years. Variety yield performance data can be used by various people- farmers when selecting varieties to plant on their farms, seedsmen in knowing which varieties to grow and nuances about growing the varieties, companies to determine which varieties to market and in which locations varieties are best adapted and are best in end use applications, and university personnel in developing new wheat production technology and in educating people about the varieties researchers have tested. During 2007 we evaluated 18 winter wheat varieties comparing those that have been recently developed to those that have been traditionally grown in Western Colorado. Planting occurred on 3 Nov 2006 at 120 lbs seed/acre. Urea at 75 lbs N/acre was applied topdress on 3 Mar. 2007. Harmony Extra at 0.6 oz/A plus 10 oz/A of 2,4-D amine was applied by ground in 22 gal water/acre at 22 psi on 3 Apr 2007. The experiment was furrow-irrigated using gated pipe. Winter wheat plots were harvested on 25 July 2007 using a plot combine. Weed control was excellent during the growing season. Adequate irrigation water was available during the growing season and was not a limiting factor for crop production. Grain moisture in the winter wheat variety performance trial at Fruita averaged 10.7%. Grain moisture content ranged from a high of 11.3% for Darwin to a low of 9.9% for Juniper. Grain yields of the winter wheat varieties averaged 7361 lbs/acre (122.7 bu/acre). Grain yields ranged from a high of 8526 lbs/acre (142.1 bu/acre) for Bond CL to a low of 5833 lbs/acre (97.2 bu/acre) for Hayden. Many winter wheat varieties were high yielding with eleven varieties having higher yields than the other seven. Test weights averaged 60.1 lbs/bu. Test weights ranged from a high of 62.9 lbs/bu for Danby to a low of 57.6 lbs/bu for Lambert and Stephens. Days to flowering averaged 136 days from 1 Jan. for all varieties. Seven varieties began flowering at approximately 133 days while Simon and UI 99-22407 required 141 days to reach flowering. Plant height averaged 39.3 inches. Plant height ranged from a high of 53.2 inches for Juniper to a low of 29.8 inches for Tubbs 06. Despite Juniper being the tallest variety it did not lodge near as much as Hayden.Some lodging occurred in the trial. The variety with the most lodging was Hayden (4.0). There was a small amount of lodging (less than 1.5) for other varieties as compared to Hayden. Protein concentration averaged 9.4% and ranged from a high of 10.9% for Juniper to a low of 8.9% for Golden Spike. Five varieties (Darwin, Gary, Juniper, Akron, and Stephens) had protein concentrations at 10% or higher. PARTICIPANTS: Below is a list of colleagues who have collaborated on agronomic research in recent years at WCRC. Joe Brummer, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences. Neil Hansen, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences. Jerry Johnson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Soil & Crop Sciences. Maureen Whalen, Ph.D., Research Leader, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Albany, CA. Colleen McMahan, Ph.D., Polymer Chemist, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, Albany, CA. Candace Gardner, Ph.D., Research Leader/Coordinator, USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station. Laura F. Marek, Ph.D., Oilseeds Curator, USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station. Allison Snow, Ph.D., Plant Ecologist, Ohio State University. Mark A. Brick, Ph.D., Department of Soil & Crop Sciences. J. Barry Ogg, M.S., Department of Soil & Crop Sciences. Katrina Cornish, Ph.D., Senior Vice President, Yulex Corporation, Maricopa, AZ. Wayne Fithian, M.S., J.C. Robinson Co., Inc. Peter Reisen, Ph.D., Forage Genetics International, Nampa, ID. Dave Gedge, Ph.D., Plant Breeder, Gedge Research, Brookings, SD. Rod Sharp, M.S. Ag. Economist and Extension Specialist, Western Colorado Region, Colorado State University. Wayne Cooley, M.S., Tri-River Area Extension, Colorado State University. Bob Hammon, M.S., Tri-River Area Extension, Colorado State University. Charlie Holcomb, Agronomist, NRCS, Grand Junction. Others people, companies, and organizations may develop interest in our agronomic research and could be sources of cooperation, collaboration, and funding support, including seed companies, breeding companies, fertilizer companies, crop protection companies, agribusinesses; state agencies (i.e. Colorado State Department of Agriculture, Colorado Department of Public Health & Environment) and federal agencies (i.e. USDA-ARS, NRCS, BOR, DOE, DOD, USGS, DHS); state water boards and agencies; soil conservation districts; plant material centers; and local governments such as cities and counties within the region. TARGET AUDIENCES: Colorado State University has been conducting agronomic research in western Colorado for nearly sixty years. The overall purpose of agronomic research is to promote the profitability of agriculture, be environmentally enhancing, and create sustainability for agriculture and society. The mission of the Western Colorado Research Center is to plan, implement, and conduct research and outreach programs to address the needs of western Colorado agriculture. Agriculture is defined in its broadest terms. Primary target audiences are producers to help them when making crop production decisions, companies and others to help them to determine which products to market and in which locations their products are best adapted and are best in end use applications, and university personnel in developing new crop production technology and in educating clientele about the results researchers have obtained. WCRC will endeavor to meet emerging and recognized needs of the western Colorado agricultural community as the resources of WCRC and AES permit, and directed research efforts will be expended in an attempt to overcome challenges, solve problems, and create opportunities within the region and beyond. The findings of this research project will be communicated to broad audiences including scientific and agricultural groups and organizations; governmental agencies; private industry; service organizations; and policymakers using a diversity of technical and popular media in written, oral, and electronic forms. Target audiences are personnel at land-grant universities, Bureau of Reclamation, City governments, State colleges and universities, US Army Corps of Engineers County governments, Private colleges and universities, US Dept. of Energy State health and environment agencies, Community colleges, US Dept of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Foundations, Private research institutes, Natural Resources Conservation Service, NGOs, Environmental organizations (e.g. The Nature Conservancy, US Environmental Protection Agency Service organizations, Plant material centers, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Botanical societies, Private industry, US Forest Service Other non-government organizations, Seed companies, US National Park Service State forest services, Plant breeders and plant breeding companies, National Research Laboratories, Environmental organizations, Chemical, fertilizer, and crop protection companies, US Geological Survey Sport and recreation organizations, Ecological restoration companies, US Federal Emergency Management Association, Professional societies, Private consultants, US Dept of Homeland Security, Soil conservation districts, Land managers, US military (Air Force, Marines, Army), Farmers and ranchers, US Dept. of Defense.

Impacts
According to the Colorado Agricultural Statistics (2006) there were only 300 acres of wheat harvested in Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties in 2005. Farmers have indicated their intention to plant a significant increase in acreage of winter wheat during 2007-2008. These data will aid growers in determining how wheat varieties may perform when planted in the irrigated valleys of western Colorado and aid growers in selecting wheat varieties to plant on their farms. Variety yield performance data can be used by various people- farmers when selecting varieties to plant on their farms, seedsmen in knowing which varieties to grow and nuances about growing the varieties, companies to determine which varieties to market and in which locations varieties are best adapted and are best in end use applications, and university personnel in developing new wheat production technology and in educating people about the varieties researchers have tested. These data will be made available to growers and others to provide them with information developed from local, adaptive research.

Publications

  • Pearson, C.H. 2007. An updated, automated commercial swather for harvesting forage plots. Agron. J. 99:1382-1388.
  • Pearson, C.H., Ernst S.M., Barbarick, K.A., Hatfield, J.A., Peterson, G.A., and Buxton, D.R. 2007. Agronomy Journal turns one hundred. Pp. 61-68. In: The American Society of Agronomy: 100 Years of History (L.E. Moser, ed.). American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Madison, WI.
  • Pearson, C.H., Cornish, K., McMahan, C.M., Whalen, M., Rath, D.K., Dong, N., and Wong, S. 2007. The rationale for transforming sunflower into a rubber-producing crop. Pp. 72-77. In: Issues in New Crops and New Uses (J. Janick and A. Whipkey, eds.). Proceeding of the sixth National Symposium Creating Market for Economic Development of New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
  • Pearson, C.H., Cornish, K., McMahan, C.M., Whalen, M., Rath, D.K., Dong, N., and Wong, S. 2007. Using peat pellets in liquid media to root sunflower tissue culture plants. Pp. 78-81. In: Issues in New Crops and New Uses (J. Janick and A. Whipkey, eds.). Proceeding of the sixth National Symposium Creating Market for Economic Development of New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
  • Pearson, C.H, Haley S., Johnson J.J., and Johnson, C. 2007. Small Grain Performance Tests at Hayden, Colorado 2006. p. 14-17. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2006 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR07-08. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C. 2007. A Diversity of Tours and Visitors This Summer at WCRC. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ramesh Pokharel, ed.). Fall 2007. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2007. Western Colorado Alfalfa Variety Performance Test at Fruita 2006. p. 33. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2006 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR07-08. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2007. Producing Oilseed Sunflower Under Irrigation in Western Colorado. p. 34-37. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2006 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR07-08. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Johnson, J.J., Davisson A., Hain J.P., Berrada A., Johnson C., Pearson C., and Meyer R.. 2007. Making Better Decisions: 2006 Colorado Soybean Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR07-02. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Johnson, J.J., Davisson A., Hain J.P., Pearson C., and Meyer, R. 2007. Making Better Decisions: 2006 Colorado Sunflower Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Extension, Technical Report TR07-03. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C. 2007. New Regional Water Management Specialist Hired for Western Colorado. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ramesh Pokharel, ed.). Fall 2007. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Biodiesel has recently attracted interest because of the high cost of petroleum diesel that has occurred in the recent past. Tri-glyceride seed oils, found in crop plants such as canola, mustards, sunflower, cotton, safflower, soybean, corn, and also in used cooking oils, fats, and tallows can be converted into biodiesel. A biodiesel production facility in southwest Colorado is planned for construction in the near future by the San Juan Biodiesel Cooperative. The main crops targeted for use in this facility are sunflower and canola. Construction of this biodiesel manufacturing facility will open the possibility of growing alternative crops, such as sunflower, in western Colorado to supply vegetable oil for the biodiesel facility. The objective of this research was to evaluate thirty-two sunflower varieties for seed and oil yield and related agronomic characteristics to assess the potential for commercial production of sunflower under irrigation in western Colorado. Planting occurred on 15 May 2006 and plots were harvested on 1 Nov. 2006 using an International 1440 commercial combine and a portable electronic weighing system positioned in the grain tank. Data were collected for plant population, flowering date, plant height, plant lodging, seed moisture at harvest, test weight, and seed yield. Seed yield for the sunflower varieties averaged 2420 lbs/acre. There were significant and a wide range of differences among entries for seed yield. Seed yields ranged from a high of 3500 lbs/acre for HySun 454 to a low of 701 lbs/acre for Croplan Genetics 3080 DMR. Three of the thirty-two sunflower varieties (HySun 454, Producers Hybrids 7203, Garst 454) were high yielding and two varieties (Croplan Genetics 308 NS and Croplan Genetics 3080 DMR) had particularly low yields. Seed oil content averaged 44.3%, which is typical for many sunflower varieties. Oil contents ranged from a high of 47.0% for Mycogen 8N453DM to a low of 42.0% for Dyna-Gro 93N05 #2. Oil yield averaged 1072 lbs/acre. Oil yields among the sunflower varieties varied widely and ranged from a high of 1530 lbs/acre for Mycogen 8N462DM to a low of 310 lbs/acre of Croplan Genetics 3080 DMR. The variety with the highest seed yield did not have the highest oil yield. In summary, most sunflower varieties established well and exhibited very good growth during the growing season. Many sunflower varieties produced good seed yields, had low seed moisture contents at harvest, and had good seed oil contents and thus oil yields. We experienced considerable rain during the fall which delayed harvest of the sunflowers. This provided birds with more time to forage in the sunflower field. Our seed yields, while good, would likely have been somewhat higher if we could have harvested the plots sooner and reduced seed loss due to bird damage. Oilseed sunflower production in western Colorado appears promising based on the one year of agronomic data obtained at Fruita in 2006. Weed control in the sunflower field was excellent. Additional years of field research are needed to determine the long-term potential for producing sunflower under irrigation in western Colorado.

Impacts
A biodiesel production facility in southwest Colorado is planned for construction by the San Juan Biodiesel Cooperative in the near future. The main crops targeted for use in this facility are sunflower and canola. Construction of this biodiesel manufacturing facility will open the possibility of growing alternative crops such as sunflower in western Colorado to supply vegetable oil for the biodiesel facility. Variety yield performance data is of value to various people- farmers when selecting varieties to plant on their farms, seedsmen in knowing which varieties to grow for seed production, companies to determine which varieties to market and the locations where varieties are best adapted, and research personnel in developing new varieties and in educating people about them. Seed yields of the sunflower varieties in this 2006 irrigated trial at Fruita, Colorado averaged 2420 lbs/acre. There were significant and a wide range of differences among entries for seed yield. Seed yields ranged from a high of 3500 lbs/acre for HySun 454 to a low of 701 lbs/acre for Croplan Genetics 3080 DMR. Many sunflower varieties produced good seed yields, had low seed moisture contents at harvest, and had good seed oil contents and thus oil yields.

Publications

  • Pearson, C.H. 2006. Agronomic performance of canola at Fruita, Colorado 2005. p. 29-33. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2005 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR06-06. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin. 2006. New Research Project Initiated at WCRC on Living Mulches. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ron Godin, ed.). Fall 2006. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.
  • Pearson, Calvin. 2006. WCRC Researcher Presents Paper at Scientific Meetings in San Diego. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ron Godin, ed.). Fall 2006. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.
  • Pearson, Calvin. 2006. Producing Canola and Biodiesel on the Western Slope. In: Western PhytoWorks (Ron Godin, ed.). Fall 2006. Newsletter of the Western Colorado Research Center, Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University.
  • Pearson, C.H., Mullen, R.W., Thomason, W. E., and Phillips, S. B., 2006. Associate editors role in helping authors and upholding journal standards. Agron. J. 98:417-422.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. 2006. Winter Wheat Variety Performance Test at Hayden, Colorado 2005. p. 20-23. In: Making Better Decisions: 2005 Colorado Winter Wheat Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR06-09. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. 2006. Letter from the Editor. Agron. J. 98:229-230.
  • Pearson, C.H., Brick, M. A., Johnson, J. J., Ogg, J. B., and Johnson, C. L. 2006. Pinto bean variety performance test at Montrose, Colorado 2005. p. 21-22. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2005 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR06-06. Fort Collins, Colorado.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
The nuna bean, also referred to as a popping bean is an Andean subspecies, Phaseolus vulgaris subsp. nunas. When dropped into hot oil, boiled, or toasted the bean expands similar to puffed grains, but does not invert like popcorn. Nuna seeds are multi-colored and seed coat patterns vary, often resembling variations of miniature bird eggs. Popping beans are endemic to Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru and may be the oldest of all the common beans. The first commercial nuna cultivar was released in Peru in 1996. Nunas have traditionally been produced at equatorial latitudes at high elevations (2,500 m). In the U.S, nunas would have an attractive market potential as a high protein snack food. A nuna variety, adapted to Colorado environments and produced in Colorado, would have tremendous potential as a new crop for farmers and as a new snack food for industry in Colorado. Because of their daylength requirements, Andean nunas grown in northern latitudes remain vegetative, do not flower, and, thus, do not produce seed. A small research and development program was initiated in 1992, 14 years ago, at Colorado State University to develop nunas that were adapted for production in at least some if not many Colorado environments. Ten nuna lines (F10 generation)have been recently developed at Colorado State University in the Dry Bean Breeding Project in the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences by Barry Ogg and Dr. Mark Brick, and were increased during 2005 at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita by Dr. Calvin Pearson. Nuna lines were planted on June 8, 2005 and harvested on November 11, 2005. Average first flowering of the ten nuna lines occurred 49 days from planting and ranged from 47 to 52 days from planting. Average days from planting to harvest maturity for the ten nuna lines were 130 days and ranged from 124 to 137 days from planting. In 2005, the growing season at Fruita, Colorado was 199 days, while the average growing season is 181 days. Total seed production from these ten lines exceeded more than 20 kg. This quantity of seed will be sufficient to allow us to conduct limited yield performance trials in 2006. Popping characteristics of the ten popping lines have yet to be evaluated fully, however, recent popping evaluation shows excellent popping quality of these breeding materials.

Impacts
Ten nuna (popping) bean lines have been developed by Colorado State University. These lines were increased at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita during 2005. Increased seed quantities are needed to conduct more extensive yield and adapatation testing in 2006. These breeding materials show promise in yield and popping characteristics, but further development will be needed to improve disease resistance and shorten the number of days required from planting to reach maturity. Additionally, commercialization of these CSU nuna lines will likely be hampered by two patents filed in 1997 and in 1999, but which are of questionable validity.

Publications

  • Pearson, C. H. 2005. Making Better Decisions: 2005 Dry Bean Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR05-11. Fort Collins, Colorado. (Information Resource and conducted the cultivar performance test at Montrose, CO)
  • Pearson, C. H. 2005. Winter Wheat Variety Performance Test at Hayden, Colorado 2004. Making Better Decisions: 2004 Colorado Winter Wheat Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado. Technical Report TR05-09. p. 17-19.
  • Pearson, C.H., Rogoyski, M., and Kelsey, F. 2005. Using native and adapted plants in disturbed landscapes. Western Colorado Research Center 2004 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado. Technical Report TR05-08. p. 7-18.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2005. Agronomic performance of Roundup-Ready soybean cultivars at Fruita, Colorado 2004. Western Colorado Research Center 2003 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado. Technical Report TR05-08. p. 47-52.
  • Johnson, J. J., Schweissing, F.C., Pearson, C.H., Hain, J. P., and Johnson, C. L. 2005. Making Better Decisions: 2004 Colorado Corn and Sunflower Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado. Technical Report TR05-04.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
In the 1980s several studies were conducted on soybeans in western Colorado by Colorado State University researchers. Seed yields of several cultivars were found to produce 4032 kg/ha yields and even higher in some years. Eventually, because of yield variations, marketing problems, and low crop prices for soybean, commercial production of this alternative crop in the Grand Valley dwindled. In the intervening years since soybean production research was conducted in western Colorado, numerous new soybean cultivars have been developed. Of particular note, Roundup-Ready soybean cultivars have been developed and are now readily available and widely used in commercial agriculture throughout the USA. The objective of this research was to evaluate Roundup-Ready soybean cultivars for seed yield and related agronomic performance and determine how these cultivars might perform in commercial production in western Colorado. Data were collected for plant population, seed yield, seed moisture, number of days to first flowering, plant height, height to first pod, test weight, seeds/lb, plant lodging, and seed shattering. Weed control across the entire plot area was excellent. The primary weed species in the plot area was flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum L.). Application of Roundup was convenient and provided considerable flexibility in determining when to apply the herbicide. Weeds in the field and plot area were easily controlled with two Roundup applications. The cost to apply Roundup for commercial production of Roundup-Ready soybeans in western Colorado, based on the rates, applicator costs, and adjuvants used in our study, would likely range from $49 to $62 per hectare per application. Average seed yield for the twenty-three soybean cultivars was 3462 kg/ha. Seed yields ranged from a high of 4344 kg/ha for H-3135 RR to a low of 2724 kg/ha for 92B38. Roundup-Ready soybean cultivars performed agronomically in a comparable manner to the conventional cultivars evaluated during the period of 1986-1989. Roundup-Ready soybean cultivars provide producers with a convenient, cost-effective, and highly effective weed control management tool that results in very weed-free fields and promotes high soybean productivity.

Impacts
The 2004 results provide information about the performance of soybean cultivars under local conditions found in western Colorado. The results of this study shows the commercial potential for producing this alternative crop in western Colorado, particularly the Grand Valley, using the latest technological advances in cultivar development. Soybean offer growers with an additional cropping possibility and adds diversity to agricultural production systems in the valley areas of western Colorado.

Publications

  • Pearson, Calvin H. 2004. Western Colorado Alfalfa Performance Test at Fruita 2002-2003. p. 21-22. In: Colorado Forage Research 2003: Alfalfa, Irrigated Pastures, and Mountain Meadows (Brummer, Joe E. and Calvin H. Pearson, compiled and edited by). Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Bulletin TB04-01. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. 2004. Western Colorado Alfalfa Performance Test at Fruita 1999-2001. p. 23-28. In: Colorado Forage Research 2003: Alfalfa, Irrigated Pastures, and Mountain Meadows (Brummer, Joe E. and Calvin H. Pearson, compiled and edited by). Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Bulletin TB04-01. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. 2004. Making Hay the Right Way. p. 29-40. In: Colorado Forage Research 2003: Alfalfa, Irrigated Pastures, and Mountain Meadows (Brummer, Joe E. and Calvin H. Pearson, compiled and edited by). Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Bulletin TB04-01. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H., and Joe E. Brummer. 2004. Potential for Selecting Alfalfa Varieties Based on Forage Quality. p. 41-47. In: Colorado Forage Research 2003: Alfalfa, Irrigated Pastures, and Mountain Meadows (Brummer, Joe E. and Calvin H. Pearson, compiled and edited by). Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Bulletin TB04-01. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. 2004. Pasture Grass Species Evaluation at Fruita 1995-2001. p. 65-70. In: Colorado Forage Research 2003: Alfalfa, Irrigated Pastures, and Mountain Meadows (Brummer, Joe E. and Calvin H. Pearson, compiled and edited by). Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Bulletin TB04-01. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. Mark A. Brick, Jerry J. Johnson, J. Barry Ogg, and Cynthia L. Johnson. 2004. Dry Bean Variety Performance Test at Montrose, Colorado 2003. p. 21-22. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2003 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR04-05. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. Scott D. Haley, Jerry J. Johnson, and Cynthia L. Johnson. 2004. Small Grain Variety Performance Tests at Hayden, Colorado 2003. p. 23-28. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2003 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR04-05. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. 2004. Pasture Grass, Forage Legume, and Mixed Species Evaluation at Meeker 1997-2001. p. 71-79. In: Colorado Forage Research 2003: Alfalfa, Irrigated Pastures, and Mountain Meadows (Brummer, Joe E. and Calvin H. Pearson, compiled and edited by). Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Bulletin TB04-01. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H. 2004. Pasture Grass, Forage Legume, and Mixed Species Evaluation at Hotchkiss 1998-2001. p. 81-89. In: Colorado Forage Research 2003: Alfalfa, Irrigated Pastures, and Mountain Meadows (Brummer, Joe E. and Calvin H. Pearson, compiled and edited by). Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Bulletin TB04-01. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Smith, John A., and Calvin H. Pearson. 2004. Tillage Practices. In: Dry Bean Production & Integrated Pest Management, (2nd ed., Schwartz, Howard F., Mark A. Brick, Robert M. Harveson, and Gary D. Franc, technical editors). Bulletin 562A. Regional publication produced by: Colorado State University, University of Nebraska, and University of Wyoming.
  • Brick, Mark A., Calvin H. Pearson, and John A. Smith. 2004. Post-Harvest. In: Dry Bean Production & Integrated Pest Management, (2nd ed., Schwartz, Howard F., Mark A. Brick, Robert M. Harveson, and Gary D. Franc, technical editors). Bulletin 562A. Regional publication produced by: Colorado State University, University of Nebraska, and University of Wyoming.
  • Pearson, Calvin (Information Resource and conducted the cultivar performance test at Montrose, CO) 2004. Making Better Decisions: 2004 Dry Bean Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR04-08. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H., Scott Haley, Jerry Johnson, and Cynthia Johnson. 2004. Winter Wheat Variety Performance Test at Hayden, Colorado 2003. p. 28-29. In: Making Better Decision: 2003 Colorado Winter Wheat Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR04-03. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Rogoyski, Matthew, Calvin H. Pearson, Frank Kelsey, and John Wilhelm. 2004. A Production System for High Value Crops- Retractable Roof Greenhouses in Western Colorado. p. 7-12. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2003 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR04-05. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Rath, Donna, and Calvin Pearson. 2004. Inducing Shoot Production in Sunflower using TDZ in Tissue Culture. p. 13-20. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2003 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR04-05. Fort Collins, Colorado.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Growers in northwest Colorado are limited to only a few crops to grow because of constraints created by dryland production conditions, a short growing season, limited precipitation, and isolation to markets for their crops. The principal cash crop grown in northwest Colorado is wheat. Alternative crops are of interest to growers in northwest Colorado. Alternative small grains, such as malting barley, triticale, and specialty wheats (i.e., hard white wheats) are of interest to growers because these crops are often sold into specialty markets which demand a premium selling price. New crop production inputs and practices are also of interest to growers in northwest Colorado if these inputs and practices are determined to be profitable and environmentally sound. Growers in this region of Colorado are supportive of agronomic research that provides them with science-based information. They can use this information to assist them in making crop production decisions. During 2003, we conducted winter and spring small grain variety tests that included not only traditional small grains but also some of these specialty wheats. We also conducted an experiment to evaluate the application of AGRO PAM and nitrogen on grain yield of spring wheat grown under the dryland conditions of northwest Colorado. The summer of 2003 in the Craig/Hayden area was hotter than in many other years. The average maximum temperature in July 2003 was 33 C. Precipitation during the 2003 growing season for the months of January through October totaled 374.9 mm with April receiving the most precipitation at 97.8 mm and July receiving the least amount of precipitation at only 4.6 mm. Precipitation in the Craig/Hayden area varies considerably from month to month and year to year and is the most limiting factor for small grain production. Grain yield in the winter wheat variety performance test averaged 2598 kg/ha. The highest yielding entry in the winter wheat test was CO980630 at 3227 kg/ha with six entries outyielding other varieties. Grain yield in the spring wheat variety performance test averaged 1603 kg/ha. Grain yield ranged from a high of 1829 kg/ha for Oxen to a low of 1438 kg/ha for IDO377S, but there were no statistically significant differences in grain yield among the eight varieties. An AGRO by N rate study was conducted at Hayden during 2003 in a two-factor experiment. The two factors were: 1) PAM applied at rates of 0, 2.2, and 6.7 kg/ha of AGRO and 2) nitrogen rates applied at 0, 11.2, 22.4, 33.6, and 44.8 kg N/ha using ammonium nitrate as the N source. Grain yield was reduced by 7.4 kg/ha with each additional kilogram of nitrogen applied per hectare within the range of nitrogen applied in this study. The application of AGRO PAM did not affect grain yield significantly. There was a slight increase of 100.8 kg/ha in grain yield at the 2.2 kg/ha application rate of AGRO over the check treatment but this increase was not statistically significant.

Impacts
The 2003 results provide information about the performance of wheat varieties under severe stress conditions. The application of nitrogen on spring wheat at Hayden, Colorado in 2003 did not increase grain yields. In fact, grain yield was reduced by 7.4 kg/ha with each additional kilogram of nitrogen applied per hectare within the range of nitrogen applied in this study. The application of AGRO PAM did not affect grain yield significantly (p = 0.05), but there was a slight increase of 100.8 kg/ha in grain yield over the check treatment at the 2 lbs/acre application rate of AGRO. These findings indicate the need for further study on applying AGRO PAM in dryland winter and spring wheat in northwest Colorado. Agronomic research is conducted each year in northwest Colorado and is important to provide ongoing research support for producers in the region.

Publications

  • Berrada, A., Dillon, M., Haley S., Johnson, C., Johnson, J., Pearson, C., Quick, J., and Stack, M. 2002. Making Better Decisions: 2002 Colorado Spring Wheat, Barley, and Oats Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR03-2. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Rogoyski, R., Godin, R., Hammon, B., and Moench, R. 2003. Performance of Hybrid Poplar in Western Colorado, 2000-2002. p. 7-18. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2002 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR03-7. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Brick, M., Johnson, J.J., Ogg, J.B., and Johnson, C.L. 2003. Results of the Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery and State Uniform Dry Bean Variety Performance Test at Fruita, Colorado 2002. p. 47-50. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2002 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR03-7. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, C.H., Haley, S., Johnson, J.J., and Johnson, C. 2003. Small Grain Variety Performance Tests at Hayden, Colorado 2002. p. 51-55. In: Western Colorado Research Center 2002 Research Report. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR03-7. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Johnson, J.J., Schweissing, F.C., Pearson, C.H., Hain, J.P., and Johnson, C.L. 2003. Making Better Decisions: 2003 Colorado Corn, Soybean, and Sunflower Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR03-10. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Johnson, J.J., Schwartz, H.F., Brick, M.A., Schweissing, F.C., Pearson, C.H., Stack, M., Hain, J.P., Johnson, C.L., McMillian, M.M., Nissen, S.C., Ogg, J.B., and Otto, K. 2003. Making Better Decisions: 2003 Dry Bean Variety Performance Trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR03-09. Fort Collins, Colorado.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Producers who desire to grow new and alternative crops must integrate these new crop enterprises into cropping systems and practices that are profitable. Making traditional cropping enterprises more profitable will provide more economic cushion to growers that experience the ups and downs that often occur when growing new and alternative crops. In recent years, producing high quality alfalfa hay has become increasingly more important to producers. Often high quality alfalfa hay can be produced with little or no increase in production costs, yet profits from selling high quality hay can be worthwhile. A cultivar performance test was conducted at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita in which 20 alfalfa cultivars were evaluated for forage yield during a three-year testing period from 1999-2001. Crude protein and in vitro digestibility were determined for all 20 alfalfa cultivars in each of the four cuttings during the three-year testing period. Total 3-year crude protein yield was calculated based on crude protein concentration and forage yield. Four cultivars had high 3-year total crude protein yields. They were WL232HQ at 12.88 t/ha, Focus HSN at 12.70 t/ha, Millennia at 12.66 t/ha, and WL325HQ at 12.52 t/ha. Conversely, the two cultivars with the lowest 3-year crude protein yields were Ranger and Ladak at 11.04 and 10.75 t/ha, respectively. Total 3-year in vitro digestible dry matter yield was calculated based on in vitro digestible dry matter concentration and forage yield. Four cultivars had high 3-year total in vitro digestible dry matter yields. They were Focus HSN at 40.54 t/ha, Millennia at 40.12 t/ha, WL232HQ at 39.54 t/ha, and Reno at 39.09 t/ha. Conversely, the two cultivars with the lowest 3-year in vitro digestible dry matter yields again were Ranger at 35.73 t/ha and Ladak at 34.97 t/ha. Five cultivars had high 3-year total forage yields. They were Focus HSN at 67.04 t/ha, Millennia at 60.12 t/ha, ZX9453 at 59.18 t/ha, Baralfa 54 at 58.24 t/ha, and WL232HQ at 58.24 t/ha. The cultivars with the lowest 3-year total forage yields were Ranger at 52.95 t/ha and Ladak at 51.97 t/ha. Alfalfa cultivars that had high crude protein yields, high in vitro dry matter yields, and high forage yields were Focus HSN, Millennia, and WL 232 HQ. Ranger and Ladak had the lowest crude protein yields, in vitro digestible dry matter yields, and total forage yields. Alfalfa cultivars that had high crude protein yield, high in vitro dry matter yield, and high forage yield were Focus HSN, Millennia, and WL 232 HQ. Ranger and Ladak had the lowest crude protein yield, in vitro digestible dry matter yield, and total forage yield. These data provide convincing evidence that alfalfa cultivars differ in forage quality. Alfalfa cultivars that consistently produce high yields and high forage quality across cuttings and years of production will be popular with many farmers for planting. Alfalfa cultivars with low yields and low quality should be avoided unless they have unique, desirable characteristics that fit specific production requirements.

Impacts
By selecting the right cultivars producers can increase both forage yields and hay quality. The data obtained in this study provide sound evidence that alfalfa cultivars differ significantly in forage quality, and when selecting cultivars for planting producers should consider the performance of alfalfa cultivars for both forage yield and hay quality.

Publications

  • Berrada, A., Bruce Bosley, Bill Brown, ... Calvin Pearson, ..., and Cris Woodward (25 authors listed alphabetically). 2002. Making Better Decisions: 2001 Colorado wheat variety performance trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, TR02-7. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Berrada, Abdel, Merlin Dillon, Scott Haley, Jerry Johnson, Calvin Pearson, Jim Quick, and Mark Stack. 2002. Making Better Decisions: 2001 Colorado Spring Wheat, Barley, and Oats Performance Trials. . Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, TR02-3. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Johnson, J. J., H. F. Schwartz, M. A. Brick, F. C. Schweissing, C. H. Pearson, A. Berrada, M. Stack, J. P. Hain, C. L. Johnson, J. B. Ogg, and K. Otto. 2001. Making Better Decisions: 2001 dry bean variety performance trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, TR01-10. Fort Collins, Colorado
  • Johnson, J. J., F. C. Schweissing, C. H. Pearson, J. P. Hain, C. L. Johnson, and S. Norberg. 2002. Making Better Decision: 2002 Colorado corn, soybean, and sunflower performance trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, TR02-10. Fort Collins, Colorado
  • Brick, M.A., H. F. Schwartz, J. B. Ogg, J. J. Johnson, F. Judson, and C. H. Pearson. 2002. Release of `Shiny Crow' black bean. Crop Sci. 42:1751-1752.
  • Pearson, C.H., C.A. Holcomb, A. W. Cooley, and J.E. Murray. 2002. Guidelines for using conservation tillage under furrow irrigation. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, TR02-6. Fort Collins, Colorado.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Edamame soybean is a popular food in Japan and its popularity as a specialty food is increasing in the U.S. Edamame soybean pods are harvested with a partially developed seed similar to when garden peas are picked. Soybean pods are prepared for eating by cooking them in boiling salt water for a short time. Following cooking, pods are opened and seeds are eaten. Edamame soybean is considered by many people to be a healthy, tasty snack food. Seed for planting is expensive, costing as much as $26.46 per kilogram. Seed costs are high because of the difficulty encountered when producing seed crops. The primary difficulty for seed production is severe seed shattering that occurs when plants approach maturity. There are additional challenges for edamame soybean production. Obtaining uniform and adequate plant populations is often difficult. Early seedling mortalities can be high in some years as a result of disease. Germination and emergence of edamame soybean is slow. The time from planting to seedling emergence generally takes several days longer than most other field crops. At Fruita, Colorado the time from planting to emergence can take up to two weeks. Seedlings planted too deep or soil crusting during emergence can reduce plant stands significantly. However, with careful management at planting and during seedling emergence, adequate plant stands can often be achieved. Edamame soybean was grown at the Western Colorado Research Center at Fruita in 2001. This project was conducted in cooperation with Seedex, Inc. of Longmont, Colorado. Excessive seed shattering of edamame soybean occurred at Fruita, Colorado during the 2001 growing season, resulting in low harvested seed yield. Harvested seed yield averaged 385 kilograms per hectare with yield losses caused by seed shattering estimated to be 90 to 95 percent. To increase harvested seed yields of edamame soybean novel management strategies will need to be developed. Overcoming crop production constraints of edamame soybean, mainly seed shattering, would provide farmers in western Colorado with a profitable, alternative crop. Novel approaches will be used for the 2002 growing season to reduce harvest losses from seed shattering and increase harvested seed yields of edamame soybean.

Impacts
Edamame soybean seed for planting is expensive, costing as much as $26.46 per kilogram. Seed costs are high because of the difficulty encountered when producing seed crops. The primary difficulty for seed production is severe seed shattering that occurs when plants approach maturity. Overcoming crop production constraints of edamame soybean, mainly seed shattering, could provide farmers in western Colorado with a profitable, alternative crop. Seed shattering was severe in 2001 at Fruita, Colorado and reduced harvested seed yields by 90 to 95 percent. Novel approaches will be used during the 2002 growing season to reduce harvest losses from seed shattering and increase harvested seed yields of edamame soybean.

Publications

  • Pearson, C.H. 2001. Seed Production of Edamame Soybean in Western Colorado. pp.39-41. In: Western Colorado Research Center Research Report 2001. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR01-13.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2001. Performance of Hybrid Poplar in Agroforestry in Western Colorado. pp.33-35. In: Western Colorado Research Center Research Report 2001. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR01-13.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2001. Water-use Efficiency of Cool-Season Turf Grasses in Western Colorado. pp.36-39. In: Western Colorado Research Center Research Report 2001. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, Technical Report TR01-13.
  • Pearson, C.H., and Max, S.M. 2001. Security and Protection of Agricultural Field Research. Agron. Abstracts Poster presentation was made at the ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings in Charlotte, North Carolina. October 21,2001.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
The objective of this project is to develop sustainable soil management and cropping systems for agriculture in western Colorado. This project consists of several investigations with traditional and alternative crops for use in western Colorado. The research in this project is conducted in cooperation with public and private organizations, agencies, and companies. The project is based at the CSU Western Colorado Research Center (WCRC). In this report, the focus will be on research we initiated in spring 2000 on producing hybrid poplar under agroforestry conditions in western Colorado. Interest in hybrid poplar in western Colorado has developed over the past year or two as an alternative to aspen, spruce, and pine for use in manufacturing oriented strand board and other wood products. Interest in poplar in agroforestry is the result of decreased access to timber resources on public lands in western Colorado and increased hauling costs to transport logs over long distances from harvest sites to manufacturing plants. The research initiated in spring 2000 at the WCRC was designed to determine field performance of hybrid poplar under agroforestry conditions in western Colorado. Research projects currently underway at the WCRC are: 1) Hybrid Poplar Clone Evaluation - eight hybrid poplar clones (NM6, 52225, OP367, Norway, Noreaster, 14274, 14272), four replications, 36-40 trees per plot. 2) Plant Density Study - four plant densities - 1.8 by 2.4, 2.4 by 2.4, 3.0 by 2.4, 3.6 by 2.4 - meter spacings with two hybrid clones - Norway and Noreaster. 3) Irrigation Studies - drip irrigation versus furrow using Noreaster, and using mini-sprinkler to produce hybrid poplar. Hybrid poplar was planted at Fruita, Colorado on April 13, 2000 using 25-cm cuttings. Weeds were controlled using herbicides and timely cultivations. Irrigations were applied as needed during the growing season. Most hybrid poplar clones established well with low mortalities (< 2% mortality), with the exception of 14274 (31% mortality), Raverdeau (9% mortality), and 14272 (8% mortality). Plant height during the first year of growth in 2000, averaged across all eight hybrid poplar clones, was 2.5 m. Poplar hybrid OP367 was the tallest at 3.1 m (n = 64) with a 4.3- cm trunk diameter at the base of the tree and a 2.5-cm diameter at a one-meter tree height. The first year of growth of hybrid poplar at Fruita, Colorado was quite impressive. A public field tour of the poplar research was held on September 20, 2000 at Fruita, Colorado. Approximately 30 people attended the tour and expressed considerable interest in this research and the impacts hybrid poplar could have on western Colorado agriculture. These studies will continue for five more years when marketable trees are expected to be produced.

Impacts
If profitable markets can be identified, the production of hybrid poplar in western Colorado under agroforestry conditions would provide growers, especially small acreages and part-time farmers with an attractive, alternative crop. Currently, Louisiana-Pacific operates an oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturing facility at Olathe, Colorado. Louisiana-Pacific would be the main buyer of poplar. However, L-P is currently facing serious financial problems, given the low price of OSB and the high cost of purchasing timber and hauling it long distances to Olathe. There has been considerable interest from the public about producing hybrid poplar in western Colorado. An information sharing meeting was held on February 29, 2000 in Delta, Colorado and a field tour of the hybrid poplars was held on September 20, 2000 at Fruita, Colorado. Participation by the public in these meetings was motivating and the numerous inquiries by individuals have been noteworthy. In an editorial in the Grand Junction Daily Sentinel during summmer 2000, full support of hybrid poplar production in western Colorado was stated.

Publications

  • Pearson, C. H. 2000. Agronomic performance of kenaf in western Colorado. Proceedings of the American Kenaf Society 3:137-141.
  • Pearson, C.H. 2000. Double-cropping winter barley with pinto bean in western Colorado. Agron. Abst. p. 76. Amer. Soc. of Agron., Madison, WI.
  • Pearson, C. H., Sayre, K. D., and Chapman, P. L. 2000. Nitrogen management under no-tillage in a furrow-irrigated crop rotation of corn and wheat in western Colorado. Proceedings of the Great Plains Soil Fertility Conference 8:232-237.
  • Pearson, C. H. 2000. Evaluation of pasture grasses at Fruita, Colorado 1999. p.65-69. In: Joe E. Brummer, Calvin H. Pearson, and Jerry J. Johnson (eds.). Colorado Forage Research 1999: alfalfa, irrigated pastures, and mountain meadows. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension. Technical Report, TR00-6. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Pearson, C. H. 2000. Forage quality of pasture grasses at Fruita, Colorado. p.71-80. In: Joe E. Brummer, Calvin H. Pearson, and Jerry J. Johnson (eds.). Colorado Forage Research 1999: alfalfa, irrigated pastures, and mountain meadows. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension. Technical Report, TR00-6. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Pearson, C. H. 2000. Evaluation of pasture grasses, forage legumes, and mixtures at Meeker, Colorado 1999. p.81-85. In: Joe E. Brummer, Calvin H. Pearson, and Jerry J. Johnson (eds.). Colorado Forage Research 1999: alfalfa, irrigated pastures, and mountain meadows. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension. Technical Report, TR00-6. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Pearson, C. H., and Gaus, A. G. 2000. Evaluation of pasture grasses, forage legumes, and mixtures at Hotchkiss, Colorado 1999. p.87-91. In: Joe E. Brummer, Calvin H. Pearson, and Jerry J. Johnson (eds.). Colorado Forage Research 1999: alfalfa, irrigated pastures, and mountain meadows. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension. Technical Report, TR00-6. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Pearson, C. H. 2000. Alfalfa variety performance and evaluation of advanced alfalfa breeding lines at Fruita, Colorado 1999. p.11-15. In: Joe E. Brummer, Calvin H. Pearson, and Jerry J. Johnson (eds.). Colorado Forage Research 1999: alfalfa, irrigated pastures, and mountain meadows. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension. Technical Report, TR00-6. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Pearson, C. H. 2000. Field performance of alfalfa hay preservatives in western Colorado. p.29-35. In: Joe E. Brummer, Calvin H. Pearson, and Jerry J. Johnson (eds.). Colorado Forage Research 1999: alfalfa, irrigated pastures, and mountain meadows. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension. Technical Report, TR00-6. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Berrada, A., Dillon, M., Johnson, J., Pearson, C., and Quick, J. 2000. 1999 Colorado spring cereal variety performance trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, TR00-8. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Johnson, J. J., Schwartz, H. F., Brick, M. A., Schweissing, F. C., Pearson, C. H., Berrada, A., Stack, M., Hain, J. P., Johnson, C. L., Ogg, J. B., and McMillan, M. 2000. 2000 Dry bean variety performance trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, TR00-9. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Johnson, J. J., Schweissing, F. C., Pearson, C. H., Hain, J. P., and Johnson, C. L. 2000. 2000 Colorado corn variety performance trials. Colorado State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension, TR00-10. Fort Collins, CO.
  • Brick, M.A., Schwartz, H. F., Ogg, J. B., Johnson, J. J., Judson, F., and Pearson, C. 2000. Release of `Shiny Crow', a new black bean variety. Bean Improvement Cooperative 43:224.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
The objective of this project is to develop sustainable soil management and cropping systems for agriculture in western Colorado. This project consists of several investigations in traditional and alternative crops for western Colorado. The research conducted in this project is done in cooperation with public and private organizations, agencies, and companies. This project is based at the Colorado State University Western Colorado Research Center, and from this location agronomic research is conducted across western Colorado. In this report, we will focus on research we are conducting on irrigated legume and grass hay production in western Colorado. In 1998, all hay in Colorado was valued at more $440 million, more than any other crop, including wheat and corn. Clearly, a crop of this value deserves considerable research to support it. Several related experiments are currently underway in western Colorado. We have conducted alfalfa cultivar performance tests for many years. These tests are designed to evaluate commercial alfalfa cultivars for a three-year testing period. This is done in cooperation with alfalfa breeding and seed companies in which they submit alfalfa entries they wish to have us test. Companies pay a fee for each entry they submit. Alfalfa cultivar performance tests are commonly done in most alfalfa-growing states across the U.S. In 1994, we planted a pasture grass species performance test at Fruita, Colorado. We have collected data from three or more cuttings each year for five years for sixteen different grass species. We have conducted two related studies, one located at Meeker, Colorado and another at Hotchkiss, Colorado in which we are evaluating 50 different single and mixed species of grasses and forage legumes. We have three years of data at Meeker and two years of data at Hotchkiss. The data from all of these studies are reported each year and made available to the public in paper and electronic formats. These data are of interest to a broad audience including growers of all types (large, small, full-time, and part-time), breeders, seed companies, government agencies such as the NRCS, and other industry people such as fertilizer companies and seed retailers. Feedback reports to us indicate that farmers and ranchers are using our results to assist them in selecting species, varieties, and mixtures for planting. We have had numerous requests for information from all types of landowners and agribusiness representatives. In a recent meeting of the WCC-091, a working coordinating committee that consists of researchers and cooperative extension professionals, the need for up-to-date scientific data on the evaluation and performance of grass and legume forage species was recognized and encouraged. Our research on this topic is well on its way to meet some of the needs that have been identified from a broad range in interests. Some of the results of these studies are on the web at: http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/ SoilCrop/extension/CropVar/index.html.

Impacts
The average yield for all hay in Colorado has increased from 5.24 Mg/ha in 1982 to 7.30 Mg/ha in 1998. The value of all hay in Colorado has also increased from $209.6 million in 1982 to $440.5 million in 1998. The use of improved production technology, some of which may be attributed to our research and education efforts, has likely contributed to these substantial increases.

Publications

  • Pearson, Calvin H., and Sharp, Rod. 1999. Variety selection. p. 72-77. In: A. Wayne Cooley (ed.). Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual. Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H., and Mucklow, C. J. 1999. Stand establishment (irrigated and dryland). p. 78-86. In: A. Wayne Cooley (ed.). Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual. Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Pearson, Calvin H., and Rechel, Eric. 1999. Harvest. p. 108-119. In: A. Wayne Cooley (ed.). Intermountain Grass and Legume Forage Production Manual. Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension. Fort Collins, Colorado.
  • Ashraf, M., Pearson, C. H., Westfall, D. G. and Sharp, R. 1999. Effect of conservation tillage on crop yields, soil erosion, and soil properties under furrow irrigation in western Colorado. Am. J. Alternative Agric. 14:85-92.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
The objective of this project is to develop sustainable soil management and cropping systems for agriculture in western Colorado. This project is an aggregation of multiple investigations on several crops and is conducted in cooperation with numerous organizations, agencies, and companies. Research conducted for this project is based at the Colorado State University Fruita Research Center and from this location agronomic and related research is conducted throughout western Colorado. Agronomic research has been conducted in western Colorado for 50 years. To mark the occasion an 18-page report was published during 1998 describing the history, research benefits, past research efforts, current research and the future, a chronological list of professional and support staff during the past 50 years, and a list of publications dating from 1985 to 1998. In this CRIS report, we will focus on research we are conducting on conservation tillage (CS) under furrow irrigation. Conservation tillage is used widely in rainfed and sprinkler-irrigated production systems but adoption of CS on furrow-irrigated cropland has been limited. Conservation tillage technology developed for rainfed conditions will not transfer directly to furrow-irrigated conditions. Farmers in many furrow-irrigated areas have not adopted CS because of concerns associated with tilling, planting, irrigating, and harvesting in fields with surface crop residue. Major concerns about conservation tillage under furrow irrigation is the uncertainty of being able to furrow-irrigate in fields with surface residue because residue "dams" irrigation furrows and prevents uniform irrigation water advance. The costs associated with the purchase of equipment that will operate in high residue conditions and under furrow-irrigation is also a major deterrent for farmers to adopt CS. Some crops used in their rotation require different row spacings. Considerable tillage also occurs during harvest operations of some crops (e.g. potato, sugarbeet, onion, dry bean). These situations complicate the use of CS and do not lend themselves to consistent management and continued use of CS. Successful adoption of CS under furrow irrigation will require growers to adopt compassing new production management practices, possibly purchase new equipment that will operate in high residue conditions, and growers must overcome any psychological barriers they may have to maintaining high amounts of surface crop residue when furrow irrigating. Our research on conservation tillage in furrow-irrigated conditions is having a positive impact. We see an increase in the number of farmers, employees from government agencies, field consultants, and others who are making inquiries about our research results, equipment, and field practices we use for CS on furrow-irrigated land. Nevertheless, overall progress towards furrow-irrigated farmers adopting CS is slow for reasons described above and the amount of research being conducted on this topic compared to what is needed to accelerate the adoption of CS on furrow-irrigated cropland in the U.S.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • PEARSON, C.H., GOLUS, H.M., and HAMMON, R.W. 1998. Fifty years of agronomic research in western Colorado. Colorado State University Agric. Exp. Stn. Technical Report 98-6.
  • PEARSON, CALVIN H., WHITE, KARL E., and BRINKWORTH, AUBREY L. 1998. Surface residue and soil clods during furrow irrigation under simulated conditions. J. Sustainable Agric. 12:5-21.


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
The objective of this project is to develop sustainable soil management and cropping systems for agriculture in western Colorado. This project is an aggregation of several investigations on several crops and is conducted in cooperation with several organizations, agencies, and companies. In this report, we will focus on research we are conducting on alfalfa and pastures. In 1995, we initiated a cooperative alfalfa germplasm evaluation study with an alfalfa breeding company. Twenty-four advanced alfalfa lines were evaluated for three years for forage yield, resistance to stem nematodes (Ditylenchus dipsaci), and other plant characteristics such as fall dormancy. A line has been identified with high yields and resistance to stem nematodes. It has been named `Monument'. In 1994, we planted a pasture grass performance study at Fruita, Colorado. The trial has sixteen entries, fifteen entries are cool-season and one is a warm-season grass. Forage yield data have been collected for three years and forage quality has been determined on several cuttings for two years. The impact of this effort is noted by the number of people who request our results and who come to the Research Center to tour the plots. In 1996, we planted a pasture grass and forage legume species performance trial in mixed and single specie stands at Meeker, Colorado. Yield data were collected during 1997 from two cuttings. The first year of results essentially indicate ease of establishment and first year productivity for the entries. Farmers/ranchers, agency personnel such as NRCS, and seed companies who market pasture grasses and legumes have expressed support for this research and upon receiving the 1997 results indicated how useful the data are and how valuable this study will be in helping to identify species or mixed species that may increase pasture productivity. In the spring of 1998, a similar study will be planted at Hotchkiss, Colorado. The results of the alfalfa variety performance test, the pasture grass species performance study at Fruita, and the pasture grass and forage legume species performance trial at Meeker along with the results from other similar studies conducted in Colorado will be compiled annually into an Experiment Station technical report. The 1997 report will be the charter issue and is being compiled by Dr. Jerry Johnson, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, on the CSU campus at Fort Collins. An indicator of the impact and importance of the alfalfa and pasture research we are conducting is I have been invited to speak at the 1998 annual meeting of the Colorado Hay and Forage Association to be held in Denver on January 16, 1998.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • HAMMON, R.W., PEARSON, C. H., and PEAIRS, F.B. 1997. Winter wheat planting date effect on Russian wheat aphid (homoptera: Aphididae) and a plant virus complex. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69:302-309.


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
The objective of this project is to develop sustainable soil management and cropping systems for western Colorado agriculture. Experiments conducted in 1996 included cultivar performance tests for wheat, malting barley, corn grain and forage, alfalfa, dry bean, and pasture grass. Native and improved native species of grasses, legumes, shrubs, and trees are being evaluated for use in diverse applications in western Colorado. Alfalfa germplasm is being evaluated to identify resistance to alfalfa stem nematodes. A nitrogen rate and timing study is being conducted with conservation tillage under furrow irrigation in a winter wheat/corn rotation. Experiments investigating the effect of Russian wheat aphid on spring wheat varieties were conducted. Screening of insecticide efficacy against spider mites in sweet corn was done in the Uncompaghre and Grand Valleys in 1996. Investigations in the biology and management of alfalfa stem nematode are continuing. As one of three AES Research Centers in the Northwest Region (14 counties) of Colorado the Fruita Research Center provides agronomic technical assistance to a farm production that was valued at nearly $70 million and an entire agricultural industry of the region that was valued at more than $250 million in 1992.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • SMITH, J.A. AND PEARSON, C.H. 1996. Tillage practices , p. 27-31. In: Dry Bean Production and Pest Management. Colo. State Univ., Univ. of Nebraska, and Univ. of Wyoming, Regional Bulletin 562A.
  • PEARSON, C.H. AND BRICK, M.A. 1996. Post-harvest, p. 40-41. In: Dry Bean Production and Pest Management. Colo. State Univ., Univ. of Nebraska, and Univ. of Wyoming, Regional Bulletin 562A.
  • PEARSON, C. H., AND JOHNSON, F.P. 1996. Regionalizing research centers in western Colorado: a scientist's perspective. Agron. Abs. 88:46.
  • JOHNSON, F. P., AND PEARSON, C.H. 1996. Restructuring research centers in Colorado - an administrator's perspective. Agron. Abs. 88:47.
  • PEARSON, C.H., GOLUS, H. M., AND HAMMON, R.W. 1996. 1996 Alfalfa variety test report. Fruita Research Center, Dept of Soil and Crop Sciences, Agric. Exp. Stn., Colo. State Univ. (unpub).
  • PEARSON, C.H. 1995. Results of the National Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery at Fruita, Colorado, 1995. In: 46th Ann. Rpt of Nat'l Coop. Dry Bean Nurseries. Cooperative investigations among State AESs. USDA-ARS, and Canadian Agric. Res. Cntrs.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
The objective of this project is to develop sustainable soil management and cropping systems for western CO. agriculture. Experiments conducted in 1995 included cultivar performance tests for wheat, barley, oat, corn grain and forage, alfalfa, dry bean, pasture grass, and edamame soybean. Native and improved native species of grasses, legumes, shrubs, and trees are being evaluated for use in diverse applications in western CO. Alfalfa germplasm is being evaluated to identify resistance to the alfalfa stem nematode. Research and demonstration studies are being conducted with conservation tillage under furrow irrigation on dry bean following corn, and in a winter wheat/corn rotation. Field research was conducted in 1995 in cooperation with Pioneer Hi-Bred Int'l to identify hybrids that have resistance to blunt ear syndrome. A malt barley cultivar performance test was conducted in 1995 in cooperation with Coors Brewing Company. Integrated management techniques for Russian wheat aphid were conducted in 1995. An insecticide efficacy trial was conducted on corn spider mites in the Grand Valley. The impact of winter wheat planting date and volunteer management on viral diseases is also being investigated. The impacts of our efforts are reflected by the numerous people who request information and counsel; by our talks and presentations; requests for copies of our research papers and seeing local producers use technology we have developed.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • PEARSON, C.H., WHITE, K. and LANCE, A. 1995. Irrigating under simulated conditions with different residue quantity and furrow roughness. Agron. Abst. 87:290.
  • BRICK, M.A., WOOD, D.R., SCHWARTZ, H.F., PEARSON, C.H., OGG, J.B., BALLARIN, M. and SHANAHAN, J.F. 1995. Registration of 'Arapaho' pinto bean. Crop Sci. 35:1511-1512.
  • FISHER, A.G., BRICK, M.A., WOOD, D.R., STACK, M., SCHWARTZ, H.F., OGG, J.B., PEARSON, C.H., SHANAHAN, J.F. and BALLARIN, M. 1995. Registration of 'Fisher' pinto bean. Crop Sci. 35:1511.
  • PEARSON, C.H. and GOLUS, H.M. 1995. 1995 Alfalfa variety test report. Fruita Research Center, Soil and Crop Sciences, Colo. Agric. Exp. Stn., Fort Collins. (unpub).
  • PEARSON, C.H. and GOLUS, H.M. 1995. 1994 alfalfa variety trial results. In: Tenth Annual Report of the Western Alfalfa Improvement Conf., pps. 26-27.
  • PEARSON, C.H. 1995. Results of the National Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery at Fruita, Colorado, 1995. In: Forty-fifth Ann'l Rept of the Nat'l Cooperative Dry Bean Nurseries, 1994. Cooperative investigations among SAES, USDA-ARS, and Canadian
  • PEARSON, C.H. and GOLUS, H.M. 1995. Nitrogen fertilization in sweet corn in western Colorado. Colo Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Rep. TR95-6, Fort Collins.


Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

Outputs
The objective of this project is to develop sustainable soil management andcropping systems for agriculture in western CO. Experiments conducted in1994 include cultivar performance tests for wheat, barley, oat, corn grain andforage, alfalfa, dry bean, and new and alternate crops. These studies areconducted regularly and the results are published as experiment stationtechnical reports. Native and improved native species of grasses, legumes,shrubs, and trees are being evaluated for use in diverse applications inwestern Colorado. Alfalfa germplasm is being evaluated to identify resistanceto the alfalfa stem nematode. Research and demonstration studies are beingconducted with conservation tillage under furrow irrigation on dry beanfollowing corn, winter wheat following corn silage, and corn following alfalfa.Field research was conducted in 1994 in cooperation with Pioneer Hi-Bred Int'lto identify hybrids that have resistance to blunt ear syndrome. Other studiesconducted during 1994 included nitrogen fertilization of sweet corn, potentialfor seed production of sugar beets in western CO, performance of maltbarley varieties in western CO, and integrated management techniques forRussian wheat aphid. Insecticide efficacy trials were conducted on alfalfainsects and corn spider mites in the Grand Valley and cutworms in winter wheatand dry beans in San Miguel County. The impact of winter wheat planting dateand volunteer management on viral diseases is also being investigated.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • PEARSON, C.H. 1994. Plant response to the management of fluid and solid N fertilizers applied to furrow-irrigated corn. Fert. Res. 37:51-58.
  • PEARSON, C.H., AND GOLUS, H.M. 1994. 1994 Alfalfa variety test report. Fruita Research Center, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Agric. Exp. Stn., Colorado State University. "unpub".
  • BROWN, W.M., FRENCH, R.C., HAMMON, R.W., AND JENSEN, S.G. 1994. Occurrence and distribution of wheat viruses in Colorado. (Abstract) Phytopathology 84 (10): 1167.
  • HAMMON, R. 1994. Factors influencing the overwintering of Russian wheat aphid in western Colorado. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Russian Wheat Aphid Workshop. Fort Collins CO. pp. 68-72.
  • HAMMON, R.W. 1994. Winter wheat planting date, fall aphid infestations, and plant viruses. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Russian Wheat Aphid Workshop. Fort Collins CO. pp. 149-154.
  • KROENING, M., ET AL 1994. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID ON RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE WHEATS IN COLORADO. IN: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID WORKSHOP. FORT COLLINS CO. PP. 143-148. 1994.


Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

Outputs
This project includes research to develop integrated crop production and soil management systems for agriculture in western Colorado. Experiments conducted include cultivar performance tests for wheat, barley, oat, corn grain and forage, alfalfa, dry bean, and new and alternate crops. These studies are conducted regularly and the results are published periodically as experiment station technical reports. Alfalfa germplasm is being evaluated to identify resistance to the alfalfa stem nematode. Research and demonstration studies are being conducted with conservation tillage under furrow irrigation on dry bean following corn, winter wheat following corn silage, and corn following alfalfa. Corn blunt ear syndrome continued to occur sporadically around the U.S. Field research was conducted in 1993 in cooperation with Pioneer Hi-Bred Int'l to identify hybrids that have resistance to blunt ear syndrome. Other studies conducted during 1993 included nitrogen fertility of sweet corn, potential for seed production of sugar beets in western Colorado, performance of malt barley varieties in western Colorado, double-cropping dry bean after winter barley, and integrated management techniques for Russian wheat aphid. Two IPM studies were initiated in 1993. One focuses on the influence of tillage on pale western cutworm populations in SW Colorado, and the other is designed to evaluate the impact of irrigation, pesticides, and varietal resistance on alfalfa pests.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

    Outputs
    This project includes many experiments designed to develop integrated crop production and soil management systems for irrigated agriculture in western Colorado. These include cultivar performance tests for winter wheat, spring wheat barley, oats, corn grain, corn forage, alfalfa, dry bean, alternative dry bean material, and soybean. A three-year experiment was established in the fall of 1992 to evaluate alfalfa germplasm to identify resistance to the alfalfa stem nematode. Results of a two-year study on conservation tillage in a furrow-irrigated cropping system of dry bean, corn, soybean, and winter barley indicate that conservation tillage can be used successfully on furrow-irrigated land containing a large amount of residue while maintaining historic yields and conserving soil and water without causing nitrate leaching. Corn ear stunting syndrome was first identified and described in 1989 in the Grand Valley of Colorado. Field research was conducted in 1992 in cooperatio with private industry to identify hybrids that have resistance to ear stunting. Several hybrids were found to have resistance while other hybrids were found to be susceptible to this disease. Integrated management techniques for Russian wheat aphid have been investigated since 1988. Experiments have been concerned with economic thresholds, planting dates and fall infestations, overwintering biology, insecticide efficiency and biological control.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

      Outputs
      This project includes many experiments designed to develop integrated crop production and soil management systems for irrigated agriculture in western Colorado.These include cultivar performance tests for winter and spring wheat and barley, oats, corn grain, corn forage, alfalfa, dry bean, alternative dry bean material, and soybean. These studies are conducted regularly and the results are published periodically as experiment station technical reports. The potential for producing sorghum seed in western Colorado has been studied since 1989. The results indicate that high quality, genetically pure hybrid sorghum can be grown in western Colorado. Multi-year nitrogen fertilizer studies conducted in furrow-irrigated corn show that, with proper timing and placement, grain yields and nitrogen use efficiency can be increased. Field performance of fall-planted, spring durum wheat cultivars has been evaluated from 1988 to 1990. Fall-planted durum wheat can produce high grain yields. Early spring planted durum wheat has yields intermediate between fall and late spring plantings. A major effort is underway to develop conservation tillage systems suitable for furrow irrigation. A modified ridge till system is used for production of corn, dry bean, winter barley, and soybean. Data are being collected for irrigation water infiltration and advance times, soil compaction, sediment movement in irrigation water, residue management, crop yield and nitrogen leaching.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications