Source: PURDUE UNIVERSITY submitted to
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CARBOHYDRATES FOR COMMERCIAL USE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0131436
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
IND060026
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2003
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2008
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
BeMiller, J. N.
Recipient Organization
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
WEST LAFAYETTE,IN 47907
Performing Department
FOOD SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
Restrictions on improvements of starch for food and industrial use. Most corn starch used in food and industrial products is modified to improve its usefulness. Modification of the inherent properties of starch is important to its continued and increased use. Chemical modification of starch is done while the starch is in its granular form. This project addresses the potential of making modified starch products more efficiently and, thus in a more enviornmentally friendly way, via an understanding of the natures of granules.
Animal Health Component
(N/A)
Research Effort Categories
Basic
100%
Applied
(N/A)
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
5021510103067%
5021510200033%
Knowledge Area
502 - New and Improved Food Products;

Subject Of Investigation
1510 - Corn;

Field Of Science
1030 - Cellular biology; 2000 - Chemistry;
Goals / Objectives
1. Determine the a) origin, b) nature, and c) function of the channels in corn starch granules. 2. Determine the relationship of genetic makeup to the channelization of corn starch granules. 3. Determine the relationship of channelization of corn starch granules to efficiencies and patterns of chemical modification. 4. Determine the heterogeneity of corn starch granules.
Project Methods
Methods: Objective 1a will test the hypothesis that channels are formed when a corn starch granule forms around radially oriented microtubules in an endosperm amyloplast. Objective 1b will test the hypothesis that channels are lined with protein (some evidence for at least one component being actin) and lipid. Objective 1c will test the hypothesis that channels are present in different granules in different numbers to provide a controlled-release system for glucose during germination. The first step will be to develop a better method to determine relative average degrees of granule channelization (RADC). The second will be to apply the method to wild types of different inbred lines at different stages of kernel maturity. Objective 3 will determine the effects of channelization on reaction rates and efficiencies and patterns of reaction within granules of different wild-type maize backgrounds with different RADCs. Objective 4. Although it is assumed that a population of starch granules from any source, especially from corn, is quite heterogeneous, this aspect has not been studied because there have been no methods to fractionate granules into subpopulations, the focus of this objective.

Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/08

Outputs
Since inception of this project, progress was made in accomplishing 3 of its 4 objectives. Objective 1: Determine the a) origin, b) nature, and c) function of the channels in corn starch granules. Our research found that the channels in corn starch granules are lined with proteins and phospholipids. Several of the proteins, including actin and tubulin, were identified. A microtubular origin is indicated. Objective 2: Determine the relationship of the genetic makeup to the channelization of corn starch granules. Preliminary evidence was obtained that the average degree of channelization is determined by the genetic makeup of the plant. Objective 3: Determine the relationship of channelization of corn starch granules to efficiencies and patterns of chemical modification. A new method was developed to determine patterns of derivatization within corn starch granules. Using this method, it was determined that some reagents react at or near granule surfaces, while other react throughout granules, and that changing reaction conditions changes the degree of modification and somewhat changes patterns of derivatization. Objective 4: Determine the heterogeneity of corn starch granules. Three subprojects determined that corn starch granules are heterogeneous with regards to size, gelatinization temperature, degree of channelization, and reactivity. In addition, methods to make the non-caloric sweetener xylitol from corn starch were developed and a patent application was filed, and effects of solution stirring and heating on the structures of corn starch molecules were determined and published.

Impacts
The primary focus of this project was to develop modified corn starch products with novel or improved properties using approved reagents at allowable levels. Most corn starch used in food and industrial products is modified in some way to enhance its positive attributes and/or to minimize its defects. Modification of the inherent properties of corn starch is important to its continued and increased use, but there are restrictions on the type and amounts of reagents that can be used. The approach used in the project was to determine the structure of corn starch granules, to determine how granule structure (especially the channels discovered by us) affects modification, and to determine how different reagents and reaction conditions affect patterns of reaction. The information generated can be used by corn wet millers to develop improved products and by corn breeders to develop varieties that lead to improved modified starch products.

Publications

  • J.E. Fannon, J.A. Gray, N. Gunawan, K.C. Huber J.N. BeMiller. 2003. The channels of corn starch granules. Food Science and Biotechnology 12:700-704.
  • J.E. Fannon, J.A. Gray, N. Gunawan, K.C. Huber J.N. BeMiller. 2004. Hetereogeniety of starch granules and the effect of granule channelization on starch modifications. Cellulose 11:247-254.
  • T. Ji, Z. Ao, J.-A. Han, J.L. Jane, and J.N. BeMiller. 2004. Waxy maize starch subpopulations with different gelatinization temperatures. Carbohydrate Polymers 57:177-190.
  • J.A. Gray, and J.N. BeMiller. 2005. Influence of reaction conditions on the location of reactions in waxy maize starch granules reacted with a propylene oxide analog at low substitution levels. Carbohydrate Polymers 60:147-162.
  • Z.-Z. Han, M. Benmoussa, J. A. Gray, J.N. BeMiller, and B.R. Hamaker. 2005. Detection of proteins in starch granules. Cereal Chemistry 82:351-355.
  • V.K. Villwok and J.N. BeMiller. 2005. Effects of salts on the reaction of normal corn starch with propylene oxide. Starch/Staerke 57:281-290.


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/29/04

Outputs
1. Developed a new, faster, simpler method to locate sites of chemical modification within granules. 2. Developed three patentable methods to make the non-caloric sweetener xylitol from corn starch and other readily available agricultural materials containing glucose or fructose in combined forms.

Impacts
The information being generated can be used by corn wet millers to develop improved products via control of processing conditions and by corn breeders to develop varieties that lead to improved modified starch products.

Publications

  • Jonathan A. Gray and James N. BeMiller. 2004. Development and utilization of reflectance confocal laser scanning microscopy to locate reaction sites in modified starch granules. Cereal Chemistry 81: 278-286.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
The primary focus of this research has been to develop modified starch products with novel or improved properties using approved reagents at allowable levels. The approach is to determine the anatomies of starch granules from different sources (primarily maize), to determine how granule structure affects modification, and to determine how different reactions and reaction conditions affect patterns of reaction. Three approaches were investigated this year. It was determined that different standard methods of dissolution of starch polymers and branches from them effect different amounts of degradation and thus affect molecular weights, which is an important aspect of product characterization. It is known that any population of starch granules from a single source is heterogeneous by several measures. To determine differences in reactivity of individual granules as a function of their size, corn, wheat, and potato starches were modified, then fractionated into subpopulations. Molar substitution values of the fractions within each starch were similar, indicating little if any differences in reactivity of granules of different size when reacted with a slowly reacting reagent. A new method of locating reaction sites within modified starch granules was developed. Initial application of the method was successful.

Impacts
The information being generated can be used by corn wet millers to develop improved products via control of processing conditions and by corn breeders to develop varieties that lead to improved modified starch products.

Publications

  • J.-A. Han, J.N. BeMiller, B. Hamaker, and S.-T. Lim. 2003. Structural changes of debranched corn starch by aqueous heating and stirring. Cereal Chemistry 80: 323-328.
  • J.A. Stapley and J.N. BeMiller. 2003. Hydroxypropylated starch: granule subpopulation reactivity. Cereal Chemistry 80: 550-552.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
The primary focus and theme of this research has been to develop modified starch products with novel or improved properties using already approved reagents at allowable levels. The approach is to determine the anatomies of granules from different sources, to determine how granule structure impacts modification, and to determine how different reaction conditions affect patterns of reaction so that new products can be made by changing reaction conditions. In connection with the analysis required for this research we needed to know the extent of leaching from derivatized starch granules, so aqueous leaching of hydroxypropylated common corn starches at different times and temperatures was conducted. Results indicated that the greater the modification the easier it was for the amylose to leach out and that the preference for leaching of derivatized amylose decreased as MS of the whole starch increased. The next subproject involved whether modified food starch can be made from natural materials. In the first study, pasting curves of starches in gum solutions were obtained. Gums produced a variety of effects on viscosities of various starched during pasting, indicating that the extent of interaction is a function of both the nature of the specific starch and the nature of the specific gum. Then, it was found that a simple heating of corn and waxy maize starch with ionic food gums changes the properties of the starch to be more like those of crosslinked starches. Waxy maize (native and hydroxypropylated) and potato starches were impregnated with ionic gums (sodium alginate, CMC, and xanthan) and heat-treated in a dry state, i.e., heat treatment with sodium alginate and CMC raised the paste viscosities of native and hydroxypropylated waxy maize starches.

Impacts
Most starch used in food and industrial products is modified to improve its usefulness. Because of restrictions on reagents that can be used and levels of substitution by them, the only way to produce starch products with improved or novel properties is through a more thorough understanding of the natures of starch granules and the relationship between granule structure and behavior. Knowledge gained form this project provides another step in the development of strategies to control and or to modify the sites of reaction in starch granules. Especially in this year, we were able to make modified food starch using only natural products and without waste effluent. This treatment will produce modified starch in an environmentally friendly way.

Publications

  • Shi, X., and J.N. BeMiller. 2002. Aqueous leaching of derivatized amylose from hydroxypropylated common corn starch granules. Starch/Starke, 54:16-9.
  • Shi, X., and J.N. BeMiller. 2002. Effects of food gums on viscosities of starch suspensions during pasting. Carbohydrate Polymers 50:7-18.
  • Lim, S.-T., J.-A. Han, H.S. Lim, and J.N. BeMiller. 2002. Modification of starch by dry heating with ionic gums. Cereal Chemistry, 79:601-6.
  • Pham-Huu, D.-P., Y. Gizaw, J.N. BeMiller, and L. Petrus. 2002. New synthesis of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-galactitol from D-glucose propane-1,3-diyl dithioacetal. Tetrahedron Letters 43:383-5.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
Progress Report: The focus and theme of this research has been to develop modified starch products with novel or improved properties using already approved reagents at allowable levels. The approach is to determine the anatomies of granules from different sources, to determine how granule structure impacts modification, and to determine how different reaction conditions affect patterns of reaction so that new products can be made by changing reaction conditions. The discovery of channels leading to an internal cavity as a natural part of starch granule anatomy was a major breakthrough in this effort. A method of location of derivatization in granules of modified starches was developed and applied. Using compositional backscattered electron imaging, it was determined that phosphoryl chloride (highly reactive) reacted to a large extent at granule surfaces, while an analog of propylene oxide (less reactive) diffused into the granule matrix prior to reacting. The distribution of substituent groups between amylose and amylopectin molecules of hydroxypropylated corn starch products, prepared under different reaction conditions, was determined. It was found that 1.8 times the amount of propylene oxide was needed to get the same molar substitution (MS) when potassium citrate was used as the swelling-preventing salt, as compared to when sodium sulfate was used; the greater the overall derivatization, the greater the preference for modification of amylose; and the preference for amylose derivatization was greater for corn starch modified in potassium citrate solution than in sodium sulfate solution when MS values for the two products were the same. Information on the origin of channels and cavities in starch granules and how they are affected by isolation and processing conditions was reported. It was demonstrated that channels and cavities are natural features of corn starch granules, that channels are present in very early stages of kernel and granule development, and that when granules are placed in water, cavities swell somewhat closed, while channels remain open. A study to determine the relationship of reagent size to penetration into starch granules employing fluorescent fatty acyl amides was completed. It was found that the area surrounding the hilum was more easily penetrated than was the rest of the granule matrix; that common corn starch and potato starch granules in room temperature water had cutoffs for granular exclusion of C14 and C12, respectively; and that corn, waxy maize, and potato starch granules treated under industrial etherification conditions were less accessible to C6, C8, and C10 amides when sodium citrate was present than when the usual sodium sulfate was used. Some progress has been made on subprojects now underway. These include studies of reactions of ionic gums with starch during dry heat treatment, effects of food gums on viscosity of starch suspensions during their pasting, aqueous leaching of derivatized amylose from hydroxypropylated common corn starch granules, and the effect of hydroxypropylation on the rate of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of granular starches.

Impacts
Most starch used in food and industrial products is modified to improve its usefulness. Because of restrictions on reagents that can be used and levels of substitution by them, the only way to produce starch products with improved or novel properties is through a more thorough understanding of the natures of starch granules and the relationship between granule structure and behavior. Knowledge gained from this project provides another step in the development of strategies to control and/or to modify the sites of reaction in starch granules.

Publications

  • Huber, K.C., and J.N. BeMiller. 2001. Location of sites of reaction within starch granules. Cereal Chemistry, 78:173-180.
  • Shi, X., and J.N. BeMiller. 2000. Effect of sodium sulfate and sodium citrate on derivatization of amylose and amylopectin during hydroxypropylation of corn starch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 43:333-6.
  • Huber, K.C., and J.N. BeMiller. 2000. Channels of maize and sorghum starch granules. Carbohydrate Polymers, 41:269-76.
  • Gray, J.A., and J.N. BeMiller. 2001. Accessibility of starch granules to fatty acylamides. Cereal Chemistry, 78:236-242.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
We have determined relative amounts of derivatization of amylose and amylopectin upon hydroxypropylation of common corn starch and answered the question as to whether, when starch granules are modified in different salt solutions resulting in different degrees of swelling, the availability of amylose and amylopectin for modification is affected. It was found that the type of salt used affected (1) the degree of substitution, i.e., reaction efficiency, and (2) the relative modification of amylose vs. amylopectin, showing that it is indeed possible to make different derivatized corn starch products simply by changing the salt used. This laboratory discovered that corn and sorghum starch granules contain channels connecting an internal cavity to the external environment. In a continuing study of the relationship between granule anatomy/structure and reactivity as part of a long-term goal to develop improved starch products within restrictions of existing limits of use and/or add on of allowable reagents, we have developed better methods of locating channels in starch granules. In another continuing effort to produce biologically stable analogs of physiologically active and important compounds, new synthetic strategies have been developed.

Impacts
Corn starch is most often modified before use to provide better functionalities. Native corn starch generally produces weak-bodied, cohesive, undesirable gels or rubbery pastes with a tendency to retrograde. Modification (chemical and/or genetic) is used to reduce negative characteristics and enhance positive ones. One way to produce products with improved characteristics while maintaining substitution values within allowable limits is to control reaction sites within starch granules. One approach we are taking is to use the unique corn starch granule anatomy to control reactivity in order to make new value-added starch products through process control. Methodologies important to this long-term goal have been developed. We have also developed new approaches to enzyme-stable, glycosylated biological compounds.

Publications

  • Shi, X., and BeMiller, J.N. 2000. Effect of sodium sulfate and sodium citrate on derivatization of amylose and amylopectin during hydroxypropylation of corn starch, Carbohydr. Polym., 43: 333-6.
  • Huber, K.C. and BeMiller, J.N. 2000. Channels of maize and sorghum starch granules, Carbohydr. Polym., 41: 296-76.
  • BeMiller, J.N. 1999. Structure-property correlations of non-starch food polysaccharides, Macromol. Symp., 140: 1-15.
  • Pham-Huu, D.-P., Petrusova, M., BeMiller, J.N., and Petrus, L. 1999. The first synthesis of a nitromethylene-linked C-(1-2)-disaccharide, Tet. Lett., 40: 3053-6.
  • Pham-Huu, D.-P., Petrusova, M., BeMiller, J.N., and Petrus, L. 2000. Behaviour of the primary nitro group under denitration conditions, J. Carbohydr. Chem., 19: 93-110.


Progress 10/01/98 to 09/30/99

Outputs
(1) Analyzed modified potato starch to determine the extent of derivatization of each of the two starch polymers: amylose and amylopectin. Found that amylose was more substituted (publ. 1). (2) Continued to develop methods to make C-glycosyl compounds (publ. 2,3,5). Developed were more efficient methods, in one case a one-step method, to precursors of biologically active compounds and a method to make acid- and enzyme-stable disaccharide analogs. (3) Examined starch surfactant interactions in common corn starch, waxy corn starch (the base starch of most food starch products, and two recently patented single-cross corns (publ. 4). The granular structure of several maize genotypes was investigated by examining interactions with surfactants during gelatinization and the resultant amylose-surfactant complexes. The amount of complexation was directly proportional to amylose content. Subtraction of gelatinization endotherms obtained with and without surfactant present produced an exotherm proposed to be due to formation of starch-surfactant complexes. Found that ionic surfactants were granule destabilizing at a hydrocarbon tail-length of 12. Neither neutral surfactants nor those with longer tail-lengths exhibited the effect.

Impacts
(1) Now have a method whereby the degrees of substitution of the two starch polymers can be determined. Effects of reaction conditions of relative modification can now be examined. (2) Additional routes to enzyme-stable, glycosylated biological compounds have been developed. (3) Determined the relationship of amylopectin chain length to emulsifier complexation for the first time.

Publications

  • 4. VILLWOCK, V.K., A.-C. ELIASSON, J. SILVERIO, and J.N. BEMILLER. 1999. Starch-lipid interactions in common, waxy, ae du, and ae su2 maize starches examined by DSC. Cereal Chem., 76:292-298.
  • 5. PHAM-HUU, D.-P., M. PETRUSOVA, J.N. BEMILLER, and L. PETRUS. 1999. The first synthesis of a nitromethylene-linked C-(1,2)-disaccharide. Tet. Lett., 40:3053-3056.
  • 1. KAVITHA, R., and J.N. BEMILLER. 1998. Characterization of hydroxypropylated potato starch. Carbohydr. Polym., 37:115-121.
  • 2. PHAM-HUU, D.-P., M. PETROUSOVA, J.N. BEMILLER, and L. PETRUS. 1998. Efficient method for synthesis of C-beta-D-glycopyranosylmethanal oxime. Chem. Pap., 52:186.
  • 3. PHAM-HUU, D.-P., M. PETRUSOVA, J.N. BEMILLER, and L. PETRUS. 1998. One-step conversion of C-glycopyranosylnitromethanes to the corresponding methanal oximes, Synlett, 1319-1320.


Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

Outputs
1. Developed a method for determining the rate and extent of starch retrogradation in an accelerated manner. (1 paper) 2. Characterized individually the amylose and amylopectin fractions of modified potato starch as to the degree of substitution of each and the distribution of substituent groups on each. (1 paper in press) 3. Continued to apply our rapid method that determines cooking behaviors and paste characteristics of starches to screen corn endosperm starch mutant alleles. 4. Characterized starch-lipid interactions for starches of common corn, waxy maize, and two new commercial mutant combination starches. (1 paper in press) 5. Developed preparations of carbohydrate intermediates for the pharmaceutical industry. (1 paper).

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Jacobson, M.R., J.N. Bemiller. 1998. A method for determining the rate and extent of accelerated starch retrogradation. Cereal Chem., 75: 22-29.
  • Pham-Huu, D.P., M. Petrosova, J.N. Bemiller, P. Koll, J. Kopf, L. Petrus. 1998. Full acetals of b-D-glycopyranosylnitromethanes and 1,2-dideoxy-1-enitols derived from common hexoses. Carbohydr. Res. 306:45-55.


Progress 10/01/96 to 09/30/97

Outputs
1. Found that certain blends of starches behave like chemically modified starch (1 paper) 2. Developed a method for quantitating the rate of retrogradation of starches (1 paper) 3. Discovered channels leading to internal cavities in corn and sorghum starch granules related to their behavior and reaction (2 papers) 4. Characterized ice-nucleating polysaccharides of alpine plants (1 paper) 5. Applied our easy, rapid reliable, and inexpensive method to determine cooking behaviors of starches, using milligram quantities of starch, to screen a series of corn endosperm mutant alleles and their combinations in two different backgrounds representing two major heterotic groups of maize, several sets of a series of the 16 possible endosperm dosage genotypes, and Synthetic populations, again representing two major heterotic groups (1 paper) 6. Developed a new route for preparation of an important carbohydrate intermediate for the pharmaceutical industry (1 paper) 7. Characterized a bacterial cellulose (1 paper).

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • PETRUSOVA, M., BEMILLER, J.N., AND PETRUS, L. 1996. A straightforward route to N-acetyl-Dglucosamine-derived C-B-D-glycosyl synthons. Tet. Lett., 37:2341-44.
  • OBANNI, M., BEMILLER,J.N. 1996. Ghost microstructures of starch from different botanical sources. Cereal Chem., 73:333-7.
  • EMBUSCADO, M.E., BEMILLER, J.N., and MARKS, J.S. 1996. Isolation and partial characterization of cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum. Food Hydrocolloids, 10:75-82.
  • BEMILLER, J.N. 1996. Structure-property relationships of water-solouble polysaccharides. Oyo Toshitsu Kagaku (J. Appl. Glycoscience). 43:387-94.
  • EMBUSCADO, M.E., BEMILLER, J.N., and KNOX, E.B. 1996. A survey and partial characterization of ice-nucleating fluids secreted by giant-rosette (Lobelia and Dendrosenecio) plants of the mountains of Eastern Africa. Carbohydr. Polym., 31: 1-9.
  • PETRUSOVA, M., BEMILLER, J.N., KRIHOVA, A., and PETRUS, L. 1997. Synthesis of 2-(B-D glycopyranosyl) nitroethenes and nitroethanes via aldehydo derivatives. Carbohydr. Res., 295: 57-67.
  • BEMILLER, J.N. 1997. Starch modification: challenges and prospects. Starch/Staerke, 49: 127-31.
  • BEMILLER, J.N. 1997. Structure of the starch granule, Oyo Toshisu Kagaku (J. Appl. Glycoscience), 44: 43-9.
  • OBANNI, M., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1997. Properties of some starch blends. Cereal Chem., 74: 431-6.
  • JACOBSON, M.R., OBANNI, M., BEMILLER, J.N. 1997. Retrogradation of starches from different botanical sources. Cereal Chem., 74: 431-6.
  • HUBER, K.C., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1997. Visualization of channels and cavities of corn and sorghum starch granules. Cereal Chem., 74: 537-41.


Progress 10/01/95 to 09/30/96

Outputs
A. Starch granule and molecular structures and behaviors: One paper published. One paper submitted. One M.S. thesis written. One manuscript in preparation. The submitted paper describes a very useful finding that some simple mixtures of common starches (corn, high-amylose corn, waxy corn, wheat, rice, potato, tapioca) behave like a chemically modified starch. This finding will undoubtedly receive widespread application in the food industry. B. Structures and modifications of polysaccharides: Three papers published. Two book chapters published. One book written. One Ph.D. dissertation written. A product and the process for making it is being considered for patenting. C. Compositional analysis for polysaccharides and foods: Ph.D. dissertation work continues. D. Synthetic carbohydrate chemistry: Three papers published. One Ph.D. dissertation written. One paper in press.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • BOHN, J. A., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1995. (13)-b-D-Glucans as biological response modifiers: a review of structure-functional activity relationships. Carbohydr. Polym. 28:3-14.
  • BILIADERIS, C.G., PROKOPOWICH, D.J., JACOBSON, M. R., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1996. Effect of n-alkyl glucosides on waxy maize and wheat starch retrogradation. Carbohydr. Res. 280:157-169.
  • BEMILLER, J.N. 1996. Gums/hydrocolloids: Analytical aspects, in Carbohydrates inFoods, A.-C. Eliasson, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996, pp. 265-281. PETRU_OVA, M., LATTOVA, E., MATULOVA, M., PETRU_, L., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1996. A nitro sugar route to 2-thioepisophorose and 2-thiosophorose and their remarkable facile epimerization. Carbohydr. Res. 283:73-80.
  • BEMILLER, J. N., and WHISTLER, R.L. 1996. Carbohydrates, in Food Chemistry, 3rd ed., O. Fennema, Ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 157-223. PETRU_OVA, M., BEMILLER, J.
  • N., and PETRU_, L. 1996. A straightforward route to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-derived C-b-D-glycosyl synthons. Tett. Lett. 37:2341-2344.
  • OBANNI, M., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1996. Ghost microstructures of starch from different botanical sources, Cereal Chem. 73:333-337.
  • EMBUSCADO, M.E., BEMILLER, J. N., and MARKS, J.S. 1996. Isolation and partial characterization of cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum. Food Hydrocolloi.


Progress 10/01/94 to 09/30/95

Outputs
Starch granule and molecular structures and behaviors: One paper published. Manuscripts submitted and accepted: "Effect of n-alkyl glucosides on waxy maize and wheat starch retrogradation" and "Synthesis and surface activity of sugar amphiphiles: N-alkyl-maltobionamides". Manuscript submitted: "Ghost microstructures of starch from different botanical sources". Two manuscripts are in preparation. Experimental work on the mechanism of action of salts in starch modifications is almost completed. Structures and modifications of polysaccharides: Two papers published. Experimental work on the isolation and characterization of ice-nucleating polysaccharides from alpine plants has been completed (manuscript in preparation). Work on characterization of alkali-modified seaweed flours is almost completed. Compositional analysis of polysaccharides and foods: Two papers published. Development of an improved method continues to be a priority. Synthetic carbohydrate chemistry: Two papers published. One thesis written. One paper in press. Two manuscripts in preparation.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • EMBUSCADO, M.E., MARKS, J.S., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1994. Bacterial cellulose. I. Factors affecting the production of cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum. Food Hydrocolloids 8:407-418.
  • EMBUSCADO, M.E., MARKS, J.S., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1994. Bacterial cellulose. II. Optimization of cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum through response surface methodology. Food Hydrocolloids 8:419-430.
  • ILAG, L.L., MCKENNA, R., YADAV, M.P., BEMILLER, J.N., INCARDO, N.L., and ROSSMANN, M.G. 1994. Calcium ion induced changes in bacteriophage FX174. J. Mol. Biol. 244:291-300.
  • YADAV, M.P., BEMILLER, J.N., and EMBUSCADO, M.E. 1995. Compositional analysis of polysaccharides via solvolysis with liquid hydrogen fluoride. Carbohydr. Polymers 25:315-318.
  • GIZAW, Y., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1995. Application of a phase transfer reaction to the synthesis of L-fructose. Carbohydr. Res. 266:81-85.


Progress 10/01/93 to 09/30/94

Outputs
Starch granule and molecular structures and behaviors 2 subprojects): completed and submitted a manuscript on the "Effect of n-alkyl glucosides on waxy maize and wheat starch retrogradation"; completed a manuscript on "Identification of starch from various maize endosperm mutants via ghost structures"; manuscripts are in preparation on "acceleration of retrogradation by freeze-thaw cycles" and "retrogradation of starches from various botanical sources"; Ph.D. dissertation on "Starch retrogradation: acceleration, inhibition, and microstructure" completed.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • MEDINA, A.L. and BEMILLER, J.N. 1993. Marigold flower meal as a source of an emulsifying gum. IN New Crops (J. Janick and J. E. Simon, eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 389-393.
  • FIGUEIRA, A., JANICK, J., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1993. New products from THEOBROMA CACAO: seed pulp and pod gums. IN New Crops (J. Janick and J. E. Simon, eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 475-478.
  • BEMILLER, J.N., GILSON, R.J., MYERS, R.W., SANTORO, M.M., and YADAV, M.P. 1993. N-Substituted ((beta)-D- galactopyranosylmethyl) amines as reversible inhibitors of (beta)-D-galactosidase. Carbohydr. Res. 250:93-100.
  • BEMILLER, J.N., GILSON, R.J., MYERS, R.W., and SANTORO, M.M. 1993. Suicide-substrate inactivation of (beta)-galactosidase by diazomethyl (beta)-D-galactopyranosyl ketone. Carbohydr. Res. 250:101-112.
  • YADAV, M.P., BEMILLER, J.N., and WU, Y. 1994. O-(Hydroxypropyl)sucrose. J. Carbohydr. Chem. 13:991-1001.
  • FIGUEIRA, A., JANICK, J., and BEMILLER, J.N. 1994. Partial characterization of cacao pod and stem gums. Carbohydr. Polym. 24:133-138.
  • JACOBSON, M.R. 1994. Starch retrogradation: acceleration, inhibition, and microstructure. Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 115 pp.


Progress 10/01/92 to 09/30/93

Outputs
Progress has been made in four areas: A) granule structures and molecular behaviors of starch (4 subprojects), B) structures and modifications of polysaccharides (3 subprojects), C) compositional analysis of polysaccharides and foods (1 subproject), and D) synthetic carbohydrate chemistry (4 subprojects). A--1) designed and prepared compounds for testing as antistaling/antiretrogradation agents, 2) developed a rapid method for testing retrogradation/staling inhibitors that involves freeze-thaw cycling, 3) tested the compounds under intermediate- and high-moisture conditions, 4) began study of starch ghosts (envelopes), 5) began study of cooking and paste storage behaviors of starches, 6) continued to develop a new process for modification of starch, and 7) began an investigation of a new reaction of modification of starch. B--1) continued isolation and characterization of ice-nucleating polysaccharides from alpine plants, 2) continued to develop a new process for modification of polysaccharides, 3) began an investigation of a new reaction for derivatization of carbohydrates, and 4) investigated enzyme-catalyzed reactions of carbohydrates. C--continued to develop a faster, easier, more quantitative method of determining the monosaccharide constituent ratio of polysaccharides. D--1) continued synthesis and characterization of pseudopolysaccharides, 2) continued preparation of C-glycosyl amino acids, and 3) developed a new route to D-galactosamine.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/91 to 09/30/92

    Outputs
    In addition to the results described in the publications listed below, three additional subprojects have been completed: 1)#Aldonamides as potential bulking agents (manuscript in preparation) 2)#Sucrose-based potential bulking agent 3)#Modification of starch via reactions effected by heat alone The latter two subprojects are in the hands of the Technology Transfer Office of Purdue University to evaluate patentability and to search for industrial partners for development.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/90 to 09/30/91

      Outputs
      Four manuscripts on scanning electron microscopy of starch granules, pastes, andgels have been written and submitted for publication. One manuscript on synthesis of a C-glycosyl analog of a glycosyl amino acid has been written and submitted for publication. Considerable progress has been made in chemical characterization of the hydroxypropylsucrose product. It has been shown to be mostly monosubstituted sucroses, with smaller amounts of disubstituted sucroses, and even smaller amounts of constituents containing three hydroxypropyl groups. A report is being prepared, and a partner for commercial development is being sought. Other carbohydrate derivatives, made because it is anticipated that they will not be adsorbed by humans and not utilized by intestinal microorganisms while being similar to sucrose in colligative properties, have been made and crystallized. A paper covering this subproject is being written.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 10/01/89 to 09/30/90

        Outputs
        Eighteen aminoacyl derivatives of lactose, five aminoacyl derivatives of lactobionic acid, and five aminoacyl derivatives of gluconic acid were prepared. None had high-intensity sweetness. Two manuscripts on this work are in preparation. Project continues. The preparation of hydroxypropylsucrose continues to be improved and characterization of the product continues. An extensive bioassay has shown that the product is not metabolized by colonic bacteria. Project continues. A new method of constituent analysis of polysaccharides was investigated and is under development. Project continues. Isolation, purification, fractionation, and constituent analysis of the polysaccharides extracted from the pods of Theobroma cacoa was accomplished. Further investigation is continuing. Work on preparation and characterization of pseudopolysacchrides continued. One product was submitted for testing as an immune system stimulant/antitumor/antiAIDS drug. Project continues. Preparation of a noncaloric bulking agent based upon sorbitol is being investigated.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications

        • NO PUBLICATIONS REPORTED THIS PERIOD.


        Progress 10/01/88 to 09/30/89

        Outputs
        Work was begun on modification of lactose with the goal of making a new nonnutritive sweetener. Work was begun on modification of sucrose with the goal of making a noncaloric bulking agent. Reaction with propylene oxide produced a hydroxypropylsucrose product that is acted upon by neither intestinal sucrase nor yeast invertase. The first pseudopolysaccharide has been prepared by polymerization of a sugar derivative. The goal is the preparation of a biological response modifier. A study of the use of cationic potato starch in paper making was completed.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications

        • NO PUBLICATIONS REPORTED THIS PERIOD.


        Progress 10/01/87 to 09/30/88

        Outputs
        Exploratory research has been conducted on the chemical synthesis of polymers. The purpose of the work is to make synthetic polymers designed so as to have potential immunostimulatory and/or phytoalexin elicitor activities. Natural polysaccharides of similar structures have immunostimulatory activity and, as a result, efficacy against solid tumors and bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, but have deficiencies the synthetic polymers are designed to overcome. The goal is the preparation of eutatic polymers with pendant (beta)-D-glucopyranosyl side chains and their evaluation in biological systems. Preliminary investigation done under this project has shown that it is possible to make the desired polymers.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications

        • No publications reported this period.


        Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

        Outputs
        The primary focus for the year was on preparation of new polysaccharides with potential as industrial gums from agricultural residues. A water-soluble preparation, with evidence that it can serve as an emulsifying gum (i.e., a potential replacement for gum arabic), has been isolated (9.5%) and purified (20.2% of crude material). The preparation is composed of a complex mixture of polysaccharides, probably comprising a family, probably of complex structure, and perhaps containing tannin-like pigments as part of their covalent structures, making purification difficult. Structural analysis is underway. Other projects that have begun involve a) investigation of the properties of a commercial-like preparation of the above polysaccharide, b) investigation of bleaching methods for the same, and c) modification of starch to make it plastic-compatible for biodegradability. All work is in initial stages (first 6 months).

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications

        • NO PUBLICATIONS REPORTED THIS PERIOD.