Source: UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA submitted to
ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE EXPOSED TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0088493
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NEB-41-039
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2009
Project End Date
Nov 1, 2013
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Mader, T.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
(N/A)
LINCOLN,NE 68583
Performing Department
Northeast Res & Extension Center
Non Technical Summary
Many climatologists believe that the earth's climate is being altered by a build-up of atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases. Estimates of greenhouse gas emissions (called the carbon footprint) for all industries, including agriculture, are of interest. In addition, carbon footprints of livestock, particularly ruminant animals (cattle, goats, sheep, deer, bison, etc.) that produce methane during the digestion of feed and fiber, is being estimated. However, improved models are needed to accurately assess the carbon footprint. Also, when assessing production systems which are environmentally friendly, one must keep in mind resource availability and overall efficiencies of the system. The carbon footprint per unit of production has a close relationship to efficiency of production. Over the past few decades, we have improved efficiencies of production markedly in all phases of livestock production. For instance, the pounds of CO2 Equivalents produced per pound of milk from dairy herds has been reduced from 3.66 in 1944 to 1.35 in 2007. In addition, utilizing a grain-based cattle finishing system versus a fiber-based cattle feeding systems has lessened time on feed, improved feed conversion, and lowered the overall carbon foot print. For instance the carbon foot print of a fiber-based finishing system is 75% greater than a grain-based finishing system, when cattle are grown to comparable finish weights. This is because fiber digestion produces approximately twice the amount of greenhouse gases, mostly methane, than grain or starch digestion. In conjunction with climate change, cattle performance is often negatively affected by periods of adverse weather which increase maintenance energy requirements and decrease overall performance. Eating and behavior patterns can be disrupted. Increasing the energy intake of feedlot cattle in the winter may help offset decreased performance. However, feedlot cattle tend to consume less feed under adverse winter weather conditions at the same time extra energy is expended to maintain body heat. Likewise, cattle respond to increased environmental heat load, during the summer, by decreasing feed intake. Reductions in intake in both summer and winter are likely driven by different mechanisms. A greater understanding of these mechanisms and interactions with climate are needed. Additionally, a greater understanding of the combined effects of the metabolic and environmental challenges is needed. Cattle feeding studies will be utilized to assess impact of various environmental conditions on cattle performance and maintenance requirements. Respiration rate, panting score and shivering score will be used as primary indicators of animal stress. Climatic data will be acquired from other locations in the Great Plains and Midwest, where known adverse heat and cold events occurred. Models will be developed, tested and validated to assess the combined effects of the various environmental characteristic (temperature, relative humidity, windspeed, and solar radiation) on the animal. Environmental indices will be developed to better understand the impact of climate and climate change on the animal.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
50%
Applied
50%
Developmental
0%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3060430101025%
3060430209025%
3063310101025%
3063310209025%
Goals / Objectives
Hypothesis: Animal models have been developed which are capable of characterizing breed and management effects on livestock production, reproduction, and overall productivity. However, these models fail to adequately simulate effects of weather parameters and overall climate effects on animal energy requirements and productivity. Models can be enhanced through development of new algorithms and refinement of existing algorithms, whereby the macro- and micro-environmental effects and impact are more adequately characterized. Objectives: 1. Evaluate the new techniques and technologies as aids in detecting and/or minimizing environmental stressors in cattle, under both hot and cold conditions (on-going). 2. Assess relationship among weather patterns, ambient environmental conditions and surface conditions cattle performance, physiological responses, and behavioral responses (refine current models over the next two years). 3. Develop model algorithms which would allow for better definition of the effects of climate on energy requirements, production, and reproduction of cattle (years two and three). 4. Validate models against known adverse weather events, which have previously created stress in livestock (on-going plus every year of project to perfect models). 5. Utilize models to assess effects of climate change on greenhouse gas production and overall productivity (years three through five). Outputs: More accurate models for characterizing the impact of environment on livestock production would be useful in determining effects of adverse events and climate change on livestock productivity. Models would have the capabilities to better predict the impact of climate change on livestock productivity based on predicted changes in temperature, radiation, windspeed, and humidity. In addition, models could be utilized in developing mitigation strategies to aid producers and livestock to better cope with climate change and adverse weather events. Another goal would be to incorporate weather models into a computer based format whereby data from weather stations could produce real-time predictions of feels-like or apparent temperature as a measure of animal comfort and a means by which producers make management decisions. Attempts would be made to extend predictive capabilities for predicting future (1 day to 2 weeks) adverse weather events.
Project Methods
The approach taken in these experiment is to provide an evaluation of current environmental related algorithms used for livestock and address those characteristics (climate, plus macro- and micro-environment), which influence behavioral, physiological, and performance traits. The following will be assessed: 1) relationships among environmental variables and animal inputs (e.g. nutrient), 2) relationships among the environmental variables and animal output or productivity, and 3) extent respective climate variables have been incorporated into the model. Assessments will be based on hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, and seasonal averages. Additional seasonal databases, which will be used to define and/or validate relationships, will be derived from 25 years of studies conducted at the University of Nebraska, primarily the Haskell Agricultural Laboratory. Technological advances for monitoring animal physiological parameters and/or stress indicators will be evaluated during the course of conducting feeding studies as new technology or advances in equipment become available. In addition, environmental data from weather stations located in areas (Great Plains and Midwest) in which adverse hot or cold events had occurred over a 15 year period. During these periods (five cold stress events and seven heat waves), death of livestock has been documented by state livestock associations, state department of agriculture staff, and/or USDA officials. Modeling efforts will involve developing and/or refining current equations under periods in which climatic stress exists. Production response models for ruminants as well as non-ruminants, will be assessed based on summary information contained in the most recent National Research Council (NRC) publications outlining the nutrient requirements of the respective animals (NRC, 1989, 2000, 2001) and the predicted effects that the environment has on food animals (NRC, 1981, 1987). Major climate variables to be assessed are temperature, relative humidity, wind, solar radiation, and precipitation. Direct, environmental, and climate-induced changes in feed intake and maintenance requirements will be determined. Once these effects are derived, estimates of production output (daily body weight gain or daily milk production) can be determined. Output data from general circulation model (GCM) scenarios will be used in climate change modeling efforts. Data will be analyzed using appropriate statistical procedures in SAS (PROC CORR, PROC NLIN, PROC MIXED, PROC REG, and PROC GLM; SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). Linear, quadratic, and polynomial non-linear analysis will be used to determine which measurements are reliable and predictive indicators of thermal status and performance. Autoregression techniques will be used to evaluate and/or test functional relationships among animal and climatic measurements. Thresholds will be identified using optimal condition estimates. Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, USA) will be utilized for simple analysis and plotting of model component combinations during the model development and validation process.

Progress 10/01/09 to 11/01/13

Outputs
Target Audience: International and national community of scientists, students, producers, consumers, and other individuals interested in environmental and climate effects on domestic animal productivity and welfare. Information was conveyed through classroom instruction, hands-on demostrations, formal and informal meetings, and numerous individual and group consultations. Documents and other information was provided through public media, news releases, journal articles , proceedings, power point presentations, and various other formats utilized for reaching intented audiences. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Numerous working models were deveolped which can be utilzed as tools to aid educators, students, livestock producers, and consumers in developing and understanding management strategies needed for livestock exposed to adverse environmental conditions. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Information was conveyed through classroom instruction, hands-on demostrations, formal and informal meetings, and numerous individual and group consultations. Documents and other information was provided through public media, news releases, journal articles , proceedings, power point presentations, and various other formats utilized for reaching intended audiences. International, national, regional,state and local audiences were reached. Scientists, students, producers, consumers, and other individuals interested in environmental and climate effects on domestic animal productivity and welfare were all part of the audience spectrum. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Detailed production and economic models were developed for assessment of livestock exposed to environmental stress, including the effects of weather parameters (temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind-combined into one index), seasonal weather variables and extremes, and stress mitigation strategies on animal health and welfare. Activities were devoted to minimizing impact of environmental stress on livestock reproduction, performance and mortality. Research efforts included development of stress indices, which are based on livestock characteristics, weather parameters, and various heat and cold stressmitigation strategies. Seasonal and climatic factors influencing water utilization in cattle were also updated and better defined. Through these efforts, the ability to predict and prepare for adverse weather has been enhanced. In addition, summer water management has been enhanced and non-summer pen surface and facilities management has been significantly changed to allow for better hair coat drying opportunities for livestock reared in cold climates. A number of other studies were conducted to determine the relationship between panting and body temperature of feedlot cattle. Through these studies a panting score was developed which producers can utilize to estimate body temperature and critical animal thresholds. Subsequently, adjustments in animal management, feeding, or handling activities can be made to minimize and/or mitigate the thermal stress. From reproduction studies, in an abnormally hot and humid year, conception rates are reduced by as much as 6 to 8 percent just due to weather effects. Only toward the very end of the breeding season do cattle begin to compensate and adapt to hot weather plus nights are longer, which allows more time for cattle to cool. Models were developed to predict changes in body temperatures of females due to environmental constraints and more accurately assess effects on reproduction. Additionally, collaborative efforts were devoted to research determining the “Fate and Transport of Steroid Hormones from Cattle Waste”. From these studies, it appears that synthetic hormones administered to beef cattle are primarily metabolized in the body and are generally not found in pen scrapings and runoff. At the end of the study, nearly all hormonal compounds found were at low concentrations (<10 ppb). Further dilutions of these compounds could occur when the manure is spread on land application areas. Extensive outreach efforts were devoted to conveying this information to scientific, governmental, producer , and consumer groups.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Gaughan, J. B., S. L. Bonner, I. Loxton and T. L. Mader. 2013. Effects of chronic heat stress on plasma concentration of secreted heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in growing feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci.91:120-129.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Bartelt-Hunt, S. L.; DeVivo, S.; Johnson, L.; Snow, D. D.; Kranz, W. L.; Mader, T. L.; Shapiro, C. A.; van Donk, S. J.; Shelton, D. P.; Tarkalson, D. D.; Zhang, T. C. 2013. Effect of Composting on the Fate of Steroids in Beef Cattle Manure. Journal of Environmental Quality, 42, (4), 1159-1166. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2013.01.0024
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Biswas, S., C. A. Shapiro, W. L. Kranz, T. L. Mader, D. P. Shelton, D. D. Snow, S. L. Bartelt-Hunt, D. D. Tarkalson, S. J. van Donk, T. C. Zhang, S. Ensley. 2013. Current knowledge on the environmental fate, potential impact and management of growth promoting compounds used in the US beef cattle industry. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 68(4):325-336. doi:10.2489/jswc.68.4.325
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Gaughan, J.B. and T.L. Mader. 2013. Body temperature and respiratory dynamics in un-shaded beef cattle. Intl. J. Biometeorol. published online Oct. 14, 2013. doi10.1007/s00484-013-0746-8.
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L., and J. B. Gaughan. 2012. Effects of climate variability on domestic livestock. Chapter 3 in Handbook on Climate Change and Agriculture. Ariel Dinar and Robert Mendelsohn (Ed.). Edward Elgar Publishing, Williston, VT.
  • Type: Book Chapters Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Gaughan, J. B., T. L. Mader, and K.G. Gebremedhin. 2012. Rethinking heat index tools for livestock. Chapter 14 in Environmental Physiology of Livestock. R. J. Collier with J. L. Collier. (Ed.), Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L. 2012. Feedlot cattle footprints. 2012 Beef Feedlot Roundtable. Feb. 14-16, 2012, West Point, Lexington, and Bridgeport, NE.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Biswas, S.; W. L. Kranz; C. A. Shapiro; M. Mamo; S. L. Bartelt-Hunt; D. D. Snow; D. P. Shelton; D. D. Tarkalson; T. L. Mader; S. J. van Donk; Zhang, T. C., 2013. Use of a surrogate to evaluate the impact of tillage on the transport of steroid hormones from manure-amended agricultural fields. Transactions of the ASABE, 56, (4), 1379-1385
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: van Donk, S. J.; S. Biswas; W. L. Kranz; D. D. Snow; S. L. Bartelt-Hunt; T. L. Mader; C. A. Shapiro; D. P. Shelton; D. D. Tarkalson; T. C. Zhang; Ensley, S., 2013. Transport of steroid hormones in the vadose zone after land application of beef cattle manure. Transactions of the ASABE, 56, (4), 1327-1338.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L. 2012. Research Update. 2012 Beef Feedlot Roundtable. Feb. 14-16, 2012, West Point, Lexington, and Bridgeport, NE
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L. 2012. Heat Stress - contributing factors, effects and management. Plains Nutrition Conference, April 2, 2012. San Antonio, TX
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L.2012 Environmental Stress and Animal Welfare Concern. 3rd International Beef Cattle Welfare Symposium. June 6, 2012. Saskatoon, SK, Canada
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L. Impact of environmental stress on feedlot cattle. Western Section, American Society of Animal Science. July 18, 2012. Phoenix, AZ.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L. 2012. Heat Stress in the Feedyard, what we know, and what we can do about it. Merck Animal Health Beef Cattle Nutritionists Meetings. Sept. 27, 2012. Omaha, NE.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L. 2012. Environmental (Heat) factors influencing reproduction. Merck Animal Health Aksarben Beef Producer and Veterinary Meetings. Sept. 27, 2012. Omaha, NE.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Mader, T. L. 2012. Heat stress and feedlot cattle. Merck Animal Health Aksarben Beef Producer and Veterinary Meetings. Sept. 27, 2012. Omaha, NE


Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Invited presentations were given at Feedlot Roundtable (3 locations), Plains Nutrition Conference (San Antonio, TX), National ASAS meetings (Phoenix, AZ), Animal Welfare conference (Saskatoon, SAS,CAN) and NCBA mid-year meeting (Denver, CO). Symposium/proceedings paper were prepared and published. Collaborative efforts have enhanced research and extension capabilities and allowed for greater transfer of information and technology to cattle producers here and abroad. In addition to presentations given locally and nationally, invited presentations from these efforts have been made internationally in Australia (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2008, 2011, 2012), Brazil (2001), Chile (2000, 2009, 2011), Italy (2003), Argentina (2004, 2011), Germany (2005), Canada (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2012),Ukraine (2010), Mexico (2010), New Zealand (2011)and Uruguay (2011). Developed educational news release for local media and publications. Author or co-author abstracts, journal articles, and beef reports. Board member of American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS) and Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization, Inc. (PAACO). PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Presentations were given to key livestock producers and consultants (DVM, nutrition, animal welfare) at national and international venues. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Carbon footprints of livestock, particularly ruminants animals (cattle, goats, sheep, deer, bison, etc.) that produce methane during the digestion of feed and fiber, is of particular interest within the meat consuming public. However, improved models are needed to accurately assess the carbon footprint. Also, when assessing production systems which are environmentally friendly, one must keep in mind resource availability and overall efficiencies of the system. The carbon footprint per unit of production has a close relationship to efficiency of production. Over the past few decades, efficiencies of production have markedly improved in all phases of livestock production. In addition, utilizing a grain-based cattle finishing system versus a fiber-based cattle feeding systems has lessened time on feed, improved feed conversion, and lowered the overall carbon foot print. The carbon foot print of a fiber-based finishing system has been shown to be 75% greater than a grain-based finishing system, when cattle are grown to comparable finish weights. This is because fiber digestion produces approximately twice the amount of greenhouse gases, mostly methane, than grain or starch digestion. In conjunction with climate change, cattle performance is often negatively affected by periods of adverse weather which increase maintenance energy requirements and decrease overall performance. Eating and behavior patterns can be disrupted. Increasing the energy intake of feedlot cattle in the winter may help offset decreased performance. However, feedlot cattle tend to consume less feed under adverse winter weather conditions at the same time extra energy is expended to maintain body heat. Likewise, cattle respond to increased environmental heat load, during the summer, by decreasing feed intake. Reductions in intake in both summer and winter are likely driven by different mechanisms. A greater understanding of these mechanisms and interactions with climate are needed. Additionally, a greater understanding of the combined effects of the metabolic and environmental challenges is needed. Cattle feeding studies were utilized to assess impact of various environmental conditions on cattle performance and maintenance requirements. Models were developed, tested and validated to assess the combined effects of the various environmental characteristic on animal comfort and welfare. Additionally, developed environmental indices have aided in better understanding the impact of climate and climate change on the animal.

Publications

  • Mader, T. L. 2012. Impact of environmental stress on feedlot cattle. Western Section, American Society of Animal Science. 62:335-339
  • Bartelt-Hunt, S., D. Snow, W. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, S. van Donk, D. Shelton, D. Tarkalson, and T. C. Zhang. 2012. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations. Env. Sci. Technol. 46:1352-1360.
  • Chichester, L.M., and T. L. Mader. 2012. Heat stress what you should know to make livestock shows a success. Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln. IANR NebGuide G2121.


Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Finished three feedlot studies assessing effects of feed additives and levels for mitigating heat and cold stress. Spent two weeks in Argentina on cattle project disseminating information. Invited presentations made in Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay. Honororary Professor at the University of Queensland. Continued coordinating two book chapters 1) "Rethinking heat index tools for livestock" and 2) "Effects of climate variability on domestic livestock". Attended and/or presented papers at five national and international venues. Author or co-author of ten abstracts, journal articles, and symposia. Board member of American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS) and Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization, Inc. (PAACO). PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Invited presentations were given and powerpoint presentation shared. Assisted with organizing and spoke at Feedlot Roundtable. Four symposium/proceedings paper were prepared and one beef report was published. Collaborative efforts have enhanced research and extension capabilities at HAL-NEREC and allowed for greater transfer of information and technology to cattle producers here and abroad. In addition to presentations given locally and nationally, invited presentations from these efforts have been made internationally in Australia (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2008, 2011), Brazil (2001), Chile (2000, 2009, 2011), Italy (2003), Argentina (2004, 2011), Germany (2005), Canada (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2007),Ukraine (2010), Mexico (2010), and Uruguay (2011). Developed educational news release for local media and publications. News releases, abstracts and symposia papers were published. Five refereed journal articles were published and one more was accepted for publication.

Publications

  • Sullivan, M. L., A. J. Cawdell-Smith, T. L. Mader, and J. B. Gaughan. 2011. Effect of shade area on performance and welfare of short-fed feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2911-2925.
  • Riley, D. G., J. D. Arthington, C. C. Chase, Jr., S. W. Coleman, J. L. Griffin, D. O. Rae, T. L. Mader, and T. A. Olson. 2011 Evaluation of 2 sources of Angus cattle under South Florida subtropical conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2265-2272.
  • Arias, R. A., T. L. Mader, and A.M. Parkhurst. 2011. Effects of diet type and metabolizable energy intake on tympanic temperature of steers fed during summer and winter seasons. J. Anim. Sci. 89:1574-1580.
  • Scharf, B., M. J. Leonard, R. L. Weaber, T. L. Mader, G. L. Hahn, D. E. Spiers. 2011 Determinants of bovine thermal response to heat and solar radiation exposures in a field environment. Int. J. Biomet. 55:469-480.
  • T. L. Mader, J. B. Gaughan, L. J. Johnson, G. L. Hahn. 2011. Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load. Int. J. Biomet. 54:629-635.


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Spent two weeks in Ukraine on USAID cattle project disseminating information . Invited presentations made in Chile, Mexico, and Ukraine. Adjunct Professor at the University of Queensland. Attended and/or presented papers at 5 national and international venues. Continued coordinating beef chapter of FASS "Guidelines for Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching" Author or co-author of 15 abstracts, journal articles, and symposia including four book chapters. Board member of American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS) and Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization, Inc. (PAACO). PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Invited presentations were given and powerpoint presentation shared. Assisted with organizing and spoke at Feedlot Roundtable Two Beef Reports were published and four symposium/proceedings paper were prepared. Participated in "Managing in Tough Times" activities. Collaborative efforts have enhanced research and extension capabilities at HAL-NEREC and allowed for greater transfer of information and technology to cattle producers here and abroad. Contributing author to "Biometeorology for Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change" (book). In addition to presentations given locally and nationally, invited presentations from these efforts have been made internationally in Australia (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2008), Brazil (2001), Chile (2000 and 2009), Italy (2003), Argentina (2004), Germany (2005), Canada (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2007), and Ukraine 2010. Developed educational news release for local media and publications. News releases, abstracts and symposia papers were published. Four refereed journal articles were published and two more were accepted for publication.

Publications

  • Mader, T. L., L. J. Johnson, and J. B. Gaughan, 2010. A comprehensive index for assessing environmental stress in animals. J. Anim. Sci. 88: 2153-2165.
  • Gaughan, J. B., S. Bonner, I. Loxton, T. L. Mader, A. Lisle, and R. Lawrence. 2010. Effect of shade on body temperature and performance of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 2010-2987v1-20102987.
  • Arias, R. A., and T. L. Mader. 2010. Environmental factors affecting daily water intake on cattle finished in feedlots. J. Anim. Sci. 2010-3014v1-20103014.
  • Arias, R. A., and T. L. Mader. 2010. Tympanic temperature of steers fed different levels of metabolic energy intake during summer and winter. Nebraska Beef Report MP93. Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, pp. 89-92.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Finished second feedlot study to generate animal waste for EPA project. Developed comprehensive climate indices and models for predicting impact of environmental stress on cattle performance. Prepared manuscripts and powerpoint presentations on Carbon Footprint, Carbon Credit, Fate of Cattle Hormones, and associated environmental effects on livestock. Presentation given at international (Japan and Australia), national, regional, and state meetings. Co-authored book chapter on animal adaptation. Worked with students and faculty in Chile and Australia on environmental stress and climate change projects. Carried out collaborative activities with the University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Australia (UQG). Spent four weeks at the UQG; appointed adjunct professor at UQG. Reviewed, at editor's request, manuscripts which were submitted to numerous international journals. Hosted faculty and exchange groups from Brazil and Europe. Submitted $100,000 grant proposal for an International Science Linkages Competitive Grant in collaboration with UQG faculty (not funded). Participated in feedlot and extension planning meetings and conference calls. Organized research data through cooperative efforts with students and faculty. Assisted producers regarding decision on facility and feedstuffs issues concerning the care and management of feedlot, feeder, and breeding cattle. Submitted $30,000 grant proposal to Nebraska Corn Board (not funded). PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Developed educational news release for local media and Nebraska Cattlemen's publication. Addressed concerns of cattle producers on why Nebraska is involved in the EPA project. News releases, abstracts and symposia papers were published. Four refereed journal articles were published and two more were accepted for publication. Collaborative efforts have enhanced my research and extension capabilities and allowed for greater transfer of information and technology to cattle producers here and abroad. Contributing author to "Biometeorology for Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change" (book). In addition to presentations given locally and nationally, invited presentations from these efforts have been made internationally in Australia (1999, 2003, 2007, and 2008), Brazil (2001), Chile (2000), Italy (2003), Argentina (2004), Germany (2005), and Canada (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2007). Research presented and published in Japan and Brazil in 2008-2009. Four invited presentations were given and powerpoint presentation shared. Assisted with organizing and spoke at Feedlot Roundtable and High Feed Cost Meetings. Two Beef Reports were published and five symposium/proceedings paper were prepared.

Publications

  • Gaughan, J. B., T. L. Mader, S. M. Holt, M. L. Sullivan and G. L. Hahn. 2009. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes. Int. J. Biometeor. IJB Special Issue - Honoring the work of G. LeRoy Hahn. Published Online First 21 May 2009.
  • Mader, T. L., J. B. Gaughan, L. J. Johnson, and G. L. Hahn. 2009. Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load. Int. J. Biometeor. Special Issue honoring the work of G. LeRoy Hahn. Online First 30 April 2009.
  • Mader, T. L., K. L. Frank, J. A. Harrington, JR., G. L. Hahn, and J. Nienaber. 2009. Potential climate change effects on warm season livestock production in the Great Plains. Climatic Change. Published OnlineFirst 28 July 2009.
  • Gaughan, J. B. and T. L. Mader. 2009. Effects of sodium chloride and fat supplementation on finishing steers exposed to hot and cold conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 87(2):612-621.
  • Mader, T. L. 2009. Managing your risk in tough times. Calf News. April/May 2009. pp 38-39.
  • Willken, Mallorie, Terry L. Mader, Galen E. Erickson, and Leslie J. Johnson. 2009. Comparison of dry distillers of modified wet distillers grains plus solubles in wet or dry forage based diets. Nebraska Beef Report. MP92. Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, pp. 33-34.
  • Arias, R. A., and T. L. Mader. 2009. Effects of environmental factors on body temperature of feedlot cattle. Nebraska Beef Report. M92. Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, pp. 102-104.
  • Arias, R. A., and T. L. Mader. 2009. Effects of surface soil temperature on daily water intake in feedlot cattle. Nebraska Beef Report MP92. Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, pp. 105-106.
  • Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L., Shannon L. DeVivo, Tian C. Zhang, Daniel Snow, Bill Kranz, Terry Mader, Charles Shapiro, David Shelton, Simon Van Donk, Steve Ensley DVM, and David Tarkalson. 2009. Influence of composting of hormone persistence in beef cattle manure. Proceedings of the Society of Envrionmental Toxicology and Chemistry. November 19-23, 2009. New Orleans, LA.
  • Mader, T.L., L. J. Johnson, and J. B. Gaughan 2008. Components of the Comprehensive Climate Index. Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Biometeorology. 22-26 September 2008. Tokyo Japan.
  • Mader T. L. 2009. Fate of steroids released by implants used by the feedlot industry. 2009 Nebraska Feedlot Roundtable. February 10 Norfolk, NE and Feb 1 Lexington NE.
  • Gaughan, J. B., T. L. Mader, L. A. Tait, and W. L. Bryden. 2008. Using climatic indicators and respiration rate to assess heat load in housed beef cattle. Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Biometeorology,Sept. 22 to 26, Tokyo, Japan
  • Mader, Terry and Dan Snow. Research Summary: Effects of Cattle Manure on Fate and Transport of Hormones in the Feedlot and the Field. 2008 Annual Meeting of the Regional Research Committee, S-1032 "Animal Manure and Waste Utilization, Treatment and Nuisance Avoidance for a Sustainable Agriculture". http://www.extension.org
  • Arias, R. and T. Mader. 2009. O maneio do stress de clor em gado de carne. albeitar IV N5:36-39.
  • Hahn, G. L., J. B. Gaughan, T. L. Mader, R. A. Eigenberg. 2009. Thermal indices and their applications for livestock environments. Livestock Energetics and Thermal Environmental Management Chapter 5, pp. 113-130. Ed. Hahn, L. and J. Deshazer.
  • Gaughan, J., N. Lacetera, S. E. Valtorta, H. H. Khalifa, L. Hahn, and t. Mader. 2009 Response of domestic animals to animal challenges. Chapter 7 in Biometeorology for Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change. Kristi L. Ebi, Ian Burton, and Glenn R. McGregor (Ed.) Springer Netherlands.
  • Stowell, R. R., T. L. Mader, and John B. Gaughan. 2009. Chapter 8: Environmental Management, in Livestock Energetics and Thermal Environmental Management, pp. 181-209. Ed. Hahn, L. and J. Deshazer.
  • Pathak, Manoj, A. M. Parkhurst, Rodrigo Arias, T. L. Mader. 2009. Comparative study of time series and multiple regression for modeling dependence of cattle body temperature on environmental variables during heat stress. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Kansas State Conference on Applied Statistics in Agriculture. April 19 to 21, 2009. Manhattan, KS.
  • Xiaopeng Li, Anne Parkhurst, Terry Mader. 2009. Comparing experimental designs for a bi-logistical model used to estimate heat stress when moving feedlot cattle. Proceedings of the 21st Annual Kansas State Conference on Applied Statistics in Agriculture. April 19 to 21, 2009. Manhattan, KS.
  • Ma, Rui, T. C. Zhang, L. Bartelt-Hunt, D. Snow, B. Kranz T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, S. Van Donk, S. Ensley, and D. Tarkalson.Field-and Laboratory-Scale Studies on Fate and Transport of Hormones in Soil/Water System. Abstracts. American Society of Civil Engineers, Annual Meeting, Kansas City, MO. Kansas City, MO, March 31, 2009; American Society Civil Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri, 2009.
  • Ma, Rui, Bartelt-Hunt, S.L.; T.C. Zhang, D. Snow, B. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, S. Van Donk, S. Ensley, D. 2009. Sorption and Desorption of Testosterone in Agricultural Soils, Abstracts. American Society of Civil Engineers, Annual Meeting, Kansas City, MO.
  • Bartelt-Hunt, S.L.; S. L. DeVivo, T.C. Zhang, D. Snow, B. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, S. Van Donk, S. Ensley, D. Tarkalson. 2009. Influence of Composting on Hormone Persistence in Beef Cattle Manure, Abstracts, Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors, Annual Meeting, Iowa City, IA.
  • Bartelt-Hunt, S.L. D.D. Snow, S. DeVivo, T.C. Zhang, B. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, S. Van Donk, S. Ensley. and D. Tarkalson. 2009. Influence of Composting on Hormone Persistence in Beef Cattle Manure, Abstracts with Programs, Hormones in the Environment Session. Society of Environmental Toxicologists and Analytical Chemists. SETAC North America 30th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA
  • Snow, D.D., S.L. Bartelt-Hunt, T.C. Zhang, B. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, S. Van Donk, S. Ensley. and D. Tarkalson. 2009. Dissolved Steroid Hormones in Surface Run-off from Cattle Feeding Pens. In Abstracts with Programs, Hormones in the Environment Session. Society of Environmental Toxicologists and Analytical Chemists. SETAC North America 30th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.
  • Biswas, S., W. Kranz, S. Ensley, S. Bartlett-Hunt, T. Mader, M. Mamo, D. Shelton, D. Snow, C. Shapiro, D. Tarkalson, S. van Donk, T. Zhang. 2009. Effects of feedlot manure handling and application strategies on surface runoff of artificial hormones applied to rowcrop fields. Presentation proposal for the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 2010 Annual International Meeting. Pittsburgh, PA.
  • van Donk, S., S. Bartlett-Hunt, S. Ensley, W. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, D. Snow, D. Tarkalson, and T. Zhang. 2009. Transport of hormones in vadose zone soil after land application of manure. Abstract for presentation at the ASABE Annual International Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June, 2010.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Cattle feeding studies were initiated to characterize interaction of ethanol by-products and level of dietary energy when fed to feedlot cattle. In addition, a second year study was initiated to determine hormone fate in cattle manure; a five department EPA funded collaborative project. Provided support for two graduate students. Five refereed journal articles and two symposia papers published plus abstracts. Contributing author to United Nations - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report. IPPC was awarded 1/2 share of 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for efforts. Contributing author to USDA Climate Change Impacts Assessment, 2008, "The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity". Received visitors from Chile and Brazil. Spent 2 weeks at the University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Australia, (UQG) conducting collaborative research and extension activities, regarding heat stress in cattle,. Assisted two students and faculty at UQG with analysis of data from study projects. Developed protocol for determining effects of climate change on beef cattle production in Australia; modeled after my own research in Nebraska. Cooperated with extension educators on Ag. Profitability program. Published national and international papers for symposia and conferences. Summarized and conducted analysis of data utilizing bedded barns in commercial beef production. Discussed and designed feeding and management programs for beef cattle operations affected by high feed costs. Developed additional power point presentations on climate change effects of domestic livestock and optimizing returns on cattle when feed prices are high. Published extension circulars, beef reports, and popular press articles. Representative programs and presentations include: "Report on UN and USDA Climate Change Reports" at Renewable Energy Fair, Cedar County Fairgrounds, Hartington, NE. ; "Climatic Influences Within Cattle Feeding Facilities" at meeting organized by Iowa Cattlemen's Association, Iowa State University Extension, Lyon County Cattlemen's Association and Sioux County Cattlemen's ; "Heat Stress in Beef Cattle" for Trans Ova Genetics; "Climate Change and Nobel Peace Prize" for Wayne Rotary Club; "Managing Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle" for Arizona Beef Quality Assurance Seminar; "Potential Climate Change Effects on Domestic Livestock" for USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service Leadership Conference; "Dealing with the High Input Costs" for Nebraska Cattlemen; "Fate and Transport of Hormones Derived From Cattle Waste" Road Scholar Tour. PARTICIPANTS: Individual: Dr. Galen Erickson,University of Nebraska - assisted with feedlot studies. Partner organization: University of Queensland, Australia Collaborators: Dr. John Gaughan, University of Queensland. TARGET AUDIENCES: Cattle producers, educators, peers, international groups, graduate students PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: No major modifications were made.

Impacts
Appointed to Board of Directors of Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO). Appointed chairmen of beef cattle sub-committee to revise Federation of Animal Science section (FASS) "Guide for Animal Care, Use, and Standards". Appointed adjunct professor at the University of Queensland, Australia. Collaborative efforts with international institutions have enhanced research and extension capabilities at HAL-NEREC and allowed for greater transfer of information and technology to cattle producers here and abroad Involved in regional and national committees assessing impact of environment on domestic livestock. In the last 5 years, three major heat waves occurred during the summer season, which had a significant impact on livestock performance and resulted in death of cattle in feedlots. Over that same time period, a concerted research and extension effort was undertaken at the University of Nebraska Northeast Research and Extension Center/Haskell Agricultural Laboratory at Concord, to aid producers in understanding the nature of these heat waves, the potential impact on cattle, and management strategies that can be implemented to mitigate heat stress in cattle. As a result of these efforts, the economic benefit realized by the cattle industry ranged between 10 and 30 million dollars, due to the preventive measures taken to minimize reductions in cattle performance and lower the number of cattle deaths. Impact of meeting on the utilization of ethanol research and extension efforts are conveys through programs such as the Golden Triangle Meeting, in which 90% of participants said they probably will or definitely will utilize byproducts from ethanol plants as a result of hearing the information presented at this educational program. One participant even said that this was one of the best UNL Extension programs" he has ever attended and that the program was right on target and needed. Survey results indicate that producers in attendance managed nearly 40,000 head of cattle. Participants estimated the value of the program at $13.85/head, for a potential impact of over $550,000. Surveys of Beef Feedlot Roundtable Meetings conducted by UNL Extension have consistently shown over $10 million in benefit to the cattle feeding industry.

Publications

  • Mader, T.L., J. B. Gaughan, W. M. Kreikemeier, and A.M. Parkhurst. 2008. Behavioural effects of yearling grain-finished heifers exposed to differing environmental conditions and growth-promoting agents. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48:1155-1160.
  • Gaughan, J.B., T. L. Mader, and S.M. Holt. 2008. Cooling and feeding strategies to reduce heat load of grain-fed beef cattle in intensive housing. Livestock Science 113:226-233.
  • Arias, R.A., T.L. Mader, and P.C. Escobar. 2008. Climatic factors affecting cattle performance in dairy and beef farms. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 40:7-22.
  • Gaughan, J.B., T.L. Mader, S.M. Holt, and A. Lisle. 2008. A new heat load index for feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 86:226-234.
  • Koknaroglu, H., Z. Otles, T. Mader, and M.P. Hoffman. 2008. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer. International Journal of Biometeorology 52:419-429.
  • Mader, T. L. Environmental Fate of Hormones Not Well Understood. 2008. Nebraska Cattleman 63(9):14-15.
  • Mader, Terry L, Leslie J. Johnson, and Sheryl L. Colgan. 2008. Climate Conditions in Bedded Confinement Buildings. Nebraska Beef Report MP91. Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, pp. 64-66.
  • Arias, Rodrigo A., and Terry L. Mader. 2008. Modeling Daily Water Intake in Cattle Finished in Feedlots. Nebraska Beef Report MP91. Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, pp. 67-70.
  • Snow, D.D., S. Bartelt-Hunt, B. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, T. Zhang, S. von Donk, D. Tarkalson, S. Enseley. 2008. EPA CAFO Project "Effects of Cattle Manure Handling and Management on Fate and Transport of Hormones in the Feedlot and the Field" Heartland Regional Water Coordination Initiative. Heartland Anima. Manure Management Workshop, October 1-2, 2008 Stoney Creek Inn, St. Joseph Missouri.
  • Mader, T.L. 2008. Climate Conditions in bedded confinement buildings. Proceedings of the International Livestock Environment Symposium VIIII. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. August 31 to Sept. 4, 2008. Iguassu Falls City, Brazil.
  • Mader, T.L. Protecting Cattle from the Elements Pays Off. IANR News 2/1/08.
  • Mader, T. L. National Cattlemen's Beef Association. 2008. Cattlemen to Cattlemen. Program to educate producers on innovative cattle management strategies.
  • Snow, D. D., S. Bartelt-Hunt, B. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, T. Zhang, S. von Donk, D. Tarkalson, S. Ensley. 2008. STAR Grant Project Report "Effects of Cattle Manure Handling and Management on Fate and Transport of hormones in the Feedlot and the Filed".
  • Endocrine Disruptors in the Environment: A U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Progress Review, November 16, 2008. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Fourth Assessment Report. Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Chapter 5 (Food, Fibre and Forest Products).
  • USDA Climate Change Impacts Assessment. 2008. The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity. Chapter 2 Agriculture. Lead Author: J. L. Hatfield. Contributing Authors: K.J. Boote, B.A. Kimball, D.W. Wolfe, D. R. Ort, R.C. Izaurralde, A.M. Thomson, J.A. Morgan, H.W. Polley, P.A. Fay, T. L. Mader and G.L. Hahn. pp. 21-74.
  • Gaughan, J.B., M.L. Sullivan, J. Cawdell-Smith, and T.L. Mader. 2008. Effect of shade on panting score of feedlot cattle exposed to heat stress. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 2):594.
  • Arias, R.A., and T.L. Mader. 2008. Effects of soil surface tmeperature on daily water intake in feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 2):595.
  • Koknaroglu, H., Z. Otles, T. Mader, T. Purefjav, and P. Hoffman. 2008. How winter conditions affect feed intake of steers in different housing systems. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 2):467.
  • McGee, D.A., R.J. Rasby, M.K. Nielsen, T.L. Mader, L.M. Kovarik, and Z.C. Hall. 2008. Effects of summer climatic conditions on body temperature in beef females. J. Anim. Sci. 86(E-Suppl. 3):105.
  • Buckner, C.D., T.L. Mader, G.E. Erickson, S.L. Colgan, D.R. Mark, V.R. Bremer, K.K. Karges, and M.L. Gibson. "Evaluation of Dry Distillers Grains Plus Solubles Inclusion on Performance and Economics of Finishing Beef Steers." Professional Animal Scientist. 24(2008):1-7.


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Cattle feeding study was initiated to characterize hormone fate in cattle manure. Provided support for two graduate students. Author or co-author of three refereed journal articles. Carried out collaborative activities with the University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Australia, (UQG), a commercial cattle feeding operation in Panama, and a climate forecasting company in Canada. Assisted students and faculty at UQG with analysis of data from study projects involving environmental stress in cattle. Cooperated with extension educators on Ag. Profitability program. Published national and international papers for symposia and conferences. Summarized and conducted analysis of "all natural" versus "technology-reared" beef cattle production. Designed more practical production programs for diversified beef cattle operations. Published extension circulars, beef reports, and popular press articles. PARTICIPANTS: Individual: Dr. Galen Erickson,University of Nebraska - assisted with feedlot studies. Partner organization: University of Queensland, Australia Collaborators: Dr. John Gaughan, University of Queensland TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audience includes producers, educators, peers, international groups, graduate students PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: No major modifications were made.

Impacts
Mathematical relationships between environmental factors and beef cattle reproduction were derived. Three journal articles have been accepted for publication. Appointed chairmen of beef cattle sub-committee to revise Federation of Animal Science section (FASS) "Guide for Animal Care, Use, and Standards". International Impacts -Collaborative efforts have enhanced research and extension capabilities at HAL-NEREC and allowed for greater transfer of information and technology to cattle producers here and abroad. In addition to local and national presentations, international presentations were also made in Australia (1999 and 2003), Brazil (2001), Chile (2000), Italy (2003), Argentina (2004), Germany (2005), and Canada (2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2007). Contributing author to United Nations - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report. IPPC was awarded 1/2 share of 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for efforts. Involved in regional and international committees assessing impact of environment on domestic livestock. At three Beef Feedlot Roundtable Meetings conducted by UNL Extension, approximately 83% of those evaluated believed the Roundtable economically benefitted them and 49% will make management changes in their operation as a result of attending. The weighted average economic impact was $5.05 per head with 3,038,420 head represented by those that completed the evaluation. This results in over $15 million in benefit to the cattle feeding industry. In addition to meetings, other issues were addressed via producer visits and phone calls which dealt with cattle feeding strategies, drought crop and forage utilization, the use of new technology and products, and implementing management practices for mitigation of environmental stress. Over the last decade, three major heat waves occurred during the summer season, which had a significant impact on livestock performance and resulted in death of cattle in feedlots. Over that same time period, a concerted research and extension effort was undertaken at the University of Nebraska Northeast Research and Extension Center/Haskell Agricultural Laboratory at Concord, to aid producers in understanding the nature of these heat waves, the potential impact on cattle, and management strategies that can be implemented to mitigate heat stress in cattle. As a result of these efforts, the economic benefit realized by the cattle industry ranged between 10 and 27 million dollars, due to the preventive measures taken to minimize reductions in cattle performance and lower the number of cattle deaths. The Haskell Agricultural Laboratory 50th Anniversary celebration was attended by more than 500 people from areas all over the United States. Information about research and extension efforts of the University of Nebraska and the Haskell Agricultural Laboratory was made available via tours and presentations. Residents of northeast and north central Nebraska better understand the value of agricultural research and the impact of extension education as the result of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Haskell Agricultural Laboratory's (HAL) 50th anniversary celebration and public relations campaign.

Publications

  • Gaughan, J. B., S. M. Holt, and T. L. Mader. 2007. Cooling and feeding strategies to reduce heat load of grain-fed beef cattle in confined housing. Livestock Science. (in press).
  • Haskell Agricultural Laboratory 1957-2007. 2007. Newspaper Insert (distributed to 82,500 households in the Northeast District as an insert).
  • Henry, C., T. Mader, G. Erickson, J. Gross, and R. Stowell. 2007. Planning cattle feedlots, Extension NebGuide. Cooperative Extension, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.
  • Intergovernmental panel on climate change. 2007. Fourth Assessment Report. Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Chapter 5 (Food, Fibre and Forest Products).
  • Mader, T. and G. Erickson. 2006. Feeding High Moisture Corn. Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln. IANR NebGuide G100.
  • Mader, T. L. 2007. Climatic influences within cattle feeding facilities. J. Anim. Sci. 85(2):52.
  • Mader, T. L. High moisture grain: harvest and processing. 2006. Cattle Grain Processing Symposium. Nov. 15-17. Oklahoma State University, Tulsa.
  • Mader, T. L., M.S. Davis, and J. B. Gaughan. 2007. Effect of sprinkling on feedlot microclimate and cattle behavior. Int. J. Biometeorol. 51:541-551.
  • Snow, D., S. Bartelt-Hunt, B. Kranz, T. Mader, C. Shapiro, D. Shelton, and T. Zhang. 2007. Effects of Cattle Manure Handling and Management Strategies on Fate and Transport of Hormones in the Feedlot and the Field (EPA RD833423). Proceedings of the Fate and Effects of Hormones in Waste From Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Workshop. August 20-22, 2007, EPA Region V Conference Facility. Chicago, IL.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Fate and Effects of Hormones in Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations. U.S. EPA Workshop. Aug 20-22, Chicago, IL.
  • Amundson, J.L., T.L. Mader, R.J. Rasby, and Q. Hu. 2006 Temperature and temperature-humidity index effects on pregnancy rate in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci.84:3415-3420.
  • Arias, R. A., and T. L. Mader. 2007. Environmental factors affecting water intake in steers finished in feedlots. J. Anim. Sci. 85(2):47.
  • Buckner, C. D., T. L. Mader, G. E. Erickson, S. Colgan, K. K. Karges, and M. L. Gibson. 2007. Optimum levels of dry distillers grains with solubles for finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 85(Suppl 2):70.
  • Gaughan, J. B. and T. L. Mader. 2007. Managing heat stress of feedlot cattle through nutrition. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia. Univ. of New England, Armidale.


Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

Outputs
Exp. 1. Two trials were conducted to evaluate feeding sodium chloride salt (NaCl) and soybeans to feedlot cattle in summer and winter seasons. The treatments were 1) control; 2) 1% added salt; 3) 5% added whole soybeans; and 4) the combination of 1% added salt and 5% added whole soybeans. Added salt had a tendency to decrease dry matter intake and increase water intake. Additional salt and soybeans elevated tympanic temperatures. Treatment did not have an effect on performance, carcass quality grade, or dressing percentage. Exp. 2. Angus crossbred yearling steers (n=180) were used to evaluate effects of feeding additional potassium and sodium on performance and tympanic temperature of steers under heat stress and seasonal summer conditions. Daily water intake was increased and dry matter intake to daily water intake ratio was decreased for cattle fed potassium and potassium plus sodium rations. Tympanic temperatures did not differ among dietary treatments under thermoneutral or hot environmental conditions. Exp. 3. Data from three summer feedlot studies were utilized to determine environmental factors which influence cattle heat stress and determine wind speed (WSPD, m/s) and solar radiation (RAD, W) adjustments to the temperature-humidity index (THI). Visual assessments of heat stress, based on panting scores (0 = no panting, 4 = severe panting), were collected from 1400 to 1700. From hourly values for THI, WSPD, and RAD, panting score was determined to equal -7.563 + (0.121 * THI) - (0.241 * WSPD) + (0.00082 * RAD). Using the ratio of WSPD to THI and RAD to THI (-1.992 and 0.0068 for WSPD and RAD, respectively) adjustments to the THI were derived for WSPD and RAD. On the basis of these ratios and average 1400 to 1700 hourly data, the THI, adjusted for WSPD and RAD, equals [4.51 + THI - (1.992*WSPD) + (0.0068 * RAD)]. Four separate cattle studies, comparable in size, type of cattle, and number of observations to the three original studies, were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of the THI equation adjusted for WSPD and RAD, and the relationship between the adjusted THI and panting score. Mean panting score, derived from individual observations of black hided cattle, in these four studies were 1.22, 0.94, 1.32, and 2.00 versus the predicted panting scores of 1.15, 1.17, 1.30, and 1.96, respectively. Correlations between THI and panting score in these studies ranged from r = 0.47 to r = 0.87. Correlation between the adjusted THI and mean panting score ranged from r = 0.64 and r = 0.80. These adjustments would be most appropriate to use, within a day, to predict THI during the afternoon hours using hourly data or current conditions. In addition to afternoon conditions, nighttime conditions, including minimum WSPD, minimum blackglobe THI, and minimum THI were also found to influence heat stress experienced by cattle. Although knowledge of THI alone is beneficial in determining the potential for heat stress, WSPD and RAD adjustments to the THI more accurately assess animal discomfort.

Impacts
Over the last decade, three major heat waves occurred during the summer season, which had a significant impact on livestock performance and resulted in death of cattle in feedlots. Over that same time period, a concerted research and extension effort was undertaken at the University of Nebraska Northeast Research and Extension Center/Haskell Agricultural Laboratory at Concord, to aid producers in understanding the nature of these heat waves, the potential impact on cattle, and management strategies that can be implemented to mitigate heat stress in cattle. These heat waves occurred in 1995, 1999, and 2005. As research and education efforts progressed throughout the past decade, the impact of research and programming efforts on curtailing effects of the heat wave was enhanced. For each animal that dies as a result of heat stress, the corresponding economic losses are approximately $5,000 due to mortality and associated live animal performance losses. The number of cattle on feed in the areas where the heat waves occurred averaged 323,000 head. A 1.71% decline (2.32 vs 0.61%) in death loss based on 1995 vs 2005 heat wave, constitutes a savings of $27,787,500 to the cattle industry. A 0.64% (1.25 vs 0.61) decline in death loss was found when comparing the 1999 and 2005 heat waves that were similar in magnitude. The resulting change in cattle deaths and performance when comparing these two years would result in a savings of $10,400,000 to the cattle industry. A significant portion of these savings would have been lost had not heat stress mitigation strategies been implemented.

Publications

  • Mader, T. L., M. S. Davis, and T. Brown-Brandl. 2006. Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 84:712-719. (ARD No. 14750)
  • Mader, T. L. and W. M. Kreikemeier. 2006. Effects of growth-promoting agents and season on blood metabolites and body temperature in heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1030-1037 (ARD No. 14854).
  • Koknaroglu, H, Z. Otles, T. Mader, and M.P. Hoffman. 2006. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems. J. Anim. Sci. 84 (Suppl. 2):56.


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
Over the last decade, three major heat waves occurred during the summer season, which had a significant impact on livestock performance and resulted in death of cattle in feedlots. Over that same time period, a concerted research and extension effort was undertaken at the University of Nebraska Northeast Research and Extension Center/Haskell Agricultural Laboratory at Concord, to aid producers in understanding the nature of these heat waves, the potential impact on cattle, and management strategies that can be implemented to mitigate heat stress in cattle. These three heat waves occurred in 1995, 1999, and 2005. For each heat wave, temperature and relative humidity averaged 85.9 F and 68.1% (1995), 81.6 F and 83.8% (1999), and 81.5 F and 79.7% (2005), respectively. The temperature-humidity index, an indicator of heat stress, averaged 80.2, 79.0, and 79.0 for 1995, 1999, and 2005, respectively. In general, each heat wave affected slightly different areas of the Eastern Nebraska-Western Iowa cattle feeding region. Each heat wave covered a 10 to 12 county area, with the most severe heat concentrated in a 3 to 4 county area. In each area, where the heat waves occurred, an estimate of the total number of cattle on feed and number of cattle death (documented from Nebraska Department of Agriculture, USDA, Farm Service Association, Cattlemans organization, and surveys) were determined. Cattle deaths, as a percent of those on feed, were 2.32, 1.25, and 0.61% for 1995, 1999, and 2005 heat waves, respectively. The heat wave of 1995 was slightly more severe than the 1999 and 2005 heat waves. However, that heat wave occurred prior to significant educational efforts taking place. As research and education efforts progressed throughout the decade, the impact of research and programming efforts on curtailing effects of the heat wave was enhanced. For each animal that dies as a result of heat stress, the corresponding economic losses are approximately $5,000 due to mortality and associated live animal performance losses. The number of cattle on feed in the areas where the heat waves occurred averaged 323,000 head. A 1.71% decline (2.32 vs 0.61%) in death loss based on 1995 vs 2005 heat wave, constitutes a savings of $27,787,500 to the cattle industry. A 0.64% (1.25 vs 0.61) decline in death loss was found when comparing the 1999 and 2005 heat waves that were similar in magnitude. The resulting change in cattle deaths and performance when comparing these two years would result in a savings of $10,400,000 to the cattle industry. A significant portion of these savings would have been lost had not heat stress mitigation strategies been implemented this year (2005). Some strategies recommended included using sprinklers or sprayers to cool feedlot surfaces, changing feeding schedules to minimize climatic heat load occurring simultaneous to metabolic heat load, doubling or tripling the amount of available water trough space, providing shade, decreasing the number of animals per pen to decrease crowding, and in an emergency, using sprinklers to cool cattle. Models were developed to predict effects of changing environmental conditions on cattle performance.

Impacts
Severe summer heat stress can have significant economic consequences for livestock producers. In confined, open-lot cattle feeding operations recommended strategies to minimize cattle deaths includes using sprinklers or sprayers to cool feedlot surfaces, changing feeding schedules to minimize climatic heat load occurring simultaneous to metabolic heat load, doubling or tripling the amount of available water trough space, providing shade, decreasing the number of animals per pen to decrease crowding, and in an emergency, using sprinklers to cool cattle. Following these practices can decrease and/or eliminate cattle deaths, keep cattle on feed, and minimize catastrophic losses to the industry.

Publications

  • Brown-Brandl, T. M., R. A. Eigenberg, G. L. Hahn, J. A. Nienaber, T. L. Mader, D. E. Spiers, and A. M. Parkhurst. 2005. Analyses of thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle exposed to simulated heat waves. Int. J. Biometeorol. 49:285-296 (ARD No. 14653).
  • Gaughan, J. B., W. M. Kreikemeier, and T. L. Mader. 2005. Hormonal growth-promotant effects on grain-fed cattle maintained under different environments. Intl. J. Biometeorol. 49(6):396-402 (ARD No. 14392).
  • Mader, T. L., M. S. Davis, and W. M. Kreikemeier. 2005. Case study: Tympanic temperature and behavior associated with moving feedlot cattle. Prof. Anim. Sci. 21:339-344 (ARD No. 14420).


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

Outputs
Angus x crossbred heifers (270 per trial) were used in an experiment conducted over one 105-d summer and one 104-d winter feeding period. Treatments were identical for each trial and included: 1) control, 2) estrogenic implant (E), 3) trenbolone acetate implant (TBA), 4) E+TBA (ET), 5) melengestrol acetate (MGA) in the feed, and 6) ET + MGA (ETM). Each treatment was replicated in five pens with nine heifers per pen in each season. Initial weights (mean = 384 kg, SE = 57) were the same for each season. There were no treatment by season interactions for daily gain, gain to feed ratios, water intake, or carcass characteristics. Water intake was greater (P < 0.01) in the summer (31 L/d) than in the winter (18 L/d) with no difference among implant treatments. Heifers fed in the winter had heavier carcasses, less 12th rib fat, greater marbling scores, larger LM area, and a greater incidence of liver abscesses than heifers finished in the summer (P < 0.01). A treatment by season interaction (P = 0.07) was evident for DMI during the 35-d coldest and hottest portions of the year. Heifers fed MGA and implanted with ET tended (P = 0.07) to have greater DMI in the summer but lesser DMI in the winter. Three other experiments were conducted to evaluate management strategies designed to decrease heat stress of cattle finished during the summer. In Exp. 1, 144 Angus crossbred yearling steers were assigned to three treatments consisting: 1) ad libitum access to feed at 0800 (ADLIB); 2) fed at 1600 with feed amount adjusted so that no feed was available at 0800 (BKMGT); and 3) fed at 1600 at 85% of predicted ad libitum levels (LIMFD). Treatments were imposed for 23 d of an 82-d study after which all steers were fed ad libitum at 0800. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.10) overall DMI, although ADLIB cattle tended to consume less feed. Overall water intake was decreased (P < 0.05) by 6.8 L&#8729;animal-1&#8729;d-1 for LIMFD vs. ADLIB steers. In Exp. 2, 96 Angus crossbred yearling steers were assigned to three treatments consisting of: 1) control, no water application; 2) water applied to the pen surfaces between 1000 and 1200 (AM); and 3) water applied to pen surfaces between 1400 and 1600 (PM). Water intake and DMI did not differ among treatments; however, feed efficiency of AM steers was superior (P = 0.06) to that of PM steers. Conversely, marbling scores of PM steers were higher (P = 0.06) than those of AM steers. In Exp. 3, 192 crossbred steers were used to determine the effects of feeding time (0800 [AMF] vs 1400 [PMF]) with (WET) and without (DRY) sprinkling (20 min every 1.5 h between 1000 and 1750). Feed DMI did not differ among treatments; however, water intake and marbling scores were highest (P < 0.05) for AMF/DRY steers.

Impacts
In general, differences among growth promotant programs tended to be relatively similar over the entire summer and in winter (P > 0.05). Alternative feeding regimens and sprinkling can alter feed intake pattern of steers. Heat stress management strategies imposed in these experiments would be most useful for decreasing the susceptibility of cattle to hyperthermia and reducing related feedlot cattle deaths without adversely affecting performance.

Publications

  • Holt, S. M., J. B. Gaughan, and T. L. Mader. 2004. Feeding strategies for grain fed cattle reared in a hot environment. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 55:719-725.
  • Kreikemeier, W. M., and T. L. Mader. 2004. Effects of growth promoting agents and season on yearling feedlot heifer performance. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2481-2488.
  • Amudson, J. L., T. L. Mader, R. J. Rasby, and Q. S. Hu. 2004. Evaluation of temperature and temperature-humidity index on reproduction in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 82 (Suppl. 1):374.


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
Bos taurus steers and heifers were utilized in a metabolism trial to determine the effects of hormone growth promotant implants (HGP) on respiration rate, pulse rate, rectal temperature, and heat production. The cattle were exposed to thermoneutral (TNL), hot (HOT), or cold (COLD) environmental conditions prior to and 12-days after receiving one of following three HGP treatment regimens: estrogenic implant (E), trenbolone acetate implant (TBA), or both (ET). Both prior to and after implanting with HGP, cattle had significantly lower (P<.05) respiration rates (RR) under COLD, and significantly greater (P<0.05) RR under HOT conditions vs TNL. Under HOT, rectal temperatures (RT) prior to implanting averaged 38.93 degrees C but after implanting they averaged 39.55 degrees C. Rectal temperatures increased only 0.05 and 0.09 degrees C with the administration of HGP, under TNL and COLD, respectively. Across all environmental conditions, RT averaged over 0.5 degrees C greater (P<0.05) for cattle implanted with estrogen than for cattle implanted with TBA and estrogen-TBA. After implantation, heat production per day, adjusted for metabolic body weight and feed intake, was significantly greater under HOT than under COLD. In a second study, Bos taurus steers were used in a 45-day study utilizing a replicated 3 x 3 latin-square design. Treatments imposed over 3 periods with 2 steers assigned to each treatment in each period included: 1) ad libitum feeding (ADLIB); 2) limit feeding, 85% of ad libitum (LIMIT); and 3) bunk management feeding where steers were only given access to feed from 1600h to 0800h the following day (BUNK). Cattle were exposed to both thermoneutral and hot environmental conditions. During the hot period, both the LIMIT and BUNK treatment groups increased feed intake between 4 and 5%, while feed intake of the ADLIB treatment group declined nearly 2%. During both periods, RR followed the same pattern that was observed for feed intake, with the greatest (P<0.05) RR found in the ADLIB treatment group (81.09 and 109.55, thermoneutral and hot, respectively) and lowest (P<0.05) RR in the LIMIT treatment group (74.47 and 102.76, thermoneutral and hot, respectively). During the hot period, differences in RT were found with the LIMIT cattle having lower (P<0.10) RT (38.92 degrees C) than the ADLIB (39.18 degrees C) cattle with BUNK cattle RT (39.14 degrees C) being intermediate. However, when hourly data were examined, ADLIB cattle had greater (P<0.05) RT than BUNK and LIMIT at 1800 hour and greater RT (P<0.05) than the LIMIT group at 1400, 1500, and 1600 hour. Clearly, a change in diurnal RT pattern was obtained by using the LIMIT and BUNK feeding regimen. Both of these groups displayed peak RT, during the hot period, between 2100 and 2200 hour, while the ADLIB group displayed peak RT between 1400 and 1500 hour, a time very close to when peak climatic stress occurs.

Impacts
Under hot conditions cattle implanted with estrogen displayed the least heat production, but they also had the greatest rectal temperature. Therefore, if the potential for cattle death exists from heat episodes, the use of estrogen implants would not be preferred. Under cold conditions, heat production was very similar among implant groups; thus implant selection may be of less importance. Based on these results, it is apparent that feedlot managers could alleviate the effects of adverse hot weather on cattle by considering alternative growth promoting implant programs and by utilizing either a limit-feeding or bunk management regimen to prevent metabolic heat load from occurring simultaneous to climatic heat load.

Publications

  • Amundson, J. L., T. L. Mader, and R. J. Rasby. 2003. Effects of temperature-humidity index on pregnancy rate in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1). Midwest Abstr.
  • Kreikemeier, W. K., and T. L. Mader. 2003. Seasonal effects of growth promotants on blood metabolites in feedlot heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1). Midwest Abstr.
  • Davis, M. S., T. L. Mader, S. M. Holt, and A. M. Parkhurst. 2003. Strategies to reduce feedlot cattle heat stress: effects on tympanic temperature. J. Anim. Sci. 81:649-661 (ARD No. 13752).
  • Mader, T. L. 2003. Environmental stress in confined beef cattle. J. Anim Sci. 81(electronic suppl. 2):110-119 (ARD No. 13820).
  • Gaughan, J. B., M. S. Davis and T. L. Mader. 2004. Wetting and the physiological responses of grain fed cattle in a heated environment. Aust. J. of Agric. Res. (ARD No. 13574) - accepted.
  • Mader, T. L., M. S. Davis, and W. M. Kreikemeier. 2003. Tympanic temperature and behavior associated with moving feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1). Midwest Abstr.
  • Kreikemeier, W. M. 2003. Growth promoting agents to reduce climatic stress in feedlot cattle. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
Kelp meal has been incorporated into supplements for cattle and swine. Benefits of feeding kelp meal have been hypothesized due to its high mineral and electrolyte content. Previous research, conducted in Missouri and Texas, indicated beef cattle grazing infected tall fescue pastures and supplemented with kelp meal had improved immune status and performance, while shelf life of meat products from supplemented steers was increased. The objectives of these trials were to determine the effects of feeding kelp meal to receiving feedlot steers and finishing steers and heifers on, water intake, performance, carcass characteristics and the animal's physiological response to heat stress. Tasco tm -14 is Ascophyllum Nodosum (kelp) that is harvested off of the North Atlantic coast of Canada and Europe. Three trials were conducted to assess the benefits of feeding Tasco tm -14 supplement to feedlot cattle. In Trial 1, two commercial feedlots were utilized to determine the effects of Tasco supplement to finishing steers exposed to heat stress. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate the effects of Tasco supplement in receiving feedlot steer diets. Trial 3 assessed the effects of supplemental Tasco on performance and carcass characteristics when finishing feedlot heifers were exposed to heat stress. In trial 1, treatments (TRT) were no Tasco supplement (CTRL) or Tasco supplement at 2.5% of diet (TAS2.5) during 7 to 10 d of heat exposure. Data were collected during, pre-treatment, TRT, and post-treatment periods; temperature humidity index (THI) for each period were 77 (alert), 81 (danger) and 70 (normal), respectively. Panting scores based on pen observations differed (P=.001) with 84% of CTRL cattle and 68% of TAS2.5 cattle displaying excessive levels of panting. In trial 2, 240 crossbred steer calves (mean weight =281 kg) were utilized and fed CTRL or a diet with Tasco supplement at 1% of diet DM. Tasco was fed for the first 4 d with data collection continued for a total of 19 d. There was no difference (P > .05) in dry matter intake (DMI) or water intake between TRT during the 4d Tasco feeding period or over the 19d study. In trial 3, 96 black hided yearling heifers (mean weight=375 kg) were allotted to one of twelve pens. Pens were randomly assigned CTRL, Tasco supplemented at .1kg/head/d for two weeks (LIMT) and Tasco supplemented at 130.4 g/head/d throughout the trial (CONT). Performance data, panting score, bunching score, body temperature, and carcass characteristics were all evaluated. There was no difference (P. > 05) in gain, DMI, efficiency of gain or carcass characteristics among treatments. Supplementing Tasco did not decrease (P > .05) level of panting or bunching in cattle and did not alter feeding behavior. Body temperatures for CTRL, LIMT, and CONT were 39.16, 39.06, 39.01, C (P > .05), respectively. Supplementing feedlot cattle with Tasco tm -14 decreased the number of cattle panting in commercial lots but did not improve performance in more controlled receiving cattle or finishing feedlot studies.

Impacts
Feeding dietary compounds, which possibly influence metabolic rate and/or body fluid electrolyte balance, would appear to be a simple mechanism for aiding livestock exposed to adverse climatic conditions. However, to-date no known feed additives have been found to be an effective substitute for good management for helping cattle cope with climatic stress.

Publications

  • Kreikemeier, W. M., T. L. Mader, and J. B. Gaughan. 2002. Effect of growth promotants on physiological characteristics of feedlot cattle exposed to hot and cold conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):46.
  • Kreikemeier, W. M., and T. L. Mader. 2002. Effects of growth promotants on feedlot heifers fed in winter vs. summer. Midwest ASAS Abstract no. 280. Kreikemeier, W. M., T. L. Mader, M. S. Davis and D. P. Colling. 2002. The effects of Tasco-14 supplementation on feedlot cattle. Plains Nutrition Council. Publ. no. AREC 02-20. Texas A & M Res. & Ext. Center, Amarillo, TX. p 129 (abstr.).


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
In a 172-d finishing trial (Exp. 1), 210 recently weaned crossbred heifers were allotted to six growth promotant treatment groups, involving implanting initially with Synovex-C (C) or H (H) followed by reimplanting with Finaplix-H (F) or H and F. Melengestrol acetate (MGA) was provided in the diet to four of the treatment groups. Heifers fed MGA and administered only F as the terminal implant had the greatest (P = .01) number of mature ovaries with follicles, but also had lower (P = .01) gain/DMI. In a 182-d finishing study (Exp. 2), 270 recently weaned crossbred heifer were allotted to the following six implant (d 0)/reimplant (d 70) groups using no implant (N), Ralgro (R) or H: N/R, R/H, R/R, N/R, H/H and R/R for treatments one through six, respectively. On d 70, all heifers were implanted with F. Heifers were fed MGA from d 70 to 182 (treatment 1, 2, and 3) or for the entire trial (treatments 4, 5, and 6). Implanting on d 0 increased (P < .05) overall ADG. Differences (P > .05) in performance were not found between MGA treatment groups. Using an H implant/reimplant regimen decreased (P = .01) ovarian and (or) follicular development when compared to an R implant/reimplant regimen. In a 126-d finishing trial (Exp. 3), 360 crossbred yearling heifers were used to evaluate F and estrogen (Implus-H) implants when used in combination with an MGA feeding program. Heifers receiving only F in combination with MGA had greater (P < .05) ADG, whereas all heifers fed MGA had higher (P < .05) gain/DMI than heifers not fed MGA. These data suggest that feeding MGA was not beneficial for young heifers, particularly if they are provided an initial estrogenic implant followed by a second implant. In older (yearling) heifers, increased gains and increased gain/DMI were found by feeding MGA and implanting initially or 56 d later with F.

Impacts
Based on results of these experiments, an ideal growth promotant program for young, recently weaned heifers would be to implant initially with an estrogenic implant followed by a combination estrogenic/androgenic implant approximately 70 d later and 100 d before harvest. However, in yearling heifers, feeding MGA and implanting initially or approximately 60 d later with an androgenic implant appears to be superior to management strategies that involve not feeding MGA and implanting with estrogenic products initially, followed by estrogenic/androgenic implant combinations later.

Publications

  • Mader, T.L. and K.F. Lechtenberg. 2000. Growth-promoting systems for heifer calves and yearlings finished in the feedlot. J. Anim. Sci. 2000. 78:2485-2496.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
Altering the microclimate by providing protection from the environment is one of the most useful tools helping animals cope with climatic conditions. For most feedlot cattle, facilities and management programs do not need to eliminate environmental stress completely, but rather minimize the severity of the environmental challenge and aid the animal in adapting to it. In addition to facility changes, dietary manipulation may also be beneficial for feedlot cattle challenged by environmental conditions. Studies were conducted that demonstrated programmed feeding systems significantly lower body temperatures during periods of heat stress. Programmed feeding systems involve restricting on managing feed intake pattern so as to eliminate or minimize peak metabolic heat load occurring simultaneous with peak climatic heat load. Body temperatures were measured via thermistors placed in the ear canal and attached to data loggers, while the cattle were in the feedlot. Cattle resuming ad libitum feeding, after being managed on programmed feeding systems for approximately 3 weeks, maintained equal or lower body temperatures when compared to cattle fed ad libitum for the duration of the trial. The reduced body temperature is likely due to a reduction in metabolic heat load and a concurrent reduction in metabolic rate. The reduction in metabolic rate may be a contributing factor for keeping body temperatures down during the initial period that ad libitum feeding takes place. Facilities and management programs for feedlot cattle do not need to eliminate environmental stress completely but rather minimize the severity of the environmental challenge and aid the animal in adapting to it. Inexpensive management alternatives need to be considered to help cattle cope with adverse conditions. In addition to facility changes, dietary manipulation is also beneficial for feedlot cattle challenged by environmental conditions. During periods of cold stress, a need exists for greater ME intake in the winter to minimize cold stress, while in a hot environment animals must dissipate metabolic heat when there is a reduced thermal gradient between the body core and the environment. The higher producing animals, which are consuming more feed thereby creating greater metabolic heat, would appear to be more susceptible to heat stress. Minimizing metabolic heat load during periods of peak environmental heat load is one method for decreasing death loss and maintaining overall performance.

Impacts
Overall, programmed feeding systems generally have not provided long-term improvements in feed efficiencies in feedlot cattle and should be used during periods of hot weather. Long-term reductions in body temperature appear to occur if the cattle are on the programs for 1 to 2 weeks prior to the heat wave occurring. Utilizing programmed feeding systems from late-June to early-August would appear to be sufficient to cover most heat waves.

Publications

  • Holt, S.M., T.L. Mader, J.B. Gaughan, A. Lisle, and T. Scott. 2000. Limit feeding of feedlot cattle during the summer. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13: 421-424.
  • Mader, T.L., G.L. Hahn, J.B. Gaughan, and S.M. Holt. 1999. Management practices for feedlot cattle exposed to adverse climatic conditions. Proc. 15th International Congress Biometeorology and International Conference on Urban Climatology. Sydney, Australia. CD Rom ICB 13.1.
  • Hungerford, L.L., M.J. Buhman, R.D. Dewell, T.L. Mader, D.D. Griffin, D.R. Smith,and J. A. Nienaber. 2000. Investigation of heat stress mortality in four Midwest feedlots. Proc. International Symposium on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics. Breckenridge, Colorado. Abstr. (No. 616).


Progress 10/01/98 to 09/30/99

Outputs
In each of three summertime trials conducted over consecutive years, approximately 110 predominantly black and black-white-face steers were blocked by weight and randomly allotted to one of 16 pens in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors consisted of cattle being fed in facilities with or without wind barriers and with or without shade. For cattle fed in pens with wind barriers, shade increased (P<.05) gain from 0 to 56 d and decreased (P<.05) DMI/ADG from 0 to 28 d. Differences (P< .05) in performance were not found between shaded and unshaded cattle in any portion of the feeding period for cattle fed in the pens without wind barriers and over the entire feeding period in either type of facility. The shade response in pens with wind barriers seemed to be greater the 1st year than in subsequent years. Differences in weather patterns among years, especially air temperature, humidity, and solar radiation, may partially explain this interaction. Also, in yr 1, cattle tended to have greater fat thickness at finish than in yr 2 and 3. Although no heat-related cattle deaths occurred in this study, results suggest that shade improves cattle performance in the summer when they are fed in facilities with winter wind protection available and have not become acclimated to hot conditions. Once cattle are acclimated or hot conditions subside, compensation by unshaded cattle offsets much of the initial benefits of providing shade. In another experiment, six individually fed Hereford steers were exposed to hot (HOT) or thermoneutral (TNL) environmental conditions (ENV) while being adapted (stepped-up) to a finishing diet by decreasing roughage level from 55% to 10% of the diet DM over 17 d. Only at 10% roughage did heat exposure result in reduced (P < .05) calculated ME intake (MEI) and measured DMI. In the TNL treatment group, pulse rates increased as MEI and diet energy density increased (P<.05), whereas in the HOT treatment group, pulse rate tended to decline when MEI declined. Body temperature (BT) of steers increased under both TNL and HOT conditions. In a separate experiment, six individually fed feedlot steers were assigned in a replicated (n = 3) 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments and exposed to HOT or TNL ENV, whereas the diet treatments were a 6% roughage diet fed ad libitum (HE), or 90% of ad libitum (RE), or a 28% roughage diet (HR) fed ad libitum such that MEI approximated the MEI of the RE group. Steers fed HR diets had lower (P<.05) respiratory rate and BT than HE and RE fed steers. Steers fed RE diets had greater (P<.05) water intake than HE fed steers when averaged across ENV. Lower BT (P<.05) of cattle fed RE and HR would indicate MEI prior to exposure to excessive heat load (EHL) influences ability of cattle to cope with subsequent exposure to excessive heat load. Data also indicate that adapting cattle to high energy diets partially contributes to excessive heat load.

Impacts
Providing wind barriers in the winter reduces the effects of cold weather, but those barriers can restrict summer airflow, and reduce convective and evaporative cooling of the animals. Also, reducing feed offered is essential for cattle to maintain homeostasis when exposed to excessive heat load.

Publications

  • Mader, T.L., J.M. Dahlquist, G.L. Hahn, and J.B. Gaughan. 1999. Shade and Wind Barrier Effects on Summertime Feedlot Cattle Performance. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2065-2072.
  • Mader, T.L., J.B. Gaughan, and B.A. Young. 1999. Feedlot Diet Roughage Level for Hereford Cattle Exposed to Excessive Heat Load. Prof. Anim. Sci. 15:53-62.
  • Gaughan, J.B., T.L. Mader, S.M. Holt, M.J. Josey, and K.J. Rowan. 1999. Heat Tolerance of Boran and Tuli Crossbred Steers. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2398-2405.


Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

Outputs
Shade-type preferences by Holstein-Friesian cows were investigated under natural climatic conditions. Forty-two cows were placed in a dirt-floored yard (zero grazing) provided with different shade types. Shade types provided were a 3 m high galvanized iron roof, Sechium edule (choko) vines on a 3 m high trellis, 70% shade cloth on a 3 m high frame and natural shade trees. The floor area under the shade structures was concrete. An unshaded area (the remainder of the yard) was also provided. Each cow was scored for coat color based on the proportion of black and white. Number of cows using a particular shade type and their respiration rates were recorded daily at 1300 hours. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed were also measured. Cows selected the galvanized iron roof most frequently when temperatures rose above 30 degrees C, with no significant differences between the other shade types. At temperatures below 30 degrees C, animals did not seek shade. As ambient temperature, solar radiation and relative humidity rose, respiration rate rose. Cows with a high percentage of black coat preferred shade, while those with a high percentage of white coat did not seek shade. A July 1995 heat wave in the mid-central United States, which caused extensive feedlot cattle death and performance losses, is used to illustrate how knowledge of the dynamic responses (especially body temperature and feed intake) in relation to increasing temperature and humidity (represented by the Temperature-Humidity Index [THI]) can benefit feedlot managers when a heat wave is forecast. An environmental profile developed from the analysis supports the use of THI greater than or equal to 79 as a threshold for feedlot cattle placed at risk, and suggests that several hours with THI greater than or equal to 84 and limited or no nighttime recovery periods with THI less than or equal to 74 can result in death of vulnerable animals unless immediate action is taken to limit excessive heat loads. These results emphasize the importance of recovery periods, as well as heat intensity and duration above stress thresholds, in thermoregulation and the potential for death losses in feedlot cattle during hot weather. Proactive environmental management counter-measures are suggested.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Hahn, G. L., T. L. Mader and J. B. Gaughan. 1998. Pro-active feedlot cattle management during heat waves. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. (abstr.).
  • Gaughan, J. B., P. J. Goodwin, T. A. Schoorl, B. A. Young, M. Imbeah, T. L. Mader and A. Hall. 1998. Shade preferences of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 38:17-21.
  • Mader, T. L. 1998. Implants. Vet. Clin. of North Amer.: Food Anim. Prac. 14(2):279.
  • Holt, S. M., J. B. Gaughan, T. L. Mader and B. A. Young. 1998. Time of cooling important for cattle heat load alleviation. J. Anim. Sci. 76 (Suppl. 1):97.
  • Holt, S. M., J. B. Gaughan, T. L. Mader, B. A. Young and A. Kumar. 1998. Effects of time of cooling on physiological parameters and feed intake. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. (abstr.).


Progress 10/01/96 to 09/30/97

Outputs
Feed intake (DMI), water intake (WTI), and cattle behavior data were obtained from four feedlots in which three distinct heat episodes occurred. Cattle provided low (L), medium (M), or high (H) amounts of available shade (S) per animal were compared to unshaded(U) cattle prior to, during, and following each episode. Peak blackglobe temperature-humidity index (BGHI) averaged 90.5, 96.2,and 89.5 for the three heat episodes. Days between heat episodes averaged 39. Differences (P < .05) in DMI between S and U cattle were found only with H and only during peak BGHI of the third heat episode (S = 11.77 and U = 10.13 kg/head/day). When compared to U cattle, greater (P < .05) WTI was found for cattle provided L; while lower (P < .05) WTI was found for cattle provided H. Similar WTI was found between U and S cattle with M. In L and M comparisons, % cattle panting (PNG) increased for U cattle with each successive heat episode, while in H comparisons PNG for U cattle peaked during the second heat episode. Only with H was no PNG observed in S cattle even though the greatest BGHI was observed in H locations. Greater percentage of cattle around waterer (PAW) was found for U cattle in all shade comparisons, however, PAW of U cattle averaged two to three times greater in H than in M and L comparisons. In H comparisons, greater shade for S cattle and greater PAW for U cattle appeared to aid in increasing WTI in U cattle thus lowering PNG for both U and S cattle.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Mader, T.L. 1996. Carryover and lifetime effects of growth promoting implants. In: F.N. Owens (Ed.) Symp.: Impact of implants on performance and carcass value of beef cattle. Oklahoma State Univ.,
  • Mader, T.L., Dahlquist, J.M. and Gaughan, J.B. 1997. Wind protection effects and airflow patterns in outside feedlots. J. Anim. Sci.
  • Gaughan, J.B., Mader, T.L., Young, B.A., and Kumar, A. 1997. Roughage levels influence dry matter intake (DMI) of cattle exposed to heat stress.In: Recent advances in animal nutr. in Australia. Univ. of New England, Armidale, N.S.W. p.237.
  • Mader, T.L., Fell, L.R., and McPhee, M.J. 1997. Behavior response of non-brahman cattle to shade in commercial feedlots. Proc. 5th Intl. Livest. Envir. Symp. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng., St. Joseph, MI. p.795.
  • Hahn, G.L., and Mader, T.L. 1997. Heat waves in relation to thermoregulation, feeding behavior and mortality of feedlot cattle. Proc Livest. Envir. Symp. Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng., St. Joseph, MI.
  • Mundy, V., Anderson, B.E., Gompert, T.L., Mader, T.L. and Shapiro, C.A. 1997. Zea Mays grazing in cattle production. XVIII Intl.
  • Heemsta, J.M., Mader, T.L. and Gaughan, J.B. 1997. Assessing value of corn gluten feed diets for cattle exposed to environmental stress. J. Anim. Sci 75.(Suppl 1):234.


Progress 10/01/95 to 09/30/96

Outputs
In a 112-d experiment, feedlot steers (mean initial weight = 811 lb) that received a new estradiol benzoate + trenbolone acetate implant, Synovex* Plus*, gained faster and more efficiently than non-implanted or Synovex* S implanted steers. Steers receiving Revalor* S implants also gained faster than control steers or Synovex* S treated steers, but were not found to be more efficient than Synovex* S implanted steers. No significant differences in gain and feed efficiency were found between Revalor* S and Synovex* Plus implanted steers. Dry matter intake differences were not detected among treatments. Hot carcass weights were heavier for steers receiving Synovex* S, Revalor* S, or Synovex* Plus compared with non-implanted steers. No differences were detected among treatments for dressing percentage, fat thickness, ribeye area, marbling score or yield grade. Steers receiving Revalor* S or Synovex* Plus had less kidney, pelvic, and heart fat percentage than non-implanted steers. Synovex* Plus is an effective implant for use in finishing feedlot steers. *denotes registered trademark.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Gaughan, J.B., T.L. Mader, D. Savage, and B.A. Young. 1996. Effect of feeding regime on feed intake of cattle exposed to heat. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 21:223.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
Two hundred seventy Charolais by English crossbred, weaned heifer calves were randomly allotted to six growth promoting programs. On day 0, heifers received no implant (N) or were implanted with Ralgro (R) or Synovex-H (S). Implant (day 0)/reimplant (day 70) programs were: N/R, R/S, R/R, N/R, S/S, and R/R for treatments one through six, respectively. On day 70, all heifers were implanted with Finaplix (F). Treatments 1 through 3 were fed MGA day 70-182; while treatments 4 through 6 received MGA for the entire 182-day trial. Differences in feed efficiency were not found among heifers managed under the various growth promoting programs, although less functional ovaries were found in heifers managed under S implant/reimplant programs.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

    Outputs
    Implant Programs and Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) for Weaned Heifers Placed in theFeedlot. Two hundred seventy Charolais # English heifer calves were randomly allotted to six growth promoting programs. On day 0, heifers received no implant (N) or were implanted with Ralgro (R) or Synovex-H (S). Implant (day 0)/reimplant (day 70) programs were: N/R, R/S, R/R, N/R, S/S and R/R for treatments one through six, respectively. ON day 70, all heifers were implanted with Finaplix. Treatments 1 through 3 were fed MGA day 70-182; while treatments 4 through 6 received MGA for the entire 182-day trial. Differences in feed efficiency were not found under the various growth promoting programs.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

      Outputs
      Steers fitted with esophageal cannulas were used in three trials to measure reduction of whole corn when fed at different moisture levels and with no roughage or with alfalfa hay (AH), alfalfa silage (AS), or AH with water added to increase moisture level to that of silage (AH-H2O). Feeding roughage with whole corn decreased (P < .05) the amount of whole corn in the masticate by 44% (17.3 vs 9.7% whole kernels), compared to feeding corn alone. Varying moisture level of corn from 12% to 26% did not affect the percent of whole corn remaining in masticate. On the average, feeding AH-H2O as a roughage reduced percent undamaged whole kernels (P = .08) compared to feeding AS as the roughage source. When compared to AH and AS, feeding AH with water added (AH-H2O), as a roughage source, appears to enhance chewing and increase particle size reduction of grain fed in high energy diets.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

        Outputs
        Fluctuations in environmental conditions due to seasonal changes in weather are known to alter maintenance energy requirements and may necessitate changes in beef cattle diets. Two winter and two summer trials evaluated the effect of diet energy level and(or) energy level adjustments on finishing performance. In winter trials, four cattle feeding regimens were evaluated in two different outside facilities (tree windbreak provided vs no wind protection provided) during the winter season. Feeding regimens were: 1) 7.5% alfalfa hay (AH) diet (Low); 2) 15% AH diet switched to a 7.5% AH diet under cold stress conditions (High-Low); 3) 7.5% AH diet switched to a 15% AH diet under cold stress conditions (Low-High); and 4) 15% AH diet (High). Cold stress was determined by use of a prediction model (Fox et al.; J. Anim. Sci. 66:1475) and automated weather stations to continuously monitor environmental conditions within facility. The common feedlot practice of using a Low-High feeding regimen was not found to be beneficial. Feeding regimen High-Low appeared to be beneficial in the facility without wind protection while the Low feeding regimen tended to be superior in the wind protected facility. In summer trials, two levels of alfalfa hay (8 and 12%) were fed; higher feed intakes were found for steers fed the 12% alfalfa hay diet. Similar gains and efficiencies suggest that alfalfa hay diets between 8 and 12% yield similar results in the summer. (Graduate student = 1).

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

          Outputs
          Three winter and two spring trials were conducted to evaluate effects of three types of facilities at the Northeast Research and Extension Center on performance of steers fed growing diets. Consistent benefits in performance in the winter were found with the use of an overhead shelter type facility. The use of a tree windbreak in the winter for growing steers was found to be beneficial in one out of three years when compared to steers fed in facilities with no wind protection. Benefits were found only in the year gradual adaptation to cold stress was not apparent. There was no advantage to providing environmental protection in the form of windbreaks in the spring. In studies replicated two consecutive years, steers and heifers implanted with Synovex-C at branding had suckling phase gains of 18 and 32 lb, respectively, greater than calves not implanted at branding. During the postweaning feedlot phase, in which all but control calves were implanted three times, heifers implanted in the suckling phase tended to continue to gain at a faster rate than heifers not implanted in the suckling phase, particularly if the last implant (83 days before slaughter) was a combination of Finaplix and Synovex-H. Implanting steer calves during the suckling phase reduced overall postweaning gain if calves were reimplanted with only Synovex-S at weaning and 74 and 148 days following weaning. Using a combination of Finaplix and Synovex-S as the last implant aided in maintaining weight gain.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

            Outputs
            Steers were allotted to a 2x2 factorial arrangement of implant treatments. At the start of a 92-day growing program steers were implanted with either Synovex-C or Synovex-S; steers were subsequently reimplanted with Synovex-S or Synovex-S and Finaplix at the start of the finishing program. Implanting steers with Synovex-S resulted in improved gains (2.22 vs 2.37 lb/hd/day) in the growing period. Implanting with Synovex-C, in the growing period, resulted in improved gains (5.9%) and efficiency of feed conversions (6.5%) in the subsequent finishing period, regardless of finishing implant program used; however, over both growing and finishing periods gains and efficiencies were similar for both im plant groups. In the finishing period, steers implanted with Synovex-S plus Finaplix had 3.2% greater gains and were 1.5% more efficient in feed conversions than steers implanted with only Synovex-S. In a 109-day finishing trial, cattle were fed no ionophore (control) or were fed Laidlomycin ( a new ionophore), Rumensin, or Bovatec. Gains (lb/day) were 3.13, 3.37, 3.11 and 3.21 for cattle fed control, Laidlomycin, Rumensin, and Bovatec diets, respectively (Laidlomycin vs Control and Rumensin, P<.05); respective feed to gain ratios were 7.20, 6.57, 6.95 and 7.15 (Laidlomycin vs other treatments, P<.05). Dry matter intakes (lb/day) of cattle fed Laidlomycin (22.2 lb) were intermediate to dry matter intakes of cattle fed Rumensin (21.6 lb) and Bovatec (22.9 lb) diets.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

              Outputs
              Alfalfa hay was stored in loaf stacks or large round bales for up to 29 months; overall dry matter (DM) losses were 29.5 and 32.6%, respectively. With long-term storage (> 17 months), changes in forage quality were small for alfalfa hay packaged in round bales. After 7 months in storage, a consistent and gradual decline in alfalfa quality was found for hay packaged in loaf stacks throughout the 29 month storage period. Data suggest that losses in DM and forage quality can be large when alfalfa hay is carried over for use in subsequent years, regardless of storage package utilized. Steers fitted with esophageal canulas were used in three metabolism trials to measure reduction of whole high moisture corn (WHMC) and dry whole corn (DWC) when fed with alfalfa hay (AH), alfalfa silage (AS), or AH with water added to moisture level of silage (AH-H20). In the first trial, addition of roughage to whole corn diets tended to decrease the amount of whole corn in the masticate by 44% (7.7 vs 17.3% whole kernels). Moisture level of corn did not affect percent of whole corn remaining in masticate. In trials 2 and 3, feeding AH-H2O as a roughage increased particle size reduction of DWC and WHMC compared to feeding roughage to maintain fiber coarseness and integrity while augmenting overall diet palatability.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

                Outputs
                Over a three year period cattle were finished in three different sets of outsidefeedlot facilities: (1) outside lots with access to shelter, on north side of lot, which covers feed bunks and feeding area (OS); (2) outside lots with north and northwest windbreak (WB); (3) outside lots with no access to shelter or windbreaks (NWB) to the north, west, and northwest. In the summer, steers fed in the WB facilities had lower daily gains and required seven more days on feed (P < .05) than steers fed in the NWB facilities. In the winter, steers fed in the unprotected area (NWB) had greater fat thicknesses and marbling scores compared to cattle fed in areas protected from the prevailing winds. Four trials were conducted to compare alfalfa hay (AH) or alfalfa silage (AS) as roughage sources in feedlot diets during the step-up phase or the finishing phase. Steers in two trials were fed treatment diets during a 28-day step-up period and were finished on a common ration. No significant treatment effects were observed during the step-up period or for the entire feeding period. Steers in two other trials were stepped up on a common diet and received treatment diets beginning on day 29 until slaughter. When data were pooled across both trials a significant (P < .05) improvement in daily gain was observed for steers fed AS diets.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                  Outputs
                  Steers (150) were allotted to 15 pens (3 pens/treatment) and assigned to a no implant treatment (control) or administered a single Ralgro (R), 36 mg zeranol, or double (DR), 72 mg zeranol implant at the start of the finishing period or administered a single Ralgro implant at the start of the growing period, followed by a single (RR) or double (RDR) Ralgro implant administered at the start of the finishing period. Steers managed under the DR, RR and RDR implant schemes, had similar performance, which tended to be better than control and R steer groups overall. Steers implanted under the low dose-high dose (RDR) implant scheme had the greatest and most efficient gains, suggesting that when the implant dose more closely matches animal weight, a more optimum response is obtained from an implant program. Growing steers (168) on restricted (limit-fed) high energy diets containing whole or rolled corn were evaluated in a factorial experiment in which Synovex-S Synovex-S, Synovex-C Synovex-S and Ralgro Synovex-S implant-reimplant combinations were also evaluated over a 77-day growing and 72-day finishing program. No differences in steer performance were found due to implant program. Over the entire feedlot period, steers grown on restricted high-energy diets had greater gains and better feed efficiencies than steers grown on traditional high roughage diets. Overall feed cost per kg gain was approximately 4.5% less for steers grown on the restricted feeding program.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                    Outputs
                    Different amounts of alfalfa as hay or silage were compared with soybean meal orurea as protein sources for steers fed corn silage-based diets. In trial 1 a highly significant linear response in average daily gain and gain to feed ratio was observed to alfalfa amounts. In trial 2, supplemental protein for steers fed corn silage was provided by alfalfa hay or silage at 12 or 50% of diet dry matter or by soybean meal or urea. Regression analyses indicated that supplementation of either alfalfa hay or silage with urea did not improve utilization of corn silage. Differences in fiber and protein fractions resulting from harvesting and storage or alfalfa as hay or silage do not change the value of alfalfa as a protein source when used in corn silage-based diets. In a separate study ensiled corn stover was fed as an energy source and alfalfa hay or alfalfa silage as a protein source. Daily gains (.28 kg) of steers fed alfalfa hay were nearly double gains (.15 kg) of steers fed alfalfa silage as the protein source. Efficiencies (.036 vs .024 kg gain/kg feed) were also improved for steers fed alfalfa hay. Although total quantity of ruminally degradable protein would be greater for alfalfa silage than for alfalfa hay, the amount and rate of release of nitrogenous consitutuents (i.e., peptides, amino acids and ammonia) from alfalfa silage appeared to be less favorable for microbial digestion of ensiled corn stover.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 09/01/84 to 09/30/85

                      Outputs
                      Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of corn silage (CS), alfalfa hay and alfalfa silage on feedlot steers finished on dry rolled corn (DRC) or ground high moisture corn (HMC) rations. A corn type by roughage source interaction (p<.10) was found at the end of the feeding period. Feed conversion of steers fed HMC and CS tended to be more efficient than steers fed HMC and alfalfa, while steers fed DRC had similar performance regardless of roughage source. In two trials, steers with compensating gain potential fed 11.5% crude protein finishing rations had optimum gain and feed efficiency. Compensating steers fed a 10.5% crude protein finishing ration had similar gain but were more efficient (P>.05) when compared to steers without compensatory gain potential. Finishing rations designed for compensating steers containing 12.5% CP were not beneficial compared to 11.5% crude protein rations. Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of alfalfa source in stalklage rations. Performance of steers fed alfalfa hay (AH), or alfalfa silage (AS) as protein sources in corn silage rations did not differ (P>.05). However in stalklage rations gains of steers fed AH were much higher (.29 vs. .15kg) when compared to gains of steers fed AS with stalkage. The greater bypass (less soluble protein) fracton of AH is attributed to the better utilization of the stalklage.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                        Outputs
                        Adjusted final weights of steers receiving no implant (N), and steers implanted with Synovex in the finishing period (F) or in growing and finishing periods at the middle third (GF) or at the base (GFB) of the ear were 494, 519, 503 and 510 kg, respectively. Final weights of F and N were different (P<.05). Gains and feed efficiencies of GFB steers were improved (P>.05) 2.7 and .6%, respectively, compared to GF steers. In a finishing trial, steers fed sarsaponin performed similar (P>.05) to steers fed no sarsaponin. In other studies, storage dry matter (DM) losses of whole corn plant ensiled with and without a silage preservative ranged from 13 to 19%. Gains and feed efficiencies were very similar (P>.05) in steer groups fed respective silages. Storage DM losses of alfalfa hay stored as loaf stacks and round bales, averaged 15 and 13%, respectively.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                          Outputs
                          Final weights of steers implanted with Synovex, Ralgro and Compudose from 2 month of age to slaughter were 485, 477, 474 kg, respectively. Weaning weight (kg), post-weaning daily gains (kg), and feed efficiencies for Synovex, Ralgro and Compudose calves were 157, 1.14 and 6.83; 152, 1.13 and 6.56; 152, 1.13 and 6.77, respectively. Only weaning weights were different (P less than .05). In a feed additive trial steers fed 30 gm/ton level of lasalocid in a finishing ration had greater gains (P greater than .05) and efficiencies (P less than .05) than non-lasalocid fed steers during the course of the trial. Slightly larger improvements in gain and efficiency were seen with lasalocid in the 28-day step-up period. In other studies storage losses of alfalfa silage (43% DM) and hay (92% DM) were 8.9 and 18.0% of total DM harvested, respectively. Dry corn (86.2% DM) harvesting losses were 2.22% greater than high moisture corn (71.0% DM) harvesting losses. Corn silage and high moisture corn bunker storage losses wer 13.63 and .66%, respectively. Stalklage yieds (DMB) from high moisture corn harvested fields were 50.2% of total available stalks based upon corn and corn silage yields. In feeding trials steers grown on stalklage made compensatory gains in the finishing phase compared to steers grown on corn silage. However, slaughter weights were significantly less (P less than .05) for the the stalklage grown steers.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                            Outputs
                            Comparisons of crude protein, ADF, NDF, and dry matter yields from four plots ofharvested (1982 crop) alfalfa hay and alfalfa silage will be made upon completion of the laboratory analysis for these feedstuffs. Corn silage, high moisture corn, dry corn and stalklage yield data has been collected from three plots and is currently being analyzed. Storage and appropriate fermentation losses are to be measured on all feedstuffs as they are utilized in a feedlot growing and finishing trial. The feeding trial consisting of four treatments in the growing period and six treatments in the finishing period was started in January of 1983. Performance of steers fed stalklage or corn silage supplemented with different alfalfa sources (hay versus silage) will be measured in the growing period. The interaction of roughage source and corn type will be measured in the finishing period.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications