Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTS AND POLYPHENOLICS IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0079420
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ORE00422
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
May 1, 2003
Project End Date
Sep 20, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Wrolstad, R. E.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Non Technical Summary
Anthocyanin pigments and polyphenolics provide several health benefits because of their antioxidant properties. There is need for compositional information on their concentrations, distribution, and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this project is to identify and measure the anthocyanin pigments and polyphenolics in fruit and vegetable processing wastes and potential new crops.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
25%
Applied
50%
Developmental
25%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
5021129200015%
5021199200015%
5021310200010%
5022299200010%
7011129200015%
7011199200015%
7011310200010%
7012299200010%
Goals / Objectives
Determine the anthocyanin pigment and polyphenolic composition of fruit components, e.g., peel or skin, pulp, seeds. Measure the antioxidant values of isolated fractions and individual compounds. Priority will be given to apple, pear, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, and strawberry fruits. Prepare natural colorant and nutraceutical extracts from fruit components and juice processing byproducts, e.g., apple seeds and the presscake, filter residues, and centrifuge sediments from berry juice processing operations. Measure their antioxidant values and colorant properties. Process fruit into juice and juice concentrate and monitor the changes in anthocyanin pigments and polyphenolics occurring during unit operations. Evaluate the effectiveness of alternative processing conditions for maximum recovery of anthocyanins and polyphenolics. Determine compositional and quality indices for new small fruit crops having commercial potential for the Pacific Northwest, e.g., pH, titratable acidity, brix, sugar profile, nonvolatile acid profile, total anthocyanin pigments, anthocyanin pigment profile, total phenolics, antioxidant properties (ORAC & FRAP). Priority will be given to the following materials: Chokeberries, Blue Honeysuckle, Elderberries, Schisandra, Hardy Kiwifruit, Lingonberry, Huckleberries, Oregon Grape, Salal.
Project Methods
Sample Materials Fruit and vegetable samples will be obtained from the OSU Horticulture Department, the USDA Northwest Center for Small Fruit Research, the Corvallis USDA Germplasm Repository, and the USDA/ARS Research and Extension Center, Prosser, WA. Samples of fruit, seeds, and juice processing waste streams will be obtained from industrial collaborators. Extraction and Isolation of Anthocyanins and Polyphenolics Cryogenic milling, acetone extraction, chloroform partition, and solid-phase extraction with C-18 resin will be used. Identification of Anthocyanins and Polyphenolics HPLC Analyses- Analytical and semi-preparative reverse phase HPLC is the primary analytical tool for separation and isolation of individual compounds. These instruments are equipped with u.v.-visible diode array detectors which is very useful in identifying compounds. Mass Spectroscopy (MS)- The Food Science Department has a Perkin Elmer Sciex III triple-quadrupole ionspray mass spectrometer that we will be using for HPLC-MS for anthocyanins and polyphenolics. NMR will be done on a fee basis at the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, OSU. Measurement of Anti-Oxidant Activity Oxygen-Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP) will be conducted at the Linus Pauling Institute. Measurements will be made on extracts, isolated fractions, and individual compounds. Colorant Properties Quantitative Pigment Measurements- Total anthocyanins will be measured by the pH differential method; additional spectral measurements will include indices for polymeric color, color density and browning. Color Measurement- A Hunter ColorQuest colorimeter will be used for measuring CIE L*a*b* values, hue angle and chroma of pigment extracts. Processing Trials The Food Science and Technology Department pilot plant is well-equipped for conducting juice processing trials and preparing aqueous natural colorant preparations, e.g., Hydraulic and Willmes Bag presses, Stephan vertical cutter mixer, APV-Crepaco heat-exchanger, Westfalia continuous centrifuge, Strassburger plate filtration unit, Alfa-Laval Centritherm evaporator. Data Analysis All experiments will be replicated and analyses will be done in duplicate. The data will be subjected to ANOVA and other statistical procedures to determine level of significance and standard error.

Progress 05/01/03 to 09/20/07

Outputs
The project team organized the symposium "Color Quality of Fresh and Processed Foods" (Cathy Culver and Ron Wrolstad, co-organizers), which was held at the American Chemical Society meeting in Atlanta, GA, March 26-30, 2006. The monograph is being completed, and should be published as an ACS Symposium Series Book sometime in 2007 (it generally takes a year or so after the symposium to publish).

Impacts
Interest in anthocyanin pigments has continued to intensify because of their possible health benefits in reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, cancer and stroke. The conference provided a forum for speakers to present information for a wide range of food commodities.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
INFLUENCE OF VARIETY, GROWING REGION, WINERY AND AGING ON THE ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT COMPOSITION OF RED WINES. We are analyzing the anthocyanin pigment composition of 44 varietal pure commercial wines from California, Oregon and Washington. The major objective is to determine whether varietal origin of red wines can be determined from analysis of their anthocyanin pigments. In addition, we want to determine the influence of growing regions, winery, and aging on anthocyanin pigment composition. HPLC-MS analyses have been completed at zero and six month's storage time. Data analysis is in progress. STRAWBERRY COLOR QUALITY. CIEL*a*b* indices, spectrophotometric measurements and HPLC of anthocyanin pigments are being used to measure the color quality of fresh and processed strawberries. The color of fresh strawberries is dramatically affected by processing. While some pigment degradation occurs with freezing, physical changes, which are manifested by drip loss, are largely responsible for deterioration of appearance. Canning and manufacture into jam, juice, and wine results in marked color degradation. Pigment concentration, browning reactions, and co-pigmentation can have an impact on the color quality of these products. Reaction of anthocyanins with enzymes, ascorbic acid, acetaldehyde and other reactive compounds account for much of the pigment degradation. L*, hue angle and chroma are very useful indices for monitoring color change, and they are complementary to measurement of total anthocyanins, polymeric color and anthocyanin pigment profiles.

Impacts
AOAC Collaborative Study, Determination of Total Monomeric Anthocyanin Pigment Content of Fruit Juices, Beverages, Natural colorants and Wines by the pH Differential Method. Interest in anthocyanin pigments has intensified because of their possible health benefits in reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, cancer and stroke. There has been no standardized method for measuring anthocyanin pigment content. Representatives of the fruit juice, functional foods and nutraceutical industries asked our laboratory to organize and conduct a collaborative study for measuring total anthocyanins. Planning, pre-testing, conducting the study, and AOAC review took several years. AOAC approved the study as Official First Action, and the manuscript was published in 2005. Color Quality: We are working collaboratively with Yanyun Zhao and Chad Finn in evaluating the color quality of fresh and processed strawberries. Color and appearance are extremely important, as clients and consumers will only accept a product if the color is "right". We have organized a three-day Symposium, Color Quality of Fresh and Processed Foods, for the spring 2006 ACS meeting that will be published as an ACS monograph. There are 36 speakers covering a wide range of food commodities.

Publications

  • Lee, J., R.W.Durst and R.E. Wrolstad. 2005. Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: Collaborative Study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 88: 1269-1278.
  • Aaby, K., G. Skrede and R.E.Wrolstad. 2005. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities in flesh and achenes of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa). J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 4032-4040.
  • Wrolstad, R.E., T.E. Acree, E.A. Decker, M.H. Penner, D.S.eid, S.J. Schwartz, C.F. Shoemaker, D. Smith and P. Sporns. 2005. Handbook of Food Analytical Chemistry,Water, Proteins, Enzymes, Lipids, and Carbohydrates. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y.
  • Wrolstad, R.E. and R.W. Durst. 2006. Fruit Juice Authentication, What Have We Learned? Chp., pp, In Authentication of Food and Wine, ACS Symposium Series No., G. Takeoka & S.E. Ebeler (Ed.), American Chemical Society, Washington DC. In Press.
  • Wrolstad, R.E. 2005. Anthocyanins, Polyphenolics and Antioxidant Properties of Pacific Northwest Fruits, Abstract, Invited lecture in Berry Health Benefits Symposium, Corvallis, OR, June 13-14, 2005.
  • Wrolstad, R.E. 2005."Analysis of Anthocyanin Pigments. Abstract, Plenary Lecture at the 4 Colombian Congress on Chromatography, Bogota, Columbia, October 15, 2005.
  • Wrolstad, R.E., T.E. Acree, E.A. Decker, M.H. Penner, D.S.eid, S.J. Schwartz, C.F. Shoemaker, D. Smith and P. Sporns. 2005. Handbook of Food Analytical Chemistry, Pigments, Colorants, Flavors, Texture, and Bioactive Food Components. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
POTENTIAL NEW CROPS, COMPOSITION AND QUALITY: Anthocyanins and phenolics of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) were characterized and quantified by HPLC-DAD and ESMS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the major peak, with the additional minor peaks being cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-rutinoside. Four polyphenolics were identified as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and quercetin-3-glucoside. Total anthocyanins (n = 11) ranged from 116-593 mg/100g, total phenolics from 427-1140 mg GAE/100 g, hydroxycinnamates from 30.4 to 156.2 mg/100g, flavonols from 12.6 to 32.8 mg/100g, and ORAC from 21,840-10,370 micromol Trolox equivalents/g. The total anthocyanins and total phenolics of PNW wild and cultivated Huckleberry species were evaluated. Total anthocyanin content ranged from 101 to 400 mg/100g, and total phenolics from 367 to 1286 mg/100g. Significant variations were observed among the different V. membranaceum, V. ovalifolium, and V. deliciosum populations. The anthocyanin pigment profiles of wild V. membranaceum, wild V. ovalifolium, and V. corymbosum Rubel were determined. The chromatograms of V. membranaceum, V. ovalifolium, and Rubel were distinctly different in the amounts of delphinidin, cyanidin, and malvidin glycosides. Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) samples (n = 11) were analyzed with the following results: Total anthocyanins ranged from 12-44 mg/100g with a mean of 33; total phenolics ranged from 532-984 GAE mg/100g with a mean of 706; pH ranged from 3.52-3.67; TA ranged from 0.55-1.46 g citric acid/100 mL, mean of 0.87. ORAC ranged from 18-41 micromol Trolox eq/g, mean of 28. Anthocyanin pigment profiles were very similar with cyanidin-3-galactoside being the major pigment (70-85.5% of total peak area), and cyanidin-3-glucoside (4.4-16.7%) and cyanidin-3-arabinoside (1.7-12.9%) as secondary pigments. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) samples (n = 6) were analyzed with the following results: Total anthocyanin pigments ranged from 380-497 mg/100 g, mean of 430; total phenolics ranged from 159-183 mg GAE/100g. mean of 171; pH ranged from 3.51-3.67; TA ranged from 0.35-0.57 mg citric acid/100 mL, mean of 0.45; ORAC ranged from 30-183 micromol Trolox eq/g, mean of 88. Anthocyanin pigments showed similar profiles: cyanidin-3-galactoside (67.1-68.4 % of total peak area), cyanidin -3-arabinoside (23.6-24.9%), cyanidin-3-glucoside 2.6-3.0%), cyanidin -3-xyloside (2.9-3.4%). INFLUENCE OF VARIETY, GROWING REGION, WINERY AND AGING ON THE ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT COMPOSITION OF RED WINES. We are analyzing the anthocyanin pigment composition of 44 varietal pure commercial wines from California, Oregon and Washington. The major objective of this study to determine whether varietal origin of red wines can be determined from analysis of their anthocyanin pigments. In addition, we want to determine the influence of growing regions, winery, and aging on anthocyanin pigment composition. The anthocyanin profiles have been determined by HPLC, with peak identities confirmed by LC-MS. Data analysis is in progress.

Impacts
Food processors and nutritionist are interested in developing fruit and vegetable varieties that contain higher amounts of dietary antioxidants, in addition to other desirable quality attributes and horticultural properties. Working with plant breeders, we have analyzed the anthocyanin pigment, polyphenolic composition, and antioxidant properties of new selections of several fruits and vegetables. Some of the experimental blackberry selections were higher in total anthocyanins and total phenolics than the common commercial varieties showing the potential for obtaining new cultivars with high pigment/phenolic content through classical plant breeding. The development of potatoes with red and purple flesh pigmentation offers the possibility of new product line extensions, in addition to having potatoes with higher levels of dietary antioxidants. One Oregon-based company has purchased exclusive rights to a red-fleshed potato that is being used for potato chips that are burgundy-colored and also have high levels of dietary antioxidants. We are working collaboratively with horticulturists to evaluate plant materials that have potential for being new commercial crops in the Pacific Northwest. We have analyzed Pacific Northwest huckleberries that have been collected from the wild and grown in cultivated plots. The fruits are very rich in anthocyanin pigments and dietary antioxidants. Blue Honeysuckle was collected in Japan, Russia and China. Selections grown in Corvallis ripen early (May-June) and are very rich in anthocyanin pigments and dietary antioxidants.

Publications

  • LEE, J, C.E. FINN and R.E. WROLSTAD. 2004. Comparison of anthocyanin pigment and other phenolic compounds of Vaccinium membranaceum and V. Ovatum native to the Pacific Northwest of North America. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 7039-7044.
  • WROLSTAD, R. E. 2004. Anthocyanin Pigments, Bioactivity and Coloring Properties. In IUFoST Symposium 12: Interaction of Natural Colors with Other Ingredients. J. Food Sci. 69: C419-421.
  • SIRIWOHARN, T., R.E. WROLSTAD, C.E. FINN & C.B. PEREIRA. 2004. Influence of cultivar, maturity and sampling on blackberry (Rubus L. hybrids) anthocyanins, polyphenolics, and antioxidant properties. Accepted for publication in J. Agr. Food Chem.
  • FAN-CHIAN, H-J. and R.E. WROLSTAD. 2004. Anthocyanin pigment composition of blackberries. Accepted for publication in J. Food Sci.
  • WROLSTAD, R. E. 2004. Assessing berries health potential. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals. May 2004. pp 26-27.
  • WROLSTAD, R.E. 2004. Tracking color and pigment changes in anthocyanin products. In, Proceedings of 3rd International Congress Pigments in Food, more than colours, pp. 406-407. L. Dufosse (Ed.), Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Quimper, France.
  • CHAOVANALIKIT, A. and R.E. WROLSTAD. 2004. Anthocyanin and polyphenolic composition of fresh and processed cherries. J. Food Sci.69: FCT73-83.
  • SIRIWOHARN, T. and R.E. WROLSTAD. 2004. Polyphenolic composition of Marion and Evergreen blackberries. J. Food Sci. 69:FCT233-240.
  • SIRIWOHARN, R. E. WROLSTAD and C. B. PEREIRA. 2004. Poster Presentation 49E-14 Effect of cultivar and maturity change on blackberry polyphenolic composition and antioxidant properties. IFT Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, 7/12-16/04.
  • SIRIWOHARN, T., R. E. WROLSTAD and R. W. DURST. 2004. Poster presentation 49E-13 Impact of blackberry polyphenolics on juice quality, IFT Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, 7/12-16/04.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
BLACKBERRIES: Total anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant properties for 11 blackberry cultivars were determined. Total anthocyanins for the 11 cultivars ranged from 131-256 mg/100 g, total phenolics from 682-1056 mg GAE/100g and ORAC from 37.6-75.5 micro-mol TE/g. The influence of ripening on the polyphenolic composition of Evergreen and Marion blackberries was investigated with total anthocyanins increasing from 74.7 to 317 mg/100g from partial ripe to overripe for Marions, and from 69.9 to 164 for Evergreen. Total phenolics did not show marked change with maturity. Antioxidant activities did not show the marked incrase with ripening that anthocyanins exhibited. BLUEBERRIES: The anthocyanins and polyphenolics of wild and cultivated Pacific Northwest huckleberries were investigated. Total anthocyanins ranged from 101 to 400 mg/100g, and total phenolics from 367 to 1286 mg/100g. A comparison of cultivated V. membranaceum and V. ovatum showed that the smaller berry size of V. ovatum resulted in much higher anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant properties. CHERRIES: Anthocyanins, polyphenolics and antioxidant properties of 1 sour cherry and 3 sweet cherry cultivars were investigated. Bing cherries were highest in anthocyanins while Montmorency was highest in total phenolics and antioxidant properties. Total phenolics and anthocyanins were concentrated in the skin. Changes during frozen storage, canning and brining were monitored. Hydroxycinnamates were greatly affected by processing and storage while flavonol glycosides were quite stable. Half of the anthocyanins and polyphenolics were transferred to the syrup with canning, and nearly all were transferred to brine during brining. PEARS: The polyphenolic composition and antioxidant properties of the peel and flesh of 6 varieties of pears were analyzed. The flesh was very low in polyphenolics while the peels had high concentrations. Chlorogenic acid was the major polyphenolic in both peel and flesh for all cultivars. The effect of ripening on Starkrimson and Bartlett polyphenolics showed little quantitative difference between the two stages. Antioxidant properties had a high correlation with total phenolics. POTATOES: Total anthocyanins ranged from 6.9-35 mg/100g in red fleshed, and 5.5-17.1 mg/100g in purple fleshed breeding clones. Acylated glycosides of pelargonidin predominated in red-fleshed clones while acylated petunidin and pelargonidin-glycosides predominated in purple-fleshed clones. Antioxidant properties (ORAC and FRAP) were 2-3 times higher than white-fleshed potatoes. BLUE HONEYSUCKLE: Anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant properties of 10 blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) genotypes were analyzed, and the 6 anthocyanins identified. AOAC COLLABORATIVE STUDY: We conducted a collaborative study "Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants and wines by the pH differential method". Agreement between the 11 participating collaborators was excellent and we have recommended that the method be adopted Official First Action by AOAC.

Impacts
Food processors and nutritionist are interested in developing fruit and vegetable varieties that contain higher amounts of dietary antioxidants, in addition to other desirable quality attributes and horticultural properties. Working with plant breeders, we have analyzed the anthocyanin pigment, polyphenolic composition, and antioxidant properties of new selections of several fruits and vegetables. Some of the experimental blackberry selections were higher in total anthocyanins and total phenolics than the common commercial varieties showing the potential for obtaining new cultivars with high pigment/phenolic content through classical plant breeding. The development of potatoes with red and purple flesh pigmentation offers the possibility of new product line extensions, in addition to having potatoes with higher levels of dietary antioxidants. One Oregon-based company has purchased exclusive rights to a red-fleshed potato that is being used for potato chips that are burgundy-colored and also have high levels of dietary antioxidants. We are working collaboratively with horticulturists to evaluate plant materials that have potential for being new commercial crops in the Pacific Northwest. We have analyzed Pacific Northwest huckleberries that have been collected from the wild and grown in cultivated plots. The fruits are very rich in anthocyanin pigments and dietary antioxidants. Blue Honeysuckle was collected in Japan, Russia and China. Selections grown in Corvallis ripen early (May-June) and are very rich in anthocyanin pigments and dietary antioxidants.

Publications

  • LEE, J., C.E. FINN, and R.E. WROLSTAD. 2003. Anthocyanin pigment and total phenolic content of three Vaccinium species native to the Pacific Northwest of North America. Accepted for publication in HortScience.
  • CHAOVANLIKITh, A., M.M. THOMPSON and R.E. WROLSTAD. 2003. Characterization and quantification of anthocyanins and polyphenolics in Blue Honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) Accepted for publication in J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • WROLSTAD, R.E. 2003. "Chemistry and Analysis of Anthocyanin Pigments", In Symposium Chemistry and Analysis of Phytochemicals or Plant Bioactive Materials. Annual IFT meeting, Chicago, 2003.
  • DIMAURO, A., R.W. DURST & R. E. WROLSTAD. 2003. "Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant properties of pears". Poster 45F-19, Annual IFT meeting, Chicago, IL, 7/12 16/03.
  • LEE, J., R.W. DURST & R. E. WROLSTAD. 2003. "Extraction of anthocyanins and polyphenolics from blueberry processing waste", Poster 104B-16, Annual IFT meeting, chicago, IL, 7/12-16/03.
  • WROLSTAD, R.E. 2003. "Anthocyanins-Bioactivity and Coloring Properties", In Symposium on Natural Colorants, 12th World Congress of Food Science and Technology, Chicago, IL, 7/16-20/03.
  • LEE, J, R.W. DURST & R.E. WROLSTAD.2003. Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content by the pH differential method of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants and wines; collaborative Study. Poster presentation at AOAC annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 9/14-18/03.
  • GIUSTI, M.M.. and R. E. WROLSTAD. 2003. Acylated anthocyanins from edible sources and their applications in food systems. Biochemical Engineering Journal 14: 217-225.
  • BRAUSE, A.R., D.C. WOOLARD, H.E. INDYK, J. ACAR, K. ADADEVOH, G. CHERIX, B. Durst, T. EISELE, E. ELKINS, J. FOOS, S. HAMMACK, D. HAMMOND, F. HESFORD, C. HISCHENUBERi, V. HON, C.J. HUANG, S. KIRSKEY, L. Kline, D. KRUGER, M.J. LAWSON, A. LEA, G. MARTIN, A.PARKIH, J. WEISS, E. WILHELMSEN, B. WOODWARD, R. WROLSTAD. L. ZYGMUNT. 2003. Determination of total vitamin C in fruit juices and related products by liquid chromatography: Interlaboratory study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 86: 367-374.
  • BROWN, C.R., R.E. WROLSTAD, R. DURST, C.-P. YANG, and B. CLEVIDENCE. 2003. Breeding studies in potatoes containing high concentrations of anthocyanins. Amer. J. Potato Res. 80: 241-249.
  • CHAOVANALIKIT, A. and R.E. WROLSTAD. 2003. Total anthocyanins and total phenolics of fresh and processed cherries and their antioxidant properties. Accepted for publication in J. Food Sci.


Progress 04/01/97 to 03/31/02

Outputs
This project has emphasized the anthocyanin pigment and polyphenolic composition of fruits and vegetables as impacted by cultivar, processing and post-harvest storage. Antioxidant properties are of particular interest because of their possible relationship to health benefits. Utilization of juice processing wastes as sources for nutraceuticals and natural colorants is given attention, as is color quality of juices and concentrates. Natural colorants with superior properties of hue and stability were developed from radishes and red-fleshed potatoes. Potatoes- We have determined the anthocyanin pigment composition and antioxidant activities of several potato cultivars. Potato chips made from these selections have attractive colors, high anthocyanin content, and high antioxidant activities. Blueberries- Total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacities for 30 Vaccinium, 37 Rubus, and 40 Ribes genotypes were determined. Processing wastes from blueberry juice manufacture are a good source for natural colorants and nutraceuticals, being high in anthocyanin pigments, polyphenolics, and antioxidant activity. Since the bioactive compounds are concentrated in the skins, extracting the skins can give a rich colorant/nutraceutical preparation. Recovery of anthocyanins from blueberry skins can be increased by 40 percent with enzyme treatment. Blackberries- Blackberries seeds account for 5 percent of berry weight and are rich in ellagic acid derivatives and are also high in antioxidant activity. Cyanidin-3-dioxalyl-glucoside was identified as a novel zwitterionic anthocyanin pigment in blackberries. Apples-Total phenolics, total anthocyanins and antioxidant properties of Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Fuji apples were determined. Antioxidant activity is primarily in the aqueous fraction and believed to be due to polyphenolics. Red Delicious is highest in total phenolics and antioxidant levels, Granny Smith next, and Fuji lowest. Apple extracts and apple polyphenolics added to human plasma significantly protected endogenous antioxidants from oxidation and prevented lipid hydroperoxide formation. Pears- The antioxidant activities and polyphenolics in peel and flesh of the following cultivars were determined: Bartlett, Star crimson, Anjou, Red Anjou, Bosc and Comice. Cherries-Total anthocyanin pigments, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities for extracts of peel, flesh and pits of Bing, Royal Anne, Ranier and Montmorency cherries were determined. Total phenolics has a high correlation with antioxidant activities. Bing cherries showed substantial anthocyanin pigment degradation during frozen storage. Antioxidant levels were high in canned cherries, but 50 percent of the total phenolics and antioxidant activity is transferred from the fruit to the syrup. Anthocyanin Pigment Properties- The color and antioxidant properties of several purified cyanidin-based anthocyanin pigments were determined. The number of sugar residues, position of glycosidic substitution and acylation with cinnamic acids had a marked effect on color properties, visual detection thresholds, hydration constants and in vitro antioxidant activities.

Impacts
This project has provided plant breeders, food processors and nutritionists with information that should have a positive impact on human nutrition and health. Anthocyanin pigments and polyphenolics are natural antioxidants, which are believed to play a major role in the health benefits provided by fruits and vegetables. We identified and measured the concentrations of these compounds in apples, cherries, blueberries, blackberries and potatoes, and also measured their antioxidant activities. We also investigated the effects of variety, processing and post-harvest storage on these compounds. We have developed natural colorants from radishes and red-fleshed potatoes that exhibit superior color and stability properties.

Publications

  • STINTZING,F.D., STINTZING, A.S., CARLE, R., WROLSTAD, R.E.2002. A novel zwitterionic anthocyanin from Evergreen blackberry (Rubus laciniatus Willd.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 396-399.
  • GARZON, G.A., WROLSTAD, R.E. 2002. Comparison of the stability of pelargonidin-based anthocyanins in strawberry juice and concentrate. J. Food Sci. 67: 1288-1299.
  • STINTZING, F.C., STINTZING, A.S., CARLE, R., FREI, B., WROLSTAD, R.E. 2002. Color and antioxidant properties of cyanidin-based anthocyanin pigments. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 6172-6181.
  • MOYER, R., HUMMER, K., WROLSTAD, R.E., FINN, C. 2002. Antioxidant compounds in diverse Rubus and Ribes germplasm. Acta Horticulturae. 585(2) 501-505.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Research in year 2001 emphasized anthocyanin pigment and polyphenolic composition of fruits and vegetables as impacted by cultivar, processing and post-harvest storage. Commodities investigated included apples, cherries, blueberries, blackberries, carrots and potatoes. Antioxidant properties are of particular interest because of their possible relationship to health benefits. Utilization of juice processing wastes as sources for nutraceuticals and natural colorants is given attention, as is color quality of juices and concentrates. KEYFINDINGS: 1) Monitored changes in anthocyanins and polyphenolics during processing of blueberries into juice and concentrate. Press-cake residue contains 42-55 percent of fresh fruit anthocyanins and 16-20 percent of polyphenolics. 2) Determined the polyphenolic composition of Evergreen and Marion Blackberries. Marionberries are higher than Evergreen in total anthocyanins and total phenolics while Evergreen are higher in total flavonols, ellagic acid forms and epicatechin. Seeds account for 5 percent of fruit weight and are rich in ellagic acid derivatives. 3) Identified a novel zwitterionic anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-dioxalyl-glucoside, as a minor pigment in blackberries. 4) Determined the total anthocyanin pigments, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities for extracts of peel, flesh and pits for Bing, Royal Anne, Ranier and Montmorency cherries. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activities are highest in the skin. Bing and Montmorency are highest in anthocyanin. Montmorency is highest in total phenolics, with Royal Anne being slightly higher than Bing. Ranier is lowest. Total phenolics has a high correlation with antioxidant activities as measured by ORAC and FRAP. 5) Determined the color and antioxidant properties of several purified cyanidin-based anthocyanin pigments. The number of sugar residues, position of glycosidic substitution and acylation of sugar residues with cinnamic acids had a marked effect on color properties, visual detection thresholds, hydration constants and in vitro antioxidant activities. Mixtures of anthocyanins had a synergistic effect on antioxidant activity. 6) Determined the total phenolics, total anthocyanins and antioxidant properties of Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Fuji apples. Antioxidant activity is primarily in the aqueous fraction and believed to be due to polyphenolics. Red Delicious is highest in total phenolics and antioxidant levels, Granny Smith next, and Fuji lowest. ORAC values are higher in peel than flesh. Red Delicious peel has the highest ORAC value, presumably because of anthocyanin pigment content. There is no significant difference in ORAC between MCP-treated and control samples.7) Determined total anthocyanins, total phenolics, HPLC anthocyanin pigment profiles, and antioxidant activities of several potato cultivars. PATENTS: Wrolstad, R. E. & L. E. Rodriguez-Saona. Natural colorant from potato extract. Patent No. US 6,180,154 B1, Jan. 30, 2001.Wrolstad, R. E. & Ling Wen. Natural antibrowning and antioxidant compositions and method for making the same. Patent No.: US 6,224,926 B1; May 1, 2001.

Impacts
Project 422 provided information to plant breeders, food processors and nutritionists, which should have a positive impact on human nutrition and health. Anthocyanin pigments and polyphenolics are natural antioxidants, which are believed to play a major role in the health benefits provided by fruits and vegetables. We identified and measured the concentrations of these compounds in several fruits and vegetables, and also measured their antioxidant activities. We also investigated the effects of variety, processing and post-harvest storage on these properties.

Publications

  • Price, C. L. and R. E. Wrolstad. 1995. Anthocyanin pigments of Royal Okanogan huckleberry juice. J. Food Sci. 60: 369-374.
  • Giusti, M. M., L. E. Rodriguez-Saona and R. E. Wrolstad. 1999. Molar absorptivity and color characteristics of acylated and nonacylated pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 4631-4637. Giusti, M. M., L. E. Rodriguez-Saona, D. A. Griffin, and R. E. Wrolstad. 1999. Electrospray and tandem mass spectroscopy as tools for anthocyanin characterization. J. Agric. Food Chem.47: 4657-4664.
  • Dong, X., R. E. Wrolstad and D. Sugar. 2000. Extending shelf life of fresh-cut pears. J. Food Sci. 65: 181-186.
  • Screed, G., R. E. Wrolstad and R. W. Durst. 2000. Changes in anthocyanins and polyphenolics during juice processing of highbush blueberries. J. Food Sci. 65: 357-364.
  • Karadeniz, F., R. W. Durst and R. E. Wrolstad. 2000. Polyphenolic composition of raisins. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 5343-5350.
  • Rodriguez-Saona, L. E., M. M. Giusti, R. W. Durst and R. E. Wrolstad. 2001. Development and process optimization of red radish concentrate extract as potential natural red colorant. J. Food Processing Preservation 25: 165-182.
  • Pazmino-Duran, E. A., M. M.Giusti, R. E. Wrolstad and M. B. A. Gloria. 2001. Anthocyanins from banana bracts as potential food colorants. Food Chemistry 73: 327-332.
  • Garzon, G. A. and R. E. Wrolstad. 2001. The stability of pelargonidin-based anthocyanins at varying water activity. Food Chemistry. 75: 185-196.
  • Pazmino-Duran, E. A., M. M.Giusti, R. E. Wrolstad and M. B. A. Gloria. 2001. Anthocyanins from Oxalis trangularis as potential food colorants. Food Chemistry 75: 211-216.
  • Stintzing, F. C., A. S. Stintzing, R. Carle and R. E. Wrolstad. 2001. A novel zwitterionic anthocyanin from Evergreen blackberry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 396-399.
  • Moyer, R. A., K. E. Hummer, C. E. Finn, B. Frei, and R. E. Wrolstad. 2001. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: Vaccinium, Rubus and Ribes. Accepted for publication in J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • Durst, R. W., R. E. Wrolstad and D. A. Krueger. 1995. Sugar, nonvolatile acid, 13C/12C ratio, and mineral analyses for determination of the authenticity and quality of red raspberry juice composition. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 78:1195-1204.
  • Wightman, J. D. and R. E. Wrolstad. 1995. Anthocyanin analysis as a measure of glycosidase activity in enzymes for juice processing. J. Food Sci. 60: 862-867.
  • Dussi, M. C., D. Sugar and R. E. Wrolstad. 1995. Characterizing and quantifying anthocyanins in red pears and the effect of light quality on fruit color. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 120: 785-789.
  • Giusti, M. M.and R. E. Wrolstad. 1996. Characterization of radish anthocyanins. J. Food Sci. 61: 322-326.
  • Wightman, J. D. and R. E. Wrolstad. 1996. Beta-glucosidase activity in juice-processing enzymes based on anthocyanin analysis. J. Food Sci. 61: 544-547, 552.
  • Giusti, M. M.and R. E. Wrolstad. 1996. Radish anthocyanin extract as a natural red colorant for maraschino cherries. J. Food Sci. 61: 688-694.
  • Simandjuntak, V., D. M. Barrett and R.E. Wrolstad. 1996. Cultivar and maturity effects on muskmelon colour, texture and cell wall polysaccharide composition. J. Sci. Food Agric. 71: 282-290.
  • Simandjuntak, V., D. M. Barrett and R. E. Wrolstad. 1996. Cultivar and frozen storage effects on muskmelon colour, texture and cell wall polysaccharide composition. J. Sci. Food Agric. 71: 291-296.
  • Wightman, J. D., S. F. Price, B. T. Watson and R. E. Wrolstad. 1997. Some effects of processing enzymes on anthocyanins and phenolics in Pinot noir and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 48: 39-48.
  • Rodriguez-Saona, L. E. and R. E. Wrolstad. 1997. Influence of potato composition on chip color quality. Am. Potato J. 74: 87-106.
  • Rodriguez-Saona, L. E., R. E. Wrolstad and C. Pereira. 1997. Modeling the contribution of sugars, ascorbic acid, chlorogenic acid and amino acids to non-enzymic browning of potato chips. J. Food Sci. 62: 1001-1005, 1010.
  • Giusti, M. M., L. E. Rodriguez-Saona, J. R. Baggett, G. L. Reed, R. W. Durst and R. E. Wrolstad. 1998. Anthocyanin pigment composition of red radish cultivars as potential food colorants. J. Food Sci. 63: 219-224.
  • Rodriguez-Saona, L. E., M. M. Giusti and R. E. Wrolstad. 1998. Anthocyanin pigment composition of red-fleshed potatoes. J. Food Sci. 63: 458-465.
  • Giusti, M. M., H. Ghanadan and R. E. Wrolstad. 1998. Elucidation of the structure and conformation of red radish anthocyanins using one and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 4858 4863.
  • Rodriguez-Saona, L. E., R. E. Wrolstad and C. Pereira. 1999. Glycoalkaloid content and anthocyanin stability to alkaline treatment of red-fleshed potato extracts. J. Food Sci. 64: 445-450.
  • Rodriguez-Saona, L. E., M. M. Giusti and R. E. Wrolstad. 1999. Color and pigment stability of red radish and red-fleshed potato anthocyanins in juice model systems. J. Food Sci. 64: 451-456.
  • Wen, L., R. E. Wrolstad and V. L. Hsu. 1999. Characterization of sinapyl derivatives in pineapple juice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (3): 850-853.
  • Ordaz-Galindo, A., P. Wesche-Ebeling, R. E. Wrolstad, L. Rodriguez-Saona, and A. Argaiz-Jamet. 1999. Purification and identification of Capulin anthocyanins. Food Chemistry 65: 201-206.
  • Garzon, G. A. and R. E. Wrolstad. 2002. Comparison of the stability of pelargonidin based anthocyanins in strawberry juice and concentrate. Accepted for publication in J. Food Sci.
  • Wen, L. and R. E. Wrolstad. 2002. Phenolic composition of authentic pineapple juice. Accepted for publication in J. Food Sci.
  • Lee, J., R. W. Durst and R. E. Wrolstad. 2002. Impact of juice processing on blueberry anthocyanins and polyphenolics: Comparison of two pre-treatments. Accepted for publication in J. Food Sci.
  • Galeb, A. D. S., R. E. Wrolstad and M. R. McDaniel. 2002. Composition and quality of clarified cantaloupe juice concentrate. Accepted for publication in J. Food Processing and Preservation. 26:
  • Wrolstad, R. E., V. Hong, M. J. Boyles, and R. W. Durst. 1995. Use of Anthocyanin Pigment Analyses for Detecting Adulteration in Fruit Juices, Chp. 16In, "Methods to Detect Adulteration of Fruit Juice Beverages, ", S. Nagy and R. L. Wade (Ed.), AgScience Inc., Auburndale, FL.
  • Wrolstad, R. E. 2000. Colorants, Chp. 14, pp 215-239, in Food Chemistry: Principles and Applications. G. L. Christen & J. S. Smith, (Ed.), Science Technology System (STS), West Sacramento. CA.
  • Wrolstad, R. E. 2000. "Anthocyanins", Chp.11, pp 237-252, In, Natural Food Colorants. F. J. Francis and G. J. Lauro (Ed.). Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY.
  • Wrolstad, R. E., M. M. Giusti, and L. E. Rodriguez-Saona. 2000. "Anthocyanins from Radishes and Red-fleshed Potatoes", Chp. 5, In Chemistry and Physiology of Selected Food Colorants. J. M. Ames and T. Hofmann (Ed.). ACS Symposium Series 775, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C.
  • Rodriguez-Saona, L. E. and R. E. Wrolstad, R. E. 2001. Unit F.1.1.1-11: Anthocyanins. Extraction, Isolation and Purification of Anthocyanins. In Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. R. E. Wrolstad (Ed.). John Wiley & Sons, NY.
  • Giusti, M. M. and Wrolstad, R. E. 2001. Unit F1.2.1-13. Anthocyanins. Characterization and Measurement with UV-Visible Spectroscopy. In, Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. R. E. Wrolstad (Ed). John Wiley & Sons, NY.
  • Durst, R. W. and Wrolstad, R. E. 2001. Unit F1.3.1-13: Separation and Characterization of Anthocyanins by HPLC. In Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. R. E. Wrolstad (Ed.). John Wiley & Sons, NY.
  • Wrolstad, R. E., R. W. Durst, M. Monica Giusti and L. E. Rodriguez-Saona. 2001." Analysis of Anthocyanins in Nutraceuticals", In Quality Management of Nutraceuticals. American Chemical Society, Washington DC, In press.
  • Skrede, G. And R. E. Wrolstad. 2002. "Flavonoids from Berries and Grapes", Chp. 3, In Functional Foods, Vol. 2. G. J. Mazza, J. Shi & M. Le Maguer (Ed), Technomic Co., Inc., Lancaster, PA. In press.
  • Wrolstad, R. E. 2002. Maraschino Cherry, Chp. 5 in Food Chemistry: Principles and Applications. A Workbook . G. L. Christen and J. S. Smith, (Ed.), AFNC Press, Cutten, CA. In press.


Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

Outputs
ORE00422 GLYCOSIDASE ACTIVITY OF COMMERCIAL JUICE PROCESSING ENZYMES: Anthocyanin analyses were used to measure beta-glucosidase activity of commercial enzymes. Beta-glucosidase activity was much lower in 26 commercial enzyme preparations than beta-galactosidase. Pinot noir and Cabernet savignon wines were made using 4 enzyme preparations. Anthocyanin degradation occurred with two preparations; significant changes in other phenolics occurred. NATURAL COLORANTS: Pigment stability of maraschino cherries colored with radish anthocyanin extract was measured during 12 months storage. Anthocyanin degradation followed first order kinetics; half-life = 30 weeks. Color was very similar to cherries dyed with FDC Red No. 40 for up to 6 months. ANTHOCYANIN DEGRADATION IN PROCESSED STRAWBERRIES: Color stability of strawberry juice samples fortified with purified anthocyanin pigments was determined. Fortification with major pigment of radish provided the greatest pigment stability. POTATO COMPOSITION & COLOR QUALITY: Sugar, phenolic, ascorbic and amino acid composition of 4 potato cultivars were measured along with color of potato chips. Fructose, ascorbic acid, glutamine and an unidentified phenolic acid showed high association with potato chip color, while sucrose, chlorogenic acid and asparagine showed poor correlation. APPLE PHENOLICS: Phenolic profiles (HPLC) and browning potential (tristimulus colorimetry) were determined for apple cultivars (n = 25). Different cultivars show characteristic phenolic pr.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • WROLSTAD, R.E., HONG, V., BOYLES, M. J., and DURST, R.W. 1995. Use of AnthocyaninPigment Analyses for Detecting Adulteration in Fruit Juices, Chp. 16, pp 160- 286. In "Methods to Detect Adulteration of Fruit Juice Beverages, Vol. I." S. Nag WROLSTAD, R.
  • E., WIGHTMAN, J.D. and DURST, R.W. 1994. Glycosidase activity of enzyme preparations used in fruit juice processing. Food Technol. 48:90, 92-94, 96, 98.
  • PRICE, C.L. and WROLSTAD, R.E. 1995. Anthocyanin pigments of Royal Okanogan huckleberry juice. J. Food Sci. 60: 369-374.
  • DURST, R. W., WROLSTAD, R.E. and KRUEGER, D.A. 1995. Red raspberry juice composition. Accepted for publication in J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem.
  • WIGHTMAN, J.D. and WROLSTAD, R.E. 1995. Anthocyanin pigment analysis as a measure of glycosidase activity in enzymes for juice processing. Accepted for publication in J. Food Sci. 60: .
  • DUSSI, M. C., SUGAR, D. and WROLSTAD, R.E. 1995. Characterization and quantification of anthocyanins in red pears and the effect of light quality on fruit color. Accepted for publication in J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
  • GIUSTI-HUNDSKOPF, M.M. 1995. Radish anthocyanin extract as a natural red colorant for maraschino cherries. M.S. Thesis. Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR. 113p.


Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

Outputs
GLYCOSIDASE ACTIVITY OF COMMERCIAL JUICE PROCESSING ENZYMES: Screening methods developed in our laboratory showed that 21 out of 28 commercial enzyme preparations for fruit juice processing contained (beta)-galactosidase activity. Pilot plant experiments were conducted using two enzyme preparations to determine if anthocyanin pigments were destroyed by the enzymes during cranberry juice processing. Significant losses of cyanidin-3-(beta)-galactoside occurred. APPLE JUICE PHENOLICS: The phenolic composition of the NFPA '93 authentic apple juice samples were analyzed by HPLC. Samples were qualitatively similar, but showed wide differences in quantitative amounts. Concentrations were in the order as measured in the '92 NFPA sample set. Arbutin was detected in 13 of the 26 samples. NATURAL COLORANTS FOR BRINED CHERRIES: Anthocyanin pigments from radish peels were extracted, purified, and characterized by HPLC / UV-visible spectra. The major pigment is pelargonidin-3-sophoroside-5-glucoside acylated with p-coumaric and/or caffeic acids. Concentration is 150 mg/100 g. Brined cherries were processed into maraschino cherries, using radish extract as a colorant. Color was very similar to cherries colored with FDC Red No. 40.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

    Outputs
    GLYCOSIDASE ACTIVITY OF COMMERCIAL JUICE PROCESSING ENZYMES: Methods have been developed for measuring the anthocyanin pigment degradative activity of enzymes. Twenty-eight commercial enzyme preparations were screened with 21 of the preparations exhibiting (beta)-galactosidase activity (from 10-98% destruction of cyanidin-3-galactoside). None of the preparations exhibited arabinosidase activity. The methods permit the selection of enzymes which will optimize color quality of cranberry juice. APPLE JUICE PHENOLICS: Concentrations of phenolics (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, catechin, epicatechin, two procyanidins, phloridzin, rutin and hydroxymethylfurfural) have been determined in 34 authentic apple juice samples. This data will become part of the authentic apple juice database being developed by NFPA and FDA. CANTALOUPE JUICE PROCESSING: Cantaloupe juice has been concentrated into clarified and pulpy juice concentrates using ion-exchange and direct osmotic concentration technologies. Composition and sensory quality are being evaluated. Cation exchange treatment reduces browning and prevents haze/sediment formation.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

      Outputs
      RED RASPBERRY JUICE COMPOSITION: Pilot-plant processed juices (n = 46) were analyzed, sample differences including cultivar, processing method, maturity, geographic origin, mold contamination and harvesting method. The mean Brix (9.95 degree) is lower than the proposed USA standard (10.5 degree). Sorbitol is present in many samples at levels < 0.5% of total sugars. Sucrose levels are highly variable. Total anthocyanin pigment ranged from 4-1102 mg/L with a mean of 399. RED RASPBERRY ANTHOCYANIN PROFILES: Cultivars exhibit characteristic patterns distinguished by quantitative rather than qualitative differences. The profile can be altered by processing (enzymic changes) or storage conditions (partial hydrolysis). The HPLC analytical method was effective in detecting adulteration in 2 of 9 commercial concentrates. RED RASPBERRY PHENOLIC PROFILES: Phenolics were characterized and measured by HPLC/diode array techniques. While all samples were similar qualitatively, they were quantitatively highly variable with respect to cultivar, maturity, mold and processing methodology. Mean total concentrations of flavonols and ellagic acid were 122 ppm and 28 ppm, respectively. Levels of quercetin and ellagic acid are of particular interest because of their possible beneficial role as anti-carcinogens.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

        Outputs
        RED RASPBERRY JUICE COMPOSITION: Red raspberries were processed into juice for purposes of generating a compositional data base (n = 36) which incorporates the influences of variety, maturity, processing, mold contamination and geographical origin. Analysis of sugars, nonvolatile acids, anthocyanin pigments and phenolics are in progress. Methodology has been developed for analysis of the flavonoids. Ellagic acid which has been reported to have anticarcinogenic activity has been identified in red raspberry juice. Presence of substantial quantities of delphinidin glycosides in one commercial sample was evidence for adulteration. ROYAL OKANOGAN HUCKLEBERRY (ROH) JUICE: A number of acylated anthocyanin pigments have been identified in ROH juice, petunidin-3, 5-diglucoside acylated with p-coumaric acid being the major pigment. Acylation accounts for the intense purple color at pH 4.8. Pigment composition indicates that the fruit is the Garden Huckleberry (Solanum guineese) rather than a Vaccinium species. CANTALOUPE JUICE CONCENTRATE: Clarified juice concentrate was produced from fresh and frozen fruits with and without rind. High yield and low acidity suggest its potential use as an alternative sweetener. Considerable ascorbic acid degradation occurred during processing. Juice concentrates showed very high nonenzymic browning rates during storage at 25(degree)C.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

          Outputs
          CANTALOUPE JUICE: Juice concentrate was processed from fresh and frozen cantaloupe fruits, with and without rind. High juice yield (90%) and low acidity suggest its potential use as an alternate sweetener source. Compositional measurements in progress include sugar and nonvolatile acid profiles, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and browning indices. Considerable ascorbic acid degradation occurs during processing. AMINO ACID DEGRADATION IN APPLE JUICE CONCENTRATES DURING STORAGE. HPLC analysis of apple juice concentrate stored for 9 months at 25C revealed significant losses of aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine. Nonenzymic browning reactions are believed to account for much of these losses. RED RASPBERRY JUICE COMPOSITION: HPLC separation of red raspberry juice flavonoids has been achieved and peak identification is in progress. Compositional analysis of 25 authentic juice samples will include flavonoids, anthocyanin pigments, sugars and nonvolatile acids. Characterization of red raspberry anthocyanin pigments in commercial concentrates is in progress. ROYAL OKANOGAN HUCKLEBERRY JUICE: Juice processed from Royal Okanogan Huckleberries had an intense purple color, high titratable acidity (0.79%) and high pH (4.8). Characterization of the anthocyanin pigments is in progress.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

            Outputs
            APPLE, PEAR AND WHITE GRAPE PHENOLICS: The flavonoids and cinnamates of apple, pear and white grape juice were characterized using HPLC-diode array detection and their changes during processing and storage measured. SO(subscript 2) addition protected cinnamates and procyanidins from oxidation, and blanching also had a protective effect on phenolics. Juice concentrate storage resulted in total loss of procyanidins and significant losses of cinnamates (c.a. 36%) and flavonoids (c.a. 50%). BROWNING OF JUICE CONCENTRATES DURING STORAGE: Apple, pear and grape juice concentrate exhibited zero order browning rate constants during storage at 25(degree)C. Initial browning values were not predictive of the final values or the browning rates. The formol values of juices proved to be a useful predictor of browning rates. CRANBERRY SUGAR, NONVOLATILE ACID AND ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT PROFILES: The composition of Vaccinium macrocarpon, V. oxycoccus and V. vitis-idae were compared. While these fruits showed different patterns, the differences in the sugars, acid and pigment profiles were quantitative rather than qualitative.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

              Outputs
              APPLE, PEAR, AND WHITE GRAPE JUICE CONCENTRATE: Compositional analyses (sugars,nonvolatile acids, phenolic, Brix, titratable acidity, pH, formol values, browning, haze) have been completed for 16 samples of OSU processed juices. Influences of fruit maturity and prolonged post-harvest storage on juice composition were examined as well as fining and SO(2) treatment. HPLC-diode array detection methodology was developed to measure the changes in phenolic and procyanidin profiles. CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANIN-CONTAINING COLORANTS: Analytical methods exploiting HPLC/photodiode array detection were developed and used to characterize the anthocyanin profiles of 16 commercial fruit juices and colorants. Included were black currant, blackberry, black raspberry, elderberry, cherry, plum, grape, bilberry, cranberry, roselle and strawberry products. RED RASPBERRY JUICE CONCENTRATE: Anthocyanin pigment, nonvolatile acid and sugar profiles were determined for 22 commercial samples of red raspberry juice concentrates. Sorbitol, isocitrate, malate, and cyanidin-3-glucoside levels indicated several samples were adulterated.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                Outputs
                CRANBERRY JUICE COMPOSITION: Juice was processed from 20 lots of authentic cranberries and the following analyses performed: pH, titratable acidity, Brix, sugar profile, nonvolatile acid profile, anthocyanidin-anthocyanin pigment profile, anthocyanin pigment content, and color parameters. An HPLC system for analysis of anthocyanin pigments was developed which permitted quantitation of 6 anthocyanins and the tentative identification of 5 minor pigments. The results extend the base-line data for authentic cranberry juice and provide improved analytical methodology for detecting adulteration. APPLE JUICE COMPOSITION: Pattern recognition methods were able to classify authentic apple juice by variety and geographical origin from their glucose: fructose ratios and sucrose and sorbitol content. Pattern recognition based on sugar profiles was able to discriminate between potential adulterants and able to detect adulteration of apple juice at the 40% level. CHARACTERIZATION OF COLORANTS: Analysis of grapeskin extract, elderberry extract, black currant, red cabbage, blackberry, and black raspberry juices are underway to provide indices for their detection in juices and beverages. Methods include HPLC determination of anthocyanidin and anthocyanin pigments in combination withspectral analysis.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                  Outputs
                  RED RASPBERRY JUICE COMPOSITION: Juice and concentrate were processed from 8 authentic berry samples. Sugar, nonvolatile acid, and pigment profiles were determined. HPLC methodology allowed the separation, identification, and quantitation of the major anthocyanin pigments. The distinctive pigment profile facilitates detection of added colorants. APPLE COMPOSITION: Commercial apple juice concentrate samples shipped from Argentina to the USA showed an increase in browning index and hydroxymethylfurfural content; there was no evidence for sucrose inversion or fumaric acid formation during shipping. Sugar, acid, and spectral profiles of the following potential apple juice adulterants were determined: invert beet sugar, corn syrup, malic acid, pear, pineapple, grape, raisin, fig, and plus juice concentrates. Pattern recognition multi-variate analysis is being applied to apple juice spiked with the adulterants to levels of 10, 20, and 40%. STRAWBERRY CELL-WALL POLYSACCHARIDES: The compositional, sensory, and physical properties of fresh and frozen strawberries (Benton, Totem, and selva varieties) were compared. Selva had the highest percentage of acetone-insoluble solids, total pectin, and high molecular-weight polymers and its firmness was rated 2X and 1.3X that of Benton and Totem, respectively.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                    Outputs
                    CRANBERRY JUICE COMPOSITION & DETECTION OF ADULTERATION IN COMMERCIAL CRANBERRY DRINK & CONCENTRATE--Cranberries were processed into juice and concentrate and the non-volatile acid, sugar, and anthocyanidin profiles determined by HPLC. Anthocyanin pigement concentration and Hunter color parameters were also determined. Analysis of 22 commercial samples showed 13 to be adulterated with added citric and/or malic acid and a natural colorant believed to be grape-skin extract. APPLE JUICE COMPOSITION--Sugar, non-volatile acid, phenolic and u.v.-visible spectrophotometric profiles were determined for apple juice prepared from 8 authentic samples of USA and international origin. The sugar and acid composition agreed with values previously reported but there was evidence for reduced sucrose and sorbitol content as result of postharvest storage. Substantial quantities of quinic acid was found in most samples. Processing (particularly gelatin fining) had a major influence on the phenolic profile. RED RASPBERRY JUICE COMPOSITION--Juice and concentrate was produced from the major varieties grown in the Pacific Northwest. HPLC is being used for determining the sugar, non-volatile acid and anthocyanidin profiles. VARIETY & MATURITY INFLUENCE ON STRAWBERRY PECTIC SUBSTANCES-Extraction and fractionation procedures have been developed for characterizing the water soluble, chelator soluble, and insoluble fractions.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                      Outputs
                      APPLE JUICE COMPOSITION--Juice was processed from authentic apple samples. Compositional analyses included PGDTC/PGyC ratios, u.v.-visible spectra and non-volatile acids. The DEL PGDTC was considerably lower for the acid fraction (-27.6) than for the sugars (-23.2); there were no distinct differences for DEL PGDTC values that could be attributed to variety or geographic origin. There was considerable variation in quinic acid content; shikimic acid was identified in minor amounts. CRANBERRY JUICE COMPOSITION.--The following analyses were carried out on commercial cranberry concentrates and drinks: u.s.-visible spectra, anthocyanin content, nonvolatile acids by HPLC, and anthocyanidins by HPLC. The latter method shows promise for detection of grape-skin extract as an adulterant. SAPONINS IN FRUITS--Blackberry, strawberry and plum fruit extracts were tested for their ability to form a stable foam, induce hemolysis of erythrocytes, and produce colors characteristic of triterpenes or sterols. There is strong evidence for presence of saponins in blackberries. Strawberries contain compounds which will produce a stable foam, but the presence of saponins is not substantiated. There is no evidence for saponins in plum fruit. INFLUENCE OF MOLD CONTAMINATION AND ULTRAFILTRATION ON COLOR STABILITY OF STRAWBERRY JUICE 7 CONCENTRATE--Juices made from moldy strawberries were clarified by conventional filtration and ultrafiltration and processed into concentrates.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                        Outputs
                        STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF APPLE COMPONENTS--Apple juice and concentrate was processed in our pilot plant and 1 3/C 1 2/C analyses were performed on the following fractions: whole apple pulp, apple juice, apple seeds, apple sugars, and apple non-volatile acids. The del 1 3/C of the acid fraction is considerably higher than the sugars; thus variation in total acidity may account for del 1 3/C variation among different apple samples. STRAWBERRY WINE COLOR--Color and composition of strawberry wines made from ripe, overripe, and mold-contaminated fruit (Benton and Totem varieties) were monitored during storage. Overripe fruit with its higher anthocyanin and total phenolics gave wines with better color. Totem fruit had higher anthocyanin, lower polyphenoloxidase activity and lower total phenolics and produced wines with better color. Mold contamination increased juice viscosity, reduced fermentation rate, and accelerated color degradation. Anthocyanin content and Hunter L values of wines were highly correlated with panel color evaluations. SAPONINS IN FRUITS--Blackberries, strawberries and plums were analyzed for saponins. Use of PVPP was effective in removing phenolics which interfere with detection and chromatography of saponins. Both blackberries and strawberries contain saponins; evidence for their presence is based on reactivity with diagnostic reagents and foaming and hemolytic activity.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                          Outputs
                          The sugar and non-volatile acid composition of strawberries as related to maturity have been compared utilizing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and enzymic procedures. Sucrose and malic acid decreased greatly in overripe fruit. Good agreement was obtained for the different methods, HPLC offering the advantages of speed and versatility. Percent sorbitol content was found to be a useful index for detecting sucrose addition in frozen cherries and juice concentrates derived from the sugar-packed fruit. Native invertase caused sucrose inversion in all samples. Work was initiated on the influence of maturity and mold contamination on the color quality of strawberry wine. Compositional analyses of ripe and overripe fruit (Benton and Totem varieties) included: anthocyanin pigment, leucoanthocyanins, flavanols, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, polyphenol oxidase, and Beta-glucosidase. Wines will be made from the fruit and the color quality evaluated. Evaluations will also be made on wines derived from mold-contaminated fruit.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                            Outputs
                            The glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol contents of fruits of economic importance in the Northwest were compiled from the literature and analyzed statistically. The different fruits show characteristics sugar patterns with only moderate variation considering the diversity of geographic origin, variety, maturity, and method of analysis. This data provides a useful baseline for comparing the sugar composition of analyzed samples in screening for authenticity. The sugar and non-volatile acid composition of strawberries as related to maturity have been investigated. The sugar and sorbitol contents of cherries have been analyzed to determine whether addition of sucrose to commercial samples could be determined. Sucrose inversion occurred in all samples but percent sorbitol content could be used to detect sucrose addition. Sorbitol content is a useful index for detecting adulteration of non-sorbitol containing fruits such as blackberry, strawberry, and raspberry with cheaper sorbitol-containing fruits such as pear, apple, and plum. Analysis of wines made from sorbitol-containing blackberry concentrates showed that sorbitol was not fermented and suggested that its presence in blackberry wines could be used as an index of adulteration.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 07/01/79 to 12/30/79

                              Outputs
                              The sugar and organic acid composition of 15 blackberry samples has been reported. Glucose and fructose are the only sugars present, the glucose: fructose ratio for all samples being 0.710. The acid composition shows more complexity and variation, lacto-isocitric being the major acid in some samples and absent in others. Sugar composition can be a useful screening criteria for determining the authenticity of fruit products. Current research methods (HPLC) and to the sugar and acid composition of other fruits -- cherry, pear, strawberry. Browning of pear juice concentrate during storage can be effectively inhibited by treatment of juice with cation exchange resin to remove amino acids. It was concluded that Maillard browning reactions predominated during storage.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications