Source: MICHIGAN STATE UNIV submitted to
IMPROVING ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN TREE-FRUIT PRODUCTION THROUGH CHANGES IN ROOTSTOCK USE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
REVISED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0078282
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MICL01305
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
NC-140
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2012
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2017
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Lang, G.
Recipient Organization
MICHIGAN STATE UNIV
(N/A)
EAST LANSING,MI 48824
Performing Department
Horticulture
Non Technical Summary
SITUATION: To improve orchard profitability and sustainability, new rootstocks are needed that control vigor, resist biotic and abiotic stresses, and enhance fruit quality and productivity of the fruit tree scion. Few rootstock breeding programs exist in the U.S. or worldwide, and some rootstocks derived from international sources have adapted poorly to North American soils and climates. PURPOSE: This project examines a wide range of new and/or candidate fruit tree rootstocks possessing varying traits that include vigor control, pest resistance, and modification of reproductive characteristics. Various experiments, in the orchard and in the laboratory, will be established to study the interactions between rootstock and fruiting scion genotypes, cultural management strategies to optimize profitability/sustainability, and the impact of different environmental factors on these interactions and strategies. OUTCOMES/IMPACTS/BENEFITS: Fruit tree growers will gain access to a wider range of new rootstocks that have advanced genetic tratis and that will have been more thoroughly evaluated for successful adoption to regional orchard climatic and soil conditions. The use of genetically improved rootstocks will reduce orchard input costs, such as pesticides, fertilizer, and orchard labor, and promote earlier productivity and more sustainable yields of high quality fruit, resulting in more profitable farm-gate value while moderating costs to consumers for fresh tree fruits.
Animal Health Component
50%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
50%
Developmental
40%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2031110105010%
2031112105020%
2051112105050%
2051119105020%
Goals / Objectives
OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate the influence of rootstocks on temperate-zone fruit tree characteristics grown under varying environments using sustainable management systems. 2. To develop improved rootstocks for temperate-zone fruit trees using state-of-the-art genomic tools in breeding programs. 3. To accelerate adoption of new rootstocks (a) by improving propagation techniques and (b) by acquiring new rootstocks from worldwide sources. 4. To better understand the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on scion/rootstock combinations in temperate-zone fruit trees. 5. To enhance the sustainability of temperate fruit farming through development and distribution of research-based information utilizing eXtension.
Project Methods
Objective 1: To evaluate performance of rootstock material in different climatic and edaphic environments, replicated and randomized uniform trials will be maintained and/or established across North America. Promising new and existing rootstocks and multiple genetic systems possessing desirable characteristics will be evaluated with respect to precocity, productivity, fruit size, tree size control, anchorage, root suckering, pest resistance, adaptability, and production efficiency. Trial maintenance and data collection will be according to specific uniform guidelines established by the technical committee. Trials will be concluded after 10 growing seasons, with data subjected to standard statistical analyses. Trials will be summarized for joint publications after 5 and 10 years of testing. Objective 2: To enhance tree performance and pest resistance, traditional breeding will be used for potential development of improved rootstocks for cherry. Tolerance of rootstocks to Armilllaria will be investigated. Genetic activities will include contributions to mapping of the Prunus genome. Objective 3. The physiology of rootstock-scion interactions will be studied in coordinated apple and sweet cherry trials, with particular emphasis on crop load management and bacterial diseases. Objective 4. Studies will be conducted to elucidate climatic stress tolerance and nutrient uptake/use efficiency of fruit trees as influenced by rootstocks. Basic rootstock performance data will be collected as part of the evaluation of rootstocks in the trials listed under objective 1; however, additional, more-detailed studies will be conducted by evaluation of sweet cherry on various rootstocks under protective covering systems and/or in potted plant culture.

Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: Tree fruit and diversified horticultural growers in the Great Lakes region of the United States, as well as across North American and other fruit-producing regions of the world; persons interested in local food production efforts related to urban renewal and/or economically disadvantaged populations. Changes/Problems: The major problem for the sweet cherry component of this research project was flower bud damage from the low temperatures associated with the severe 2013-14 winter and poor pollination weather during bloom (except for that part of the research plot protected by an automated retractable roof), which reduced yields. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Three international visiting scientists, Dr. Husnu Demirsoy, Dr. Leyla Demirsoy, and Dr. Idris Macit, all from Turkey, visited for two weeks of training in this project's components on cherry training system/rootstock research. Two undergraduate students regularly attend the project lab group meetings to gain experience with tree fruit research approaches, data analysis, and interpretation. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? 1) Speaker, Second Seminario Internacional de Cerezas: Actualizaciones y Avances en el Desarrollo de los Nuevos Sistemas de Conduccion y Huertos Peatonales de Cerezos. (Curico, Chile), October. Stakeholders: ~200 cherry growers from Chile. 2) Sole speaker (4 presentations), SummerGreen Seminar Series (Roxburgh, Cromwell, Blenheim, and Havelock North, New Zealand), November. Stakeholders: ~110 cherry growers from New Zealand. 3) Speaker (2 presentations), Washington State Horticultural Association annual conference (Wenatchee, WA), December. Stakeholders: cherry growers from Washington, Oregon, California, British Columbia, and Chile.Stakeholders: ~450 cherry growers from Washington, Oregon, and California. 4) Speaker, Great Lakes Fruit, Veg, & Farm Market Expo (Grand Rapids, MI), December. Stakeholders: ~75 cherry growers from the Midwest, Mid-Atlantic, and Ontario. 5) Speaker, Ohio Produce Growers and Marketers Association, Sandusky, Jan. 21-22.Stakeholders: ~30 cherry growers from Ohio. 6) Speaker,New York Fruit & Vegetable Expo, Syracuse, Jan. 23-24.Stakeholders: ~65 cherry growers from New York and other New England states. 7) Speaker,International Fruit Tree Association Intensive Cherry Shortcourse, What Have We Learned (Sometimes the Hard Way) in Choosing What, Where, and How to Plant, Kelowna, British Columbia, Feb. 22-23.Stakeholders: ~175 cherry growers from around the world. 8) Speaker,International Fruit Tree Association annual conference, Cherry Rootstocks Update, Kelowna, British Columbia, Feb. 24-26.Stakeholders: ~250 tree fruit growers from around the world. 9) Speaker, Talca cherry seminar and workshop, Talca, Chile, Mar. 13-14.Stakeholders: ~125 cherry growers from Chlie. 10)Speaker,Cervinia international cherry producers and marketers conference, Mar. 30-Apr. 2.Stakeholders: ~35 cherry growers, packers, and marketers from around the world. 11) Sole speaker,MSUE Cherry Crop Load Management & Pruning workshop, Traverse City, Apr. 9.Stakeholders: ~30 cherry growers from Michigan. 12) Keynote speaker,Summerfruit New Zealand annual growers conference and workshop, Cromwell, New Zealand, June 4-6.Stakeholders: ~150 cherry growers from New Zealand. 13) Speaker,Clarksville Field Day, July 12.Stakeholders: ~50 fruit growers from Michigan and other midwest states. 14) Speaker, Lake Ontario Fruit Tour, Cornell University, Medina, NY, July 24.Stakeholders: ~200 fruit growers from New York. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? - Continue to evaluate/confirm canopy architecture x rootstock interactive effects on yields and quality in the 2010 NC140 Cherry Training Systems trial. Expand evaluation of summer- and winter-pruning strategies for canopy maintenance and renewal, as well as their associated labor efficiencies and impacts of timing on flower bud formation. Begin installation of new advanced intensive sweet cherry x rootstock x covering system studies, pending grant funding outcomes. - Continue evaluation and data collection for 2010 and 2014 NC140 Honeycrisp apple rootstock plots. Plant an NC140 organic apple rootstock plot in 2015. - Increase evaluation of the MSU cherry rootstocks in Washington and Michigan for productivity, fruit quality, and vigor control with sweet and tart cherries.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 2014 (Year 5) marked the best yield data thus far in the 2010 NC140 Sweet Cherry Training Systems trial, since the Year 3 crop was lost to the devastating spring frosts of 2012 and the Year 4 crop was greatly diminished by a late spring frost. Yields were highest on the most dwarfing rootstocks, Gi3 and Gi5. UFO trees on Gi3 yielded 9.6 t/ha, followed by TSA trees on Gi3 and Gi5 (both 9.1 t/ha), then UFO on Gi3 (8.0 t/ha). The highest yields in the SSA and KGB training systems were on Gi3 (6.3 and 5.9 t/ha, respectively). The lowest yields were on Gi6 across all rootstocks, ranging from 6.7 t/ha (TSA) and 5.6 t/ha (UFO) to 3.0 t/ha (KGB) and 1.9 t/ha (SSA). Since these orchard yield values are based on data from small replicated plots and are based on using a single planting density across rootstock genotypes within each training system, it could be anticipated that the yields on the most dwarfing rootstock, Gi3, would likely be even higher if planted to higher appropriate densities, and conversely, yields on the most vigorous rootstock, Gi6, would likely be even lower if planted to lower appropriate densities, unless excessive shading is reducing the current yields on vigorous trees that may have overgrown their allotted orchard space. Rootstock did not have any consistent obvious effects on fruit quality parameters in 2014. Since this trial is part of a coordinated trial across North America, it should be noted that the trees in Michigan are, surprisingly, the most vigorous of the current five data-generating sites, followed by British Columbia-Summerland, New York-Hudson Valley, New York-Geneva, and Nova Scotia-Kentville. Tart cherry flowering in rootstock trials on hedgerow-type tree development was greatest on the Gisela rootstocks, less for trees on mahaleb, and almost non-existent on own-rooted 'Montmorency' trees. A second trial examining new rootstocks from the MSU tart cherry breeding program exhibited significant precocity and Year 3 yields, and reduced growth that fits the dwarfing to very dwarfing vigor category. A new 2014 NC140 Honeycrisp apple rootstock trial was established at the MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Center, with 14 rootstock genotypes from Geneva and Vineland, plus M9.337 and EMLA.26 as standards. The 2010 NC140 Honeycrisp apple rootstock trial data for 2014 were not available at the end of this reporting period. Data for fall 2013 were reported last year when the REEport system reporting period was an the calendar year rather than the federal fiscal year; data from 2014 will be reported in 2015.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Lang, G. 2013. Lessons in cherry pruning: the 2013 IFTA conference orchard demonstration. Compact Fruit Tree 46(3):11-13.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Kappel, F., G. Lang, A. Azarenko, T. Facteau, A. Gaus, R. Godin, T. Lindstrom, R. Nu�ez-Elisea, R. Pokharel, M. Whiting and C. Hampson. 2013. Performance of sweet cherry rootstocks in the 1998 NC-140 regional trial in western North America. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 67:186-195.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2014 Citation: Lang, G.A., G.-Q. Song, K.D. Sink, A.E. Walworth, M.A. Cook, and R.F. Allison. 2013. Transgenic gene silencing confers increased resistance to Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in cherry rootstocks. Acta Hort. x:x-x.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2014 Citation: Lang, G.A., S. Blatt, C. Embree, J. Grant, S. Hoying, C. Ingels, D. Neilsen, G. Neilsen, and T. Robinson. 2013. Developing and evaluating intensive sweet cherry orchard systems: the NC140 regional research trial. Acta Hort. x:x-x.


Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Tree fruit and diversified horticultural growers in the Great Lakes region, as well as across North American and other fruit-producing regions of the world; persons interested in local food production efforts related to urban renewal and/or economically disadvantaged populations. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Hosted two international visiting scientists, Dr. Semih Caglar from Turkey and Dr. Rania Ahmed from Egypt, who were given the opportunity to become involved in fruit tree rootstock and training system research components of the project. Provided guidance to two corresponding international scientists, Dr. Husnu Demirsoy from Turkey and Dr. Marlene Ayala from Chile, on how to develop state-of-the-art cherry rootstock and training system research trials in their home countries, information of which was used for successful research grant proposals from their governments. Provided the keynote address for the 7th International Symposium on Cherry Production Research (under the auspices of the International Society for Horticultural Science), summarizing the current status of cherry genetic improvement and identifying challenges for future research, to a target audience of more than 200 scientific delegates. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Presentations made to communities of interest: 1) Lang, G.A. 10 Jan 2013. Fundamentals of Sweet Cherry Production. Great Plains Growers Conference. St. Joseph, MO. Grower audience. Attendance 38. 2) Lang, G.A. 10 Jan 2013. Growing Fruit Trees in High Tunnels. Great Plains Growers Conference. St. Joseph, MO. Grower audience. Attendance 53. 3) Lang, G.A. 11 Jan 2013. Fundamentals of Tart Cherry Production. Great Plains Growers Conference. St. Joseph, MO. Grower audience. Attendance 48. 4) Lang, G.A. 29 Jan 2013. Research Results from the North American Sweet Cherry Training Systems Trial. Oregon Horticultural Society. Portland, OR. Grower audience. Attendance 33. 5) Lang, G.A. 29 Jan 2013. Current Status and Future Outlook for Growing Tart Cherries. Oregon Horticultural Society. Grower audience. Portland, OR. Attendance 39. 6) Lang, G.A. 31 Jan 2013. Tree Fruit Crops in High Tunnels. Mid-Atlantic Fruit & Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. Grower audience. Attendance 177. 7) Lang, G.A. 6 Feb 2013. Innovations in Cherry Production Around the World. Southwest Hort Days. Benton Harbor, MI. Grower audience. Attendance 31. 8) Lang, G.A., L.E. Long, and J. Schupp. 24 Feb 2013. Cherry & Peach Pruning Demonstration. International Fruit Tree Association. Boston, MA. Grower audience. Attendance 91. 9) Lang, G.A. 17 Apr 2013. Optimizing Cherry Production: Physiology-Based Management. Haygrove Growers Conference. Canterbury, United Kingdom. Grower audience. Attendance 89. 10) Lang, G.A. 24 Jun 2013. Trends and Characteristics of Current, New, and Future Cherry Cultivars Around the World (Keynote Address). 7th International Cherry Symposium (International Society for Horticultural Science). Plascencia, Spain. Scientific audience. Attendance 225. 11) Lang, G.A. 24 Jun 2013. The NC140 Regional Research Trial: Evaluation of Four Innovative Orchards Systems x Three Gisela Rootstocks x Multiple Sites Across North America. 7th International Cherry Symposium (International Society for Horticultural Science). Plascencia, Spain. Scientific audience. Attendance 225. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? - Continue to complete or replace sweet cherry canopy bearing area and evaluate/confirm canopy architecture effects on yields and quality in the 2010 NC140 Cherry Training Systems trial. Expand evaluation of summer- and winter-pruning strategies for canopy maintenance and renewal, as well as their associated labor efficiencies. - Finish training organic sweet cherry tree canopies, take tree growth data on organic treatments and harvest data for the range of test cultivars, and impose a dormant oil control strategy to reduce early-season aphid populations. - Continue developing strategies for training and maintenance/renewal pruning of tart cherry tree canopies for over-the-row mechanical harvest. - Continue 2010 NC140 Honeycrisp apple rootstock data collection and evaluation. - Continue to evaluate the MSU cherry rootstocks in Washington and Michigan for productivity, fruit quality, and vigor control with sweet and tart cherries.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? - 2013 (Year 4) marked the first widespread fruit production in the 2010 NC140 Sweet Cherry Training Systems trial, since the Year 3 crop was lost to the devastating spring frosts of 2012. - Yields were highest on SSA trees on Gi3 (6.0 t/ha), followed by TSA trees on Gi3 (4.8 t/ha), and lowest on KGB trees across all rootstocks. - Sweet cherry training system has had little effect thus far on tree vigor in the KGB, TSA, and UFO systems, but trees in the SSA system (planted at twice the density as the others) are about half as vigorous as the other systems. - Sweet cherry fruit size was greatest (12.0 g) on the KGB trees with the lowest yields and smallest (10.7 g) on the SSA trees with the highest yields. - Sweet cherry fruit soluble solids was consistently higher on the TSA trees. - Sweet cherry fruit soluble solids were highest on Gi3 trees and lowest on Gi6 trees. - Sweet cherry fruit firmness was greatest in the UFO system and was not affected by rootstock. - The most efficient sweet cherry trees to prune were in the UFO system at 6 min/plot (48 hr/ha), followed by the KGB system (7.1 min/plot, 56 hr/ha). The TSA required 10.3 min/plot (82 hr/ha) and the SSA required 19.3 min/plot (153 hr/ha). - Tart cherry flowering in rootstock trials on hedgerow-type tree development was greatest on the Gisela rootstocks, less for trees on mahaleb, and almost non-existent on own-rooted ‘Montmorency’ trees. - Honeycrisp apple on the experimental rootstocks CG.5087, CG.5179, and CG.4011 have been the most yield efficient of those in test for 10 years at Belding, MI, with vigor levels slightly greater than M.9. - No bitter pit was found on Honeycrisp fruit from trees on GC.5087, CG.5179, and CG.4214. - The most yield-efficient rootstocks for Honeycrisp on the sandy soils of Michigan’s northwest lower peninsula have been CG.6969, CG.5087, and G.935, which are significantly less vigorous than MM.106 and M.7 (CG.5087 vigor > G.935 > CG.6969), and they also yielded a lower incidence of fruit with bitter pit. - 2013 marked the first significant fruiting in the 2010 Honeycrisp apple rootstock trial.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Song, G.-Q., K.C. Sink, A.E. Walworth, M.A. Cook, R.F. Allison, and G.A. Lang. 2013. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing. Plant Biotechnology Journal doi:10.1111 / pbi.12060.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Lang, G.A. 2013. Tree fruit production in high tunnels: current status and case study of sweet cherries. Acta Hort. 987:73-81.
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Lang, G., E. Hanson, J. Biernbaum, D. Brainard, M. Grieshop, R. Isaacs, A. Montri, V. Morrone, and A. Schilder, D. Conner, and J. Koan. 2013. Holistic integration of organic strategies and high tunnels for Midwest/Great Lakes fruit production. Acta Hort. 1001:47-55.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Lang, G. 2013. Pruning for large cherries. Good Fruit Grower 64(12):14-15.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Lang, G. 2013. Consistent production with covered systems. American/Western Fruit Grower (Sept/Oct):26-27.
  • Type: Websites Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: www.hrt.msu.edu/faculty/greg-lang


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: APPLE ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: Three apple rootstock trials with Honeycrisp were evaluated in 2012: near Belding (planted in 2004), at the MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Center (planted in 2004), and near Sparta (planted in 2010). Yields were generally poor and variable across Michigan due to extraordinary spring weather events (record early bloom followed by severe freezes in late April). There were no significant 2012 data from the Sparta trial. The cumulative yield efficiencies (CYE) after 9 years at Belding were highest for trees on CG.5087, which are 32% more yield efficient and about 8% larger than trees on M.9. Trees with the next highest CYEs were on CG.5179 and CG.4210, about 18% more yield efficient and 4% and 21% less vigorous, respectively, than on M.9. In the 2004 Northwest trial, nearly all rootstocks had greater CYEs than trees on M.7 or MM.106, the highest being on CG.6969, which is about 45% the size of trees on M.7. Nearly identical in CYE and size were trees on CG.5046. About 10% less yield efficient than trees on CG.6969 were trees on CG.5087, CG.5890, and CG.5935. CHERRY ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: The NC140 sweet cherry training systems x rootstock trial planted in 2010 at the MSU Clarksville Research Center (CRC) has Benton on Gisela (Gi) 3, Gi5, and Gi6, trained to four different tree architectures: Tall Spindle Axe/TSA, Upright Fruiting Offshoots/UFO, Kym Green Bush/KGB, and Super Slender Axe/SSA. Trees on Gi6 are most vigorous, those on Gi5 are intermediate in dwarfing (68 to 72% of Gi6), and those on Gi3 are least vigorous (52 to 59% of Gi6). The SSA training system further reduced vigor; SSA trees on Gi6 were comparable in vigor to trees in other systems on Gi3. The system x rootstock combinations that essentially have filled their space after 3 years include the KGB on Gi5 and Gi6, the TSA on Gi6, the SSA on Gi3 and Gi6, and the UFO on Gi6. Within each training system, trees on Gi3 had the most flowering sites, and the SSA system had more than the other systems, followed by the TSA, the UFO, and then the KGB. The multiple spring frosts that killed most flowers or fruit in 2012 also led to rampant bacterial canker infections, resulting in significant spur mortality which was greatest in the KGB system across rootstocks and on Gi6 across systems, and was least in the SSA system. Montmorency tart cherry trees, planted at CRC to study the UFO trunk angle effect on hedgerow training, had completely filled their space by the end of Year 3. Low angled UFO trees appear to result in branched, bushy growth most suitable for over-the-row (OTR) harvesters. DISSEMINATION OF OUTPUTS: Field days were held the Clarksville and Northwest stations. Two research posters were presented at the Great Lakes Fruit & Vegetable Expo in Grand Rapids. Twenty-four Powerpoint presentations based on this research were made in Michigan, the Great Lakes region, the U.S., and internationally to audiences comprised of growers, extension agents, crop consultants, and scientific peers. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS IN ADDITION TO THE LEAD INVESTIGATORS: Dr. Nikki Rothwell, MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Center; Phil Schwallier, MSU Regional Extension Educator, Sparta; Tammy Wilkinson and Lynne Sage, Research Associates, MSU Horticulture Department. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS: International Fruit Tree Association; Michigan Cherry Commission; Michigan Apple Commission. TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES: Tiffany Lillrose, Doctoral student; Dr. Ashaq Pandit, Visiting Scientist from India; Elizabeth Wittenbach and Rayce O'Connell, undergraduate students. TARGET AUDIENCES: Tree fruit and diversified horticultural growers in the Great Lakes region, as well as across the North America and fruit-producing regions of the world; persons interested in local food production efforts related to urban renewal and/or economically disadvantaged populations. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: A protective greenhouse-like covering structure with a programmable retractable roof (Cravo, Inc.) was established in late spring 2012 over half of the NC140 sweet cherry rootstocks x training systems trial (3 complete replications), and a passively-vented row covering system (VOEN) was established over the other half. While this will complicate statistical analysis, it also will provide a greater probability of obtaining future cropping data that otherwise could be lost to frost, hail, rain, or birds.

Impacts
Genetically-improved rootstocks for apple and cherry offer tools with significant potential to positively impact sustainable fruit production in the Great Lakes region, providing better control of diseases with reduced pesticide inputs, greater productivity per area of orchard, and/or higher labor efficiency with smaller trees. Evaluation and, eventually, adoption of new rootstocks is a long-term process but, similarly, has long-term ramifications for fruit growing given the perennial nature and longevity of tree fruit production. Most advanced rootstock genotypes also promote earlier production in the life of an orchard, thereby providing an earlier payback on investment and improved economic sustainability. As canopy training systems and other orchard management techniques are adapted to new rootstocks, additional advanced technologies may be facilitated more readily as well, such as high tunnel production systems for high value fresh market sweet cherries in growing regions, like the Great Lakes, that otherwise may be too risky to sustain market share using traditional production methods. Planting of Honeycrisp apple and sweet cherries for fresh market production has increased in Michigan over the last 7 years.

Publications

  • Lang, G.A. 2012. Strategie e techniche innovative per produzioni di alta qualita. Rivista di Frutticoltura April (4):24-28.
  • Lang, G. 2012. Integrating new technologies, germplasm, and physiology into innovative strategies for producing high quality sweet cherries. OPGMA Today (Summer issue).


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: APPLE ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: Five apple rootstock genotype trials with Honeycrisp were evaluated in 2011: at the MSU Clarksville research center (planted in 2003), at a commercial grower site near Belding (planted in 2004), at a commercial grower site near Sparta (planted in 2010), and at the MSU Northwest research center (two trials, planted in 2003 and 2004). The two trials planted in 2003 were completed in 2011. For the 2003 Clarksville trial, the cumulative yield efficiency for the six-year period from 2006-2011 was highest on four rootstocks: the widely used B9, the recently commercialized G.41, and the experimental CG.5257 and CG.4210, all of which were about 20% more yield-efficient than the industry standard, M.9. CG.4210 was similar in vigor to M.9, while the latter two experimental stocks imparted greater vigor. For the 2003 Northwest trial, the six-year cumulative yield efficiency was highest on the experimental CG.5012, which was 45% more yield-efficient than the recently commercialized G.11; both imparted similar vigor to Honeycrisp. Nearly as efficient were the experimental CG.5257 and CG.5087. Trees on CG.5890 were dramatically lower in yield efficiency. At Belding, the cumulative yield efficiency over the past 6 years was best on CG.5087, about 30% higher than on the industry standard M.9, followed by CG.4011 and CG.4210. Trees on CG.5087 are about 10% more vigorous than trees on M.9. Cumulative yield efficiencies were dramatically lower on CG.4002 and CG.4213. At Northwest, the 2004 trial revealed the best six-year cumulative yield efficiencies were on CG.5087, CG.6969, CG.5257, and CG.5935. These were all about 50% higher than the cumulative yield efficiency on the industry standard M.7, and trees on these experimental rootstocks were 20 to 30% less vigorous. For the 2010 trial, it is already apparent that one of the Russian rootstocks is excessively vigorous and one is excessively weak. CHERRY ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: The four canopy systems in the sweet cherry training systems x rootstock trial at the MSU Clarksville research center are the TSA (Tall Spindle Axe), KGB (Kym Green Bush), UFO (Upright Fruiting Offshoots), and SSA (Super Slender Axe). A distinct rootstock x training system interaction has already become apparent; trees on the vigorous Gisela 6 rootstock, trained to the very high density SSA system, have vigor similar to trees on the very dwarfing Gisela 3 rootstock trained to the less dense TSA, KGB, and UFO systems. DISSEMINATION OF OUTPUTS: Field days were held the MSU Southwest, Clarksville, and Northwest stations to demonstrate on-going cherry rootstock research. A tour of the Belding and Sparta apple rootstock plots was provided to the NC140 regional research project collaborators during their annual meeting. Two research posters (for apple rootstocks, one for the cherry rootstocks x systems trial) was presented at the Great Lakes Fruit & Vegetable Expo in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Twenty-one Powerpoint presentations based on this research were made in Michigan, the Great Lakes region, the U.S., and internationally to audiences comprised of growers, extension agents, crop consultants, and scientific peers. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS IN ADDITION TO THE LEAD INVESTIGATORS: Dr. Nikki Rothwell, MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Station; Phil Schwallier, MSU Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station; Tammy Wilkinson, Research Associate, MSU Horticulture Department. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS: International Fruit Tree Association; Michigan Cherry Commission; Michigan Apple Commission. TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES: Tiffany Lillrose, Masters student; Dr. Husnu Demirsoy and Dr. Leyla Demirsoy, Visiting Scientists from Turkey; Dr. Ashaq Pandit, Visiting Scientist from India. TARGET AUDIENCES: Tree fruit and diversified horticultural growers in the Great Lakes region, as well as across the North America and fruit-producing regional of the world; persons interested in local food production efforts related to urban renewal and/or economically disadvantaged populations. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Genetically-improved rootstocks for apple and cherry offer tools with significant potential to positively impact sustainable fruit production in the Great Lakes region, providing better control of diseases with reduced pesticide inputs, greater productivity per area of orchard, and/or higher labor efficiency with smaller trees. Evaluation and, eventually, adoption of new rootstocks is a long-term process but, similarly, has long-term ramifications for fruit growing given the perennial nature and longevity of tree fruit production. Most advanced rootstock genotypes also promote earlier production in the life of an orchard, thereby providing an earlier payback on investment and improved economic sustainability. As canopy training systems and other orchard management techniques are adapted to new rootstocks, additional advanced technologies may be facilitated more readily as well, such as high tunnel production systems for high value fresh market sweet cherries in growing regions, like the Great Lakes, that otherwise may be too risky to sustain market share using traditional production methods. Planting of Honeycrisp apple and sweet cherries for fresh market production has increased in Michigan over the last 7 years.

Publications

  • Lang, G., T. Valentino, H. Demirsoy, and L. Demirsoy. 2011. High tunnel sweet cherry studies: innovative integration of precision canopies, precocious rootstocks, and environmental physiology. Acta Hort.903:717-723. Autio, W.R., T.L. Robinson, B. Black, T. Bradshaw, J.A. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, C.G. Embree, E.E. Hoover, S.A. Hoying, K.A. Iungerman, R.S. Johnson, G. Lang, M.L. Parker, R.L. Perry, G.L. Reighard, J.R. Schupp, M. Stasiak, M. Warmund, and D. Wolfe. 2011. Performance of Fuji and McIntosh apple trees after 10 years as affected by several dwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC-140 apple rootstock trial. J. Amer. Pom. Soc. 5(2):2-20.
  • Autio, W., T.L. Robinson, W. Cowgill, C. Hampson, M. Kushad, G. Lang, J. Masabni, D.D. Miller, R.A. Parra Quezada, R. Perry, and C. Rom. 2011. Performance of Gala apple trees on Supporter 4 and different strains of B.9, M.9, and M.26 rootstocks as part of the 2002 NC-140 apple rootstock trial. Acta Hort. 903:311-318.
  • Autio, W., T.L. Robinson, J. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, C.G. Embree, E. Hoover, G. Lang, J. Masabni, M.L. Parker, R. Perry, G.L. Reighard and M. Warmund. 2011. Performance of several semidwarfing rootstocks with Fuji and McIntosh as scion cultivars in the 1999 NC-140 semidwarf apple rootstock trials. Acta Hort.903:327-334.
  • Autio, W., T.L. Robinson, T. Bradshaw, J. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, C.G. Embree, E. Hoover, G. Lang, J. Masabni, M.L. Parker, R. Perry, G.L. Reighard, J. Schupp, and M. Warmund. 2011. Performance of several dwarfing rootstocks with Fuji and McIntosh as scion cultivars in the 1999 NC-140 dwarf apple rootstock trials. Acta Hort.903:319-326.
  • Autio, W.R., T.L. Robinson, B. Black, T. Bradshaw, J.A. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, C.G. Embree, E.E. Hoover, S.A. Hoying, K.A. Iungerman, R.S. Johnson, G. Lang, M.L. Parker, R.L. Perry, G.L. Reighard, M. Stasiak, M. Warmund, and D. Wolfe. 2011. Performance of Fuji and McIntosh apple trees after 10 years as affected by several semidwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC-140 apple rootstock trial. J. Amer. Pom. Soc. 5(2):21-38.
  • Lang, G., T. Valentino, T. Robinson, J. Freer, H. Larsen, and R. Pokharel. 2011. Differences in mineral nutrient concentration of dormant cherry spurs as affected by rootstock, scion, and orchard site. Acta Hort. 903:93-971.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: APPLE ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: Five rootstock genotype trials with Honeycrisp are under evaluation at the MSU Clarksville station (planted in 2003), at a grower site near Belding (planted in 2004), at a grower site near Conklin (planted in 2010), and two trials at the MSU Northwest station (planted in 2003 and 2004). The new 2010 trial includes not only CG rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA breeding program (like the other four sites), but also eight experimental rootstocks from Russia and two from Germany. Of the 36 Cornell/USDA experimental rootstocks being evaluated, CG 5087 is planted at all five sites and CG 4003, 4814, 5012, 5257, 5463, 5757, and 5890 are planted at three sites. In 2010, yields were minimal at the Northwest trial sites due to extensive spring frost damage resulting from the unusually early bloom. Primarily trunk growth data from the new Sparta orchard site was recorded in 2010. Yields from the Belding and Clarksville trial sites were relatively normal. At Belding, 2010 yield efficiencies were best on CG.4213, CG.5012, and CG.5087; fruit size was best on M.9. Yield efficiencies were lowest on CG.4002 and CG.4214, and M.9. When cumulative yield efficiency over the past 5 years was calculated, the best yield efficiency was on CG.5087, followed by CG.4011, CG.5179, and CG.4210, all of which surpassed M.9 but are relatively similar in vigor. Cumulative yield efficiencies were much lower on CG.4002, CG.4213, and CG.4013. At Clarksville, 2010 yield efficiency was highest on CG.4210, followed by CG.5012 and CG.5257. 2010 yield efficiencies were very poor on CG.4813, M.9, CG.5463, CG.5087, and CG.4002 (which had the largest fruit). Fruit size on CG.4210 was good in spite of the high yield efficiency, and fruit size on CG.4814 and M.9 was small in spite of the low yields (presumably due to frost damage). When cumulative yield efficiency over the past 5 years was calculated, the best yield efficiency was on CG.4210 and CG.5257, followed by CG.5757 (similar in vigor to M.9) and G.41 (about 40% more vigorous than M.9). At Clarksville, cumulative yield efficiency was similar for CG.5087 and M.9. CHERRY ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: The planting of a new high density sweet cherry training systems x rootstock trial was completed at the MSU Clarksville station. The sleeping eye trees on Gi.5 planted in 2009 did not perform well (mortality and poor growth); regular nursery trees on Gi.3, Gi.5, and Gi.6 were planted in 2010 to complete the trial. Training was initiated for four canopy systems, the TSA (Tall Spindle Axe), KGB (Kym Green Bush), UFO (Upright Fruiting Offshoots), and SSA (Super Slender Axe). DISSEMINATION OF OUTPUTS: Field days were held the MSU Southwest, Clarksville, and Northwest stations to demonstrate on-going cherry rootstock research. One research poster (for apple rootstocks) was presented at the Great Lakes Fruit & Vegetable Expo in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Twenty-eight Powerpoint presentations based on this research were made in Michigan, the Great Lakes region, the U.S., and internationally to audiences comprised of growers, extension agents, crop consultants, and scientific peers. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS IN ADDITION TO THE LEAD INVESTIGATORS: Dr. Gennaro Fazio, apple rootstock breeder, USDA-ARS Geneva, NY; Dr. Nikki Rothwell, MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Station; Phil Schwallier, MSU Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station; Tammy Wilkinson, Research Associate, MSU Horticulture Department. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS: International Fruit Tree Association. TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES: Tiffany Lillrose, Masters student; Dr. Yun Kong, Visiting Scientist from China. TARGET AUDIENCES: Tree fruit and diversified horticultural growers in the Great Lakes region; persons interested in local food production efforts related to urban renewal and/or economically disadvantaged populations. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Genetically-improved rootstocks for apple and cherry offer tools with significant potential to positively impact sustainable fruit production in the Great Lakes region, providing better control of diseases with reduced pesticide inputs, greater productivity per area of orchard, and/or higher labor efficiency with smaller trees. Evaluation and, eventually, adoption of new rootstocks is a long-term process but, similarly, has long-term ramifications for fruit growing given the perennial nature and longevity of tree fruit production. Most advanced rootstock genotypes also promote earlier production in the life of an orchard, thereby providing an earlier payback on investment and improved economic sustainability. As canopy training systems and other orchard management techniques are adapted to new rootstocks, additional advanced technologies may be facilitated more readily as well, such as high tunnel production systems for high value fresh market sweet cherries in growing regions, like the Great Lakes, that otherwise may be too risky to sustain market share using traditional production methods. Planting of 'Honeycrisp' apple and sweet cherries for fresh market production has increased in Michigan over the last 5 years.

Publications

  • Demirsoy, H. and G.A. Lang. 2010. Validation of a leaf area estimation model for sweet cherry. Spanish J. Agricul. Res. 8(3):830-832.
  • Olmstead, M.A., N.S. Lang, and G.A. Lang. 2010. Carbohydrate profiles in the graft union of young sweet cherry trees grown on dwarfing and vigorous rootstocks. Scientia Hortic. 124:78-82.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: APPLE ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: The trials with MacIntosh and Golden Delicious were discontinued in 2009. The four remaining trials are with Honeycrisp at the MSU Clarksville station (planted in 2003), a trial at a grower site near Belding (planted in 2004), and two trials at the MSU Northwest station (planted in 2003 and 2004). Of the 31 CG (USDA/Cornell) experimental rootstocks being evaluated, CG 5087 is planted at all four sites and CG 5012, 5257, 5463, 5757, and 5890 are planted at three sites. In 2009, tree yields generally were proportional to tree size. At Belding, most of the rootstocks had higher yields than did M.9, with the highest (63 kg/tree, 139 lb/tree) being on CG 4002, which also had the largest average fruit weight (215 g). Through 2009, the cumulative yield efficiencies of seven rootstocks equaled or exceeded that of M.9, the highest being on CG.4011, 4210, and 5087. At Clarksville, yields also were highest (116 kg/tree, 254 lb/tree) on CG 4002, though fruit size was only moderate (138 g) due to the excessive crop load. Cumulative yield efficiencies were highest on B.9, with only CG.3041, 5257, and 5757 exceeding that of M.9. At the Northwest station, yields were highest (55 to 58 kg/tree, 121 to 128 lb/tree) on CG 6006, 6589, and 5087 in the 2003 planting, and highest (58 to 61 kg/tree, 128 to 134 lb/tree) in the 2004 planting on CG 5463, 5087, 6589, and 6001. Cumulative yield efficiencies were highest on CG.5257, followed by CG.5087 and 6874 in the 2003 trial and were highest on CG.5257, 5087, and 5935 in the 2004 trial. Although CG 5087 performed well at all sites, fruit size in 2009 was generally smaller than on other rootstocks with similar yields across all four sites, and tree survival was less in the Clarksville plot and one Northwest plot. At both Northwest sites, CG 6589 performed better than CG 5087, with similar yields, larger fruit, and better survival, though significantly lower cumulative yield efficiency. CG.5257 has consistently had a high yield efficiency across trial sites. CHERRY ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: A new high density sweet cherry training systems x rootstock trial was begun at the MSU Clarksville station, with the planting of sleeping eye trees on Gi.5; regular nursery trees on Gi.3, Gi.5, and Gi.6 will be planted in 2010 to complete the trial. The training systems to be evaluated include Tall Spindle, KGB (Kym Green Bush), and UFO (Upright Fruiting Offshoots). DISSEMINATION OF OUTPUTS: Field days were held the MSU Southwest and Northwest stations to demonstrate on-going cherry rootstock research. Two research posters (one for apple rootstocks, one for cherries) were presented at the Great Lakes Fruit & Vegetable Expo in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Twenty-five Powerpoint-based presentations based on this research were made in Michigan, the Great Lakes region, the U.S., and internationally to audiences comprised of growers, extension agents, crop consultants, and scientific peers. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS IN ADDITION TO THE LEAD INVESTIGATORS: Dr. Nikki Rothwell, MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Station; Phil Schwallier, MSU Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station; Tammy Wilkinson, Research Associate, MSU Horticulture Department. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS: International Fruit Tree Association. TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES: Theoharis Ouzounis, Masters student; Tiffany Lillrose, Masters student; Dr. Yun Kong, Visiting Scientist from China; Husnu Demirsoy, Visiting Scientist from Turkey; Leyla Demirsoy, Visiting Scientist from Turkey; Ziduan Han, undergraduate intern from China. TARGET AUDIENCES: Tree fruit and diversified horticultural growers in the Great Lakes region; persons interested in local food production efforts related to urban renewal and/or economically disadvantaged populations. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: None.

Impacts
Genetically-improved rootstocks for apple and cherry offer tools with significant potential to positively impact sustainable fruit production in the Great Lakes region, providing better control of diseases with reduced pesticide inputs, greater productivity per area of orchard, and/or higher labor efficiency with smaller trees. Evaluation and, eventually, adoption of new rootstocks is a long-term process but, similarly, has long-term ramifications for fruit growing given the perennial nature and longevity of tree fruit production. Most advanced rootstocks also lead to earlier production in the life of an orchard, thereby providing an earlier payback on investment and improved economic sustainability. As orchard management techniques are adapted to new rootstocks, other advanced technologies may be facilitated better as well, such as high tunnel production systems for high value fresh market sweet cherries in growing regions, like the Great Lakes, that otherwise may be too risky to sustain market share using traditional production methods. Planting of sweet cherries for fresh market production has increased in Michigan over the last 5 years.

Publications

  • Costas, P., J.H. Ko, G.A. Lang, A.F. Iezzoni, and K.H. Han. 2009. Rootstock induced dwarfing in cherries is caused by differential cessation of terminal meristem growth and is triggered by rootstock specific gene regulation. Tree Physiology 29:927-936.
  • Hansen, M. 2009. Cracking under tunnels. Good Fruit Grower 60(10):20-21.
  • Lang, G. 2008. Cherry production in high tunnels. Proc. 52nd New Jersey Annual Vegetable Meeting & Trade Show:92-95.
  • Lang, G.A. 2009. High tunnel tree fruit production: the final frontier. HortTech 19(1):50-55.
  • Mulabagal, V., G.A. Lang, D.L. DeWitt, S.S. Dalavoy, and M.G. Nair. 2009. Anthocyanin content, lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of sweet and sour cherries. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57(4):1239-1246.
  • Lang, G. 2009. Cherry fertilization and nitrogen needs. Good Fruit Grower 60(10):22-23.
  • Lang, G. 2009. Sweet cherry production in high tunnels. OPGMA Today (Fall issue):13-15.


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: APPLE ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: G.30 has performed well with McIntosh over 10 years in the sandy infertile soil at the MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Station, having the highest cumulative yields from 2001-08, suggesting commercial promise for this region. CG.5890 has performed well since with Golden Delicious at the same site since planting in 2002. With McIntosh grown in the more fertile soil at the MSU Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station, cumulative yield efficiency over the past 10 years was higher on CG.5935 than on M.26, and in the M.9 size class, trees on G.41 and Supporter 1 and 3 had higher yield efficiency values compared to M.9 and G.16. With Gala at the Clarksville site, tree mortality due to fireblight has been excessive for all rootstocks (several clones of M9 and M26 as well as Supporter 4, PiAu.51-11, PiAu.51-44, and P.14) except Bud9. CHERRY ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: The 1998 NC140 cherry rootstock evaluation trial concluded in 2007. Sampling of dormant sweet and sour cherry flower spurs from the trials in Michigan, New York, and Colorado for mineral nutrient analysis (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, B, Cu, S, Mn, Al, and Na) revealed no consistent effects of rootstock across site or scion. The use of precocious, dwarfing rootstocks such as Gi.5 is essential for Great Lakes region fresh market sweet cherry production in high tunnel systems; controlling the height of trees on more vigorous stocks, such as Gi.6 and Gi.12, becomes a challenge within 3 to 4 years even on sandy soils when water and nutrients are well-supplied via fertigation. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Nikki Rothwell, MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Station; Phil Schwallier, MSU Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station; Tara Valentino, Research Associate, MSU Horticulture Department TARGET AUDIENCES: Tree fruit growers in the Great Lakes region. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Genetically-improved rootstocks for apple and cherry offer tools with significant potential to positively impact sustainable fruit production in the Great Lakes region, providing better control of diseases with reduced pesticide inputs, greater productivity per area of orchard, and/or higher labor efficiency with smaller trees. Evaluation and, eventually, adoption of new rootstocks is a long-term process but, similarly, has long-term ramifications for fruit growing given the perennial nature and longevity of tree fruit production. Most advanced rootstocks also lead to earlier production in the life of an orchard, thereby providing an earlier payback on investment and improved economic sustainability. As orchard management techniques are adapted to new rootstocks, other advanced technologies may be facilitated better as well, such as high tunnel production systems for high value fresh market sweet cherries in growing regions, like the Great Lakes, that otherwise may be too risky to sustain market share using traditional production methods.

Publications

  • Ayala, M. and G.A. Lang. 2008. 13C-Photoassimilate partitioning in sweet cherry on dwarfing rootstocks during fruit development. Acta Hort. 795:625-632.
  • Eris, A., G.A. Lang, H. Gulen, and A. Ipek (eds). 2008. Proceedings of the Vth International Cherry Symposium. Acta Hort 795 (2 volumes).
  • Kappel, F. and G. Lang. 2008. Performance of the NC-140 regional sweet cherry rootstock trial planted in 1998 in North America. Acta Hort. 795:317-320.
  • Lang, G.A. 2008. Sweet cherry orchard management: from shifting paradigms to computer modeling. Acta Hort 795:597-604.
  • Lang, G.A. 2008. Global climate change on a micro scale: high tunnel systems for sweet cherry production. Compact Fruit Tree 41(2):5-7.
  • Song, G.-Q., G.A. Lang, S.V. Dolgov, and K.C. Sink. 2008. Cherries. pp. 161-188 in: Kole, C. and T.C. Hall (eds.), Compendium of Transgenic Crop Plants: Transgenic Temperate Fruits and Nuts. Volume 4. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: APPLE ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: G.30T has performed well with McIntosh over 9 years in the sandy infertile soil at the MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Station, suggesting commercial promise for this region. CG.5890 has performed well with Golden Delicious over 6 years at the same site. G.41 (CG.3041) has performed very well with McIntosh over 9 years in the more fertile soil at the MSU Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station, as have Supporter 2 and 3. CHERRY ROOTSTOCK TRIALS: The performance of Montmorency tart cherry on Weiroot 72 (W.72) has been consistent over the past 4 years, suggesting that it may be very promising for higher density Montmorency orchards if mechanical harvesters suitable for high density orchard operation are developed. W.13 has also performed very well over the life of the trial, having the highest cumulative yield efficiency. The 2007 collapse and death of all trees on Gisela 7 and Gi 195/20 after 10 years illustrates the value to industry of the NC-140 project, in that such a collapse (presumably due to virus sensitivity and cold injury) of a commercial orchard, just as it reaches mature production could be economically devastating. The use of precocious, dwarfing rootstocks such as Gi.5 is essential for Great Lakes region fresh market sweet cherry production in high tunnel systems. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Nikki Rothwell, MSU Northwest Horticultural Research Station; Phil Schwallier, MSU Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station; Dr. Leyla Demirsoy, Visiting Scientist, Ondokuz Mayis University, Turkey; Dr. Husnu Demirsoy, Visiting Scientist, Ondokuz Mayis University, Turkey; Tara Valentino, Research Associate, MSU Horticulture Department. TARGET AUDIENCES: Tree fruit growers in the the Great Lakes region.

Impacts
Genetically-improved rootstocks for apple and cherry offer tools with significant potential to positively impact sustainable fruit production in the Great Lakes region, providing better control of diseases with reduced pesticide inputs, greater productivity per area of orchard, and/or higher labor efficiency with smaller trees. Evaluation and, eventually, adoption of new rootstocks is a long-term process but, similarly, has long-term ramifications for fruit growing given the perennial nature and longevity of tree fruit production. Most advanced rootstocks also lead to earlier production in the life of an orchard, thereby providing an earlier payback on investment. As orchard management techniques are adapted to new rootstocks, other advanced technologies may be facilitated better as well, such as high tunnel production systems for high value fresh market sweet cherries in growing regions, like the Great Lakes, that otherwise may be too risky for traditional production.

Publications

  • Lang, G., Demirosy, H. and Demirsoy, L. 2007. Bodur kirazlarda goz yonetimi. Hasad Bitkisel Uretim 22(263):56-59.
  • Lang, G., Anderson, R.L., Robinson, T., Demirsoy, H. and Demirsoy, L. 2007. Gislea anaclari uzerineki kirazlarin bakimi. Hasad Bitkisel Uretim 23(266):60-64.
  • Olmstead, M.A., Lang, N.S., Lang, G.A., Ewers, F.W. and Owens, S.A. 2006. Examining the vascular pathway of sweet cherries grafted onto dwarfing rootstocks. HortScience 41:674-679.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Trees of Gala and Jonagold were established at the Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station in 1998 on 3 rootstocks for each scion. The trees have been trained to a Vertical Axe system since establishment. Cropping of Gala and Jonagold in 2006 and since establishment (cumulative) is not significantly different among rootstocks. Tree vigor of Gala has been greater on G.16 than M.9 EMLA and M.9 Waffler even though differences are not significant. Jonagold on G.41 is significantly weaker than M.9 and G.16. Cumulative yield for all treatments appear different but tree numbers have diminished over time due to fireblight causing high variance to impact on the error terms. Trees of MacIntosh were established on an array of rootstocks according to NC 140 protocol at two sites in Michigan in 1999. MacIntosh was established without support on eight rootstock treatments (C.30 N, C.30 T, CG 210, CG 707, CG 814, M.26, M.7, and Supporter 4) in 1999 at the Northwest Horticulture Research Station near Traverse City. Trees on G.30T, G.30N are the most productive thus far with cumulative yields greater than 50% over all other treatments including standard M.7. Trees on CG.707 and M.26 are weakest and trees on M.7 and G.30T strongest. Surprisingly, trees on G.30N are smaller than on G.30T but not significantly at the .05 alpha level. Guard trees of Gala on various elite CG series stocks are demonstrating that one rootstock, CG.5087, is very productive and needs further trial evaluation. Productivity on this rootstock has been equivalent if not superior to M.9 and other precocious rootstocks, but with M.7 vigor. More than 50% of trees since 1999 have died on 4 rootstocks; M.9 NAKB 337, CG.707, CG.210 and Spptr 1. Gala was established with support on eleven rootstock treatments (Bergmer 756,Bud.9, Bud.9 Europe M.26 EMLA, M.26 NAKB, M.9 NAKB 337, M.9 RN 29, P.14, PiAU 51-11, PiAU 51-4 and Supporter 4) in 2002 at the Clarksville Horticulture Research Station. First significant cropping for this trial began in 2004. Unfortunately, an infestation of fireblight killed several trees in the planting and infections in the last 3 years. Seventy per cent of trees on M.9 NAKB 337 have died (FB), more thatn 50% of on M.26 and P.14. No trees have died on Bud.9 Europe, RN 29 and PiAU 51-11 and only 1 tree on Bud.9. Cropping has been greatest on both M.26 clones and M.9 NAKB 337 and least on P.14. Trees on both B.9 clones are most yield efficient. The most vigorous trees are on Pi AU 51-4 and smallest on both B.9 clones and M.9 NAKB 337. Cropping over the years do not differ for both B.9 clones. Golden Delicious was established (non NC-140) without support on fifteen semi dwarf rootstock treatments (CG 5087, CG 5890, CG 6006, CG 6143, CG 6210, CG 6874, CG 6879, CG 6969, CG 8534, G.16, M.26, M.7, M9, and MM.111) in 2002 at the Northwest Horticulture Research Station near Traverse City. A trellis system was established with a single wire in 2006, but only trees needing support were affixed to the wire. Cropping now in 3 seasons is best on CG 6006, 6874 and 6210 and lowest on M.7 and M.26. Trees are most vigorous on CG8534 and MM.111 and weakest on M.9.

Impacts
M.9 NAKB 337 is the dominating M.9 clonal rootstock in North America today and yet is inferior to other dwarfing rootstocks as demonstrated by the 1994 dwarf rootstock trial. The 1998 NC-140 apple rootstock trial indicates that the Fireblight resistant Cornell Geneva clone G.16 shows promise as a replacement for the world standard M.9 clone which is susceptible to this important North American pest problem. Cropping and vigor is very similar to the world's standard commercial dwarfing rootstock. Eighty percent of the apple acreage in Southwest Michigan on dwarfing rootstocks, succumbed in 2000 to a catastrophic Fireblight epidemic. In the ten year study for semi-dwarf rootstocks, G.30 still has shown excellent cropping, superior to M.26, but loss of trees to union breakage questions commercial potential. Differences in growth and production between G.30 T and N are not showing at this time. G.30 clone appears the only treatment to be performing well in sandy infertile soil of Northern Michigan. This rootstock appears to show commercial promise for this region of Michigan. Several CG stocks, including CG.5087, are showing increasing promise for trees in NW Michigan.

Publications

  • Autio,W. Robinson,T. Anderson,L. Barritt,B. Cline,J. Crassweller,R. Embree,C. Ferree,D. Garcia,E. Greene,G. Hoover,E. Johnson,S. Kosola,K. Masabni,J. Parker,M. Perry,R. and Reighard,G. 2005. Performance of Fuji and McIntosh apple trees after 5 years as affected by several dwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC 140 rootstock trial. J. American Pomological Society, 59(4):202-214.
  • Autio,W. Robinson,T. Barritt,B. Cline,J. Crassweller,R. Embree,C. Ferree,D. Garcia,E. Greene,G. Hoover,E. Johnson,S. Kosola,K. Masabni, J. Parker,M. Perry,R. Reighard,G. Seeley,S. and Warmund,M. 2005. Performance of Fuji and McIntosh apple trees after 5 years as affected by several semidwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC 140 rootstock trial. J. American Pomological Society. 59(4:192-201.
  • Perry,R. 2005. New Geneva apple rootstocks being tried in Michigan. The Fruit Growers News. 44(3): 12-13,16,42.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Trees of Gala and Jonagold were established at the Clarksville Horticulture Experiment Station (CHES) in 1998 with 3 CG apple rootstock treatments. The trees have been trained to a Vertical Axe system. Cropping of Gala and Jonagold in 2002 and since establishment (cumulative) is not significantly different among rootstocks. Tree vigor of Gala has been greater on G.16 than M.9 EMLA and M.9 Waffler. Jonagold on G.41 is significantly weaker than M.9 and G.16.In 1999, a set of twelve rootstock treatments were established with support and trained to the Vertical Axe system at CHES: CG.4013, CG.5202, M 26, CG.5935, G.16 T, M 9 NAKB 337, CG.5179, G.16 N, Supporter 2, Supporter 1, CG.3041, and Supporter 3. The most vigorous trees in the planting are on CG 4013 and CG 5202 and weakest are on the Supporter series and CG.3041. Cropping data for 2005 has not been analyzed at the time of this report. Cropping in previous years has been greatest on CG.4013, CG.5202, and CG 5935. In the same year, MacIntosh was established without support on eight rootstock treatments (C.30 N, C.30 T, CG 210, CG 707, CG 814, M.26, M.7, and Supporter 4) in 1999 at the Northwest Horticulture Research Station near Traverse City. Trees on G.30T, G.30N are the most productive thus far with cumulative yields greater than 50% over all other treatments including standard M.7. Trees on CG.707 and M.26 are weakest and trees on M.7 and G.30T strongest. Surprisingly, trees on G.30N are smaller than on G.30T. Gala was established with support on eleven rootstock treatments (Bergmer 756,Bud.9, Bud.9 Europe, M.26 EMLA, M.26 NAKB, M.9 NAKB 337, M.9 RN 29, P.14, PiAU 51-11, PiAU 51-4 and Supporter 4) in 2002 at the Clarksville Horticulture Research Station. First significant cropping for this trial began in 2004. Unfortunately, an infestation of fireblight killed several trees in the planting and infections in 2004 and 2005 have expressed symptoms in fall of 2005 on several trees. More than 50% of test trees on 3 rootstocks have succumbed since establishment on M.26, P.14 and M.9 NAKB 337. Without inoculation control, rootstocks affected most seriously in the planting (numbers of trees dead in 2004/5). Cropping was has been greatest on both M.26 clones and Pi AU 51-4 and least on P.14. Trees on both B.9 clones are most yield efficient. The most vigorous trees are on Pi AU 51-4 and smallest on both B.9 clones. Cropping over the years do not differ for both B.9 clones. Golden Delicious was established without support on fifteen semi dwarf rootstock treatments (CG 5087,CG 5890, CG 6006, CG 6143, CG 6210, CG 6874, CG 6879, CG 6969, CG 8534, G.16, M.26, M.7, M9, and MM.111) in 2002 at the Northwest Horticulture Research Station near Traverse City. The first crop of this non-NC140 trial was harvested in 2004. Some CG series stocks such as CG 6874, CG 6879, and G.16 averaged 4-5 kg per tree. Cropping in 2005 showed that CG clones 6006, 6879, 6874 and 5087 are very productive and trees on M.9, G.16, M.7 recorded lowest yields in 2005.

Impacts
M.9 NAKB 337 is the dominating M.9 clonal rootstock in North America today and yet is inferior to other dwarfing rootstocks as demonstrated by the 1994 dwarf rootstock trial. The 1998 NC-140 apple rootstock trial indicates that the Fireblight resistant Cornell Geneva clone G.16 shows promise as a replacement for the world standard M.9 clone which is susceptible to this important North American pest problem. Cropping and vigor is very similar to the world's standard commercial dwarfing rootstock. Eighty percent of the apple acreage in Southwest Michigan on dwarfing rootstocks, succumbed in 2000 to a catastrophic Fireblight epidemic. In the ten year study for semi-dwarf rootstocks, G.30 still has shown excellent cropping, superior to M.26, but loss of trees to union breakage questions commercial potential. Differences in growth and production between G.30 T and N are not showing at this time. G.30 clone appears the only treatment to be performing well in sandy infertile soil of Northern Michigan. This rootstock appears to show commercial promise for this region of Michigan. Several CG stocks, including CG.5087, are showing increasing promise for trees in NW Michigan.

Publications

  • Gut, L.J., P.H. McGhee and R.L. Perry. 2005 Soil Mounding as a Control for Dogwood Borer in Apple. HortScience 40(7): 2066-2077.
  • Robinson, T., R. Perry, et al. 2004. Performance Of Cornell-Geneva Rootstocks in Multi Location NC-140 Rootstock Trials Across North America. Acta Hort. 658:241-245.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Trees of Gala and Jonagold were established at the Clarksville Horticulture Experiment Station (CHES) in 1998 with three CG apple rootstock treatments. The trees have been trained to a Vertical Axe system. Cropping of Gala and Jonagold in 2002 and since establishment (cumulative) is not significantly different among rootstocks. There is no significant difference in tree vigor among trees of Gala on the three stocks, but Jonagold is smaller on G.41 than the other two stocks in this trial. Cumulative yield for all treatments appears different, but tree numbers have diminished over time due to fireblight causing high variance to impact on the error terms. Trees of McIntosh were established on an array of rootstocks according to NC 140 protocol at two sites in Michigan in 1999. The semi-dwarf planting (non-supported) was established at the Northwest Hort Research Station near Traverse City on eight rootstock treatments. Trees on G.30T, G.30N are the most productive thus far with cumulative yields greater than 50 percent over all other treatments, including standard M.7. Trees on CG. 707 and M.26 are weakest and trees on M.7 and G.30T strongest. Guard trees of Gala on CG. 5087 are very productive and need further trial evaluation. Productivity on this rootstock has been equivalent if not superior to M.9 and other precocious rootstocks, but with M.7 vigor. In the same year, a set of 12 rootstock treatments was established with support and trained to the Vertical Axe system at CHES. The most vigorous trees in the planting are on CG 4013 and CG 5202, and weakest are on the Supporter series and CG. 3041. Cropping in 2004 was approximately 30 to 50 percent of 2003 season. There is no significant difference in cumulative cropping among 9 of 12 rootstock treatments in this plot. Cropping has been greatest on CG.4013, CG.5202 and CG.5935. Golden Delicious was established without support on 15 semi-dwarf rootstock treatments (CG 5087, CG 5890, CG 6006, CG 6143, CG 6210, CG 6874, CG 6879, CG 6969, CG 8534, G.16, M.26, M.7, M9 and MM.111) in 2002 at the Northwest Horticulture Research Station near Traverse City. The first crop was harvested in 2004. Some CG series stocks such CG 6874, CG 6879 and G.16 averaged 4-5 kg per tree. Several may require support due to cropping and canopy weight. Gibson Golden Delicious was established with support on 18 dwarfing rootstock treatments (B.9, B.62-396, CG.3041, CG.4210, CG.5935, G.16, JM.1, JM.2, JM.7, JM.8, J-TE-H, M.26 EMLA, M.9 Pajam 2, M.9T337, PiAU 51-11, PiAU 51-4 and PiAU 56-83) in 2003 at the Clarksville Horticulture Experiment Station. The trees are still in development stage without any significant performance information to report at this time. Initial growth in 2003 was slow, but many trees and treatments recovered in 2004 with good growth on this site. A new Cornell-Geneva apple rootstock trial was established at Wittenbach's Orchard in Belding, MI in spring 2004 with support with Honeycrisp scion on 14 dwarfing rootstock treatments (CG 4002, 4003, 4011, 4013, 4202, 4210, 4213, 4214, 4814, 5012, 5046, 5087, 5179 and M.9).

Impacts
M.9 NAKB 337 is the dominating M.9 clonal rootstock in North America today, and yet is inferior to other dwarfifng rootstocks as demonstrated by the 1994 dwarf rootstock trial. The 1998 NC-140 apple rootstock trial indicates that the fireblight resistant Cornell Geneva clone G.16 shows promise as a replacement for the world standard M.9 clone which is susceptible to this important North American pest problem. Cropping and vigor are very similar to the world's standard commercial dwarfing rootstock. Eighty percent of the apple acreage in southwest Michigan on dwarfing rootstocks succumbed in 2000 to a catastrophic fireblight epidemic. In the 10-year study for semi-dwarf rootstocks, G.30 still has shown excellent cropping, superior to M.26, but loss of trees to union breakage questions commercial potential. Differences in growth, and production between G.30 T and N are not showing at this time. G. 30 clone appears the only treatment to be performing well in sandy infertile soil of northern Michigan. This rootstock appears to show commercial promise for this region of Michigan. CG. 5087 needs further testing.

Publications

  • Autio, W., Anderson, L., Barritt, B., Cline, J., Crassweller, R., Embree, C., Ferree, D., Garcia, E., Greene, G., Hoover, E., Johnson, S., Kosola, K., Masabni, J., Parker, M., Perry, R., Reighard, G. and Robinson, T. 2004. Early performance of 'Fuji' and 'McIntosh' apple trees on several semi-dwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC-140 rootstock trial. 8th International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. Program and Abstracts, p. 94 (Abstr.).
  • Zoppolo, R.Z. 2004. Orchard floor management systems and rootstock performance of organically managed apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.). PhD Thesis, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. 250 pp.
  • Autio, W., Anderson, L., Barritt, B., Cline, J., Crassweller, R., Embree, C., Ferree, D., Garcis, E., Greene, G., Hoover, E., Johnson, S., Kosola, K., Masabni, J., Parker, M., Perry, R., Reighard, G. and Robinson, T. 2004. Early performance of 'Fuji' and 'McIntosh' apple trees on several dwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC-140 rootstock trial. 8th International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. Program and Abstracts, p. 93 (Abstr.).
  • Autio, W., Cline, J., Crassweller, R., Embree, C., Garcis, E., Hoover, E., Kosola, K., Perry, R. and Robinson, T. 2004. Early performance of 'Fuji' and 'McIntosh' apple trees on several dwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC-140 rootstock trial. HortScience 39:799 (Abstr.).
  • Autio, W., Cline, J., Crassweller, R., Embree, C., Garcia, E., Hoover, E., Kosola, K., Perry, R. and Robinson, t. 2004. Early performance of 'Fuji' and 'McIntosh' apple trees on several dwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC-140 rootstock trial. HortScience 39:800 (Abstr.).
  • Robinson, T., Anderson, L., Autio, W., Barritt, B., Cline, J., Crassweller, R., Cowgill, W., Embree, C., Ferree, D., Garcia, E., Greene, G., Hampson, C., Kosola, K., Parker, M., Perry, R., Roper, T. and Warmund, M. 2004. A multi-location comparison of Geneva 16, Geneva 41 and M.9 apple rootstocks across North America. 8th International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. Program and Abstracts, p. 30 (Abstr.).


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
A new NC 140 apple rootstock trial was established at CHES with support in spring 2003 with Gibson Golden Delicious scion on eighteen dwarfing rootstock treatments. In the terminal trial year for the 1994 NC-140 semi-dwarf apple rootstock trial, Gala has been most productive on G.30 than M.26, V.2 and P.1. Trees on P.1 are most vigorous and those on G.30 are smallest, which contradicts reports from NY where trees on this rootstock are expected to fall between M.26 and M.7 in vigor. Also in the terminal year, Gala in a corresponding NC 140 1994 dwarf rootstock trial, one tree each of seven rootstock treatments and 2 on B.9 and B.491 have died since establishment. Death has been caused by wind (brittle union) on most of the trees in replication one, which is located on the perimeter of the plot and exposed to wind. The most vigorous trees in this planting are those on V.1 and M.26 and least vigorous on M.27 and P.22. Cropping in 2003 was highest on Pajam 2, Ottawa 3 and M.9 NAKB 337, yielding between 60 to 70 kg per tree. Cropping over the years has been highest on PJ.2, M.9 EMLA and O.3. Cumulative yield efficiency in this plot is highest on P.16, followed by P.22 and B.491. Trees on M.26 are the least efficient over the years. Average fruit weight was highest in 2003 on V.1 and PJ.2 Trees of Gala and Jonagold were established at the Clarksville Horticulture Experiment Station (CHES) in 1998 with 3 CG apple rootstock treatments. The trees have been trained to a Vertical Axe system. Cropping of Gala and Jonagold in 2003 and since establishment (cumulative) is not significantly different among rootstocks. There is no significant difference in tree vigor among trees of Gala on the 3 stocks, but Jonagold is smaller on G.41 than the other two stocks in this trial. Trees of MacIntosh were established on an array of rootstocks according to NC 140 protocol at two sites in Michigan in 1999. The Semi dwarf planting (non-supported) was established at the Northwest Hort Research Station near Traverse City on eight rootstock treatments. Trees on G.30T, G.30N are the most productive thus far, but 2003 was the first significant cropping year. Trees on M.26 and the Supporter Series 1-3 are the weakest. In the same year a set of twelve rootstock treatments was established with support and trained to the Vertical Axe system at CHES. The most vigorous trees in the planting are on CG 4013 and CG 5202 and weakest are on the Supporter series. Cumulative cropping is greatest on CG.4013, CG.5202, M.26 and CG 5935. MacIntosh was established without support on eight Cornell-Geneva elite candidate rootstock treatments in 2000 at CHES. The trees cropped for their first time in 2003, without any differences among rootstock treatments. Trees on CG.4213 are excessively vigorous. Gala was established with support on eleven rootstock treatments for an NC 140 apple trial in 2002 at CHES. The trees are still in development stage without any significant performance information to report at this time.

Impacts
M.9 NAKB 337 is the dominating M.9 clonal rootstock in North America today and yet is inferior to other dwarfing rootstocks as demonstrated by the 1994 dwarf rootstock trial. After 10 years of evaluation, there appears no significant difference in cropping (Cum yield) for Gala among the top 8 rootstocks led by M.9 Pajam 2. M.9 NAKB 337 is not among the top 8 rootstocks at this site. Pajam 2 is impressive from the view that while it is the top cropping stock, it is the rootstock in 2003 which also averaged the largest fruit. Among the M.9 clonal rootstocks, PJ 2 is also the most vigorous which for North America has excellent commercial potential to withstand field and production stresses. The 1998 NC-140 apple rootstock trial indicates that the Fireblight resistant Cornell Geneva clone G.16 shows promise as a replacement for the world standard M.9 clone which is susceptible to this important North American pest problem. Cropping and vigor is very similar to the world?s standard commercial dwarfing rootstock. Eighty percent of the apple acreage in Southwest Michigan on dwarfing rootstocks, succumbed in 2000 to a catastrophic Fireblight epidemic. In the ten year study for semi-dwarf rootstocks, G.30 still has shown excellent cropping, superior to M.26, but loss of trees to union breakage questions commercial potential.

Publications

  • Beckman, T.G. and Lang, G.A. 2003. Rootstock breeding for stone fruits. Acta Horticulturae (In Press).
  • Ayala, M. and Lang, G. 2003. Examining the influence of different leaf populations on sweet cherry fruit quality. Acta Horticulturae (In Press).
  • Olmstead, M.A., Lang, N.S., Lang, G., Ewers, F. and Owens, S. 2003. Characterization of graft union development in sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) on dwarfing rootstocks. Acta Horticulturae (In Press).
  • Marini,R.P., Barden, J.A., Cline, J.A., Perry, R.L.and Robinson, T. 2002. Effect of apple rootstocks on average ?Gala? fruit weight at four locations after adjusting for crop load. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127:749-753.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Gala has been most productive on G.30 in the 1994 NC-140 semi-dwarf apple rootstock trial. Since establishment, cumulative yields are not significantly different between this G.30 and that of V.2 and P.1. The least productive treatment has been on M.26. Cropping was greatest in 2002 on G.30. We lost one tree on G.30 in 2001 and one in 2002 to wind and subsequent union breakage. Trees on P.1 are most vigorous, and those on G.30 are smallest, which contradicts reports from NY where trees on this rootstock are expected to fall between M.26 and M.7 in vigor. One tree each of seven rootstock treatments and 2 on B.9 and B.491 have died since establishment in the NC 140 1994 Gala dwarf rootstock trial. Death has been caused by wind (brittle union) on most of the trees in replication one, on the exterior and exposed to wind. The most vigorous trees in this planting are those on M.26 and V.1, and least vigorous on M.27 and P.22. Cropping in 2002 was highest on Mark F1 56 and M.9 EMLA, both averaging slightly under 60 kg per tree. Cropping over the years has been highest on V.1 and PJ.2. Cumulative yield efficiency in this plot is highest on P.16, followed by B. 491 and V.3. Trees on V.1 are the least efficient over the years. No significant differences are reported for fruit size in 2002. Cropping in 2002 was 40-50 percent of 2001 due to spring frost. Trees of Gala and Jonagold were established at the Clarksville Station (CHES) in 1998 with 3 CG apple rootstock treatments. The trees have been trained to a Vertical Axe system. Cropping of Gala and Jonagold in 2002 and since establishment (cumulative) is not significantly different among rootstocks. Trees of Gala and Jonagold are more vigorous on G.16 than the other rootstock treatments. Jonagold is weakest on G.41, and Gala is weakest on M.9 Wafler clone. An NC-140 apple rootstock trial was established at two sites in 1999. A semi-dwarf planting (non-supported) was established near Traverse City on eight rootstocks. Trees on G.30T, M.7 and G.30N are similar in vigor and are the most vigorous. Trees on M.26 and the Supporter Series 1-3 are the weakest. A second trial testing dwarfing apple rootstocks was established with MacIntosh scion on 12 rootstocks at CHES in 1999. These trees are supported in a Vertical Axe system. The most vigorous trees in the planting are on CG 202 and weakest are on the Supporter 3 stocks. Cropping is not significantly different, statistically. The vigor differences among rootstocks are now readily apparent. There are 13 rootstocks with Hedelfingen that exhibit less vigor than Mazzard, including what is probably the most dwarfing cherry rootstock yet tested in the NC-140 project (Gi. 209/1). The cropping potential for the 1998 NC-140 Sweet and Tart Cherry rootstock trials in Traverse City was reduced by spring frost to 30 percent in 2002. All of the lower vigor rootstocks had greater bloom in the 5th season than Mazzard, and the 7 rootstocks with higher vigor than Mazzard. In the 5th season, all of the rootstocks with Montmorency exhibit less vigor than Mahaleb, although bloom is similar.

Impacts
The 1998 NC-140 apple rootstock trial indicates that the Fireblight resistant Cornell Geneva clone G.16 shows promise as a replacement for the world standard M.9 clone which is susceptible to this important North American pest problem. Cropping and vigor are very similar to the world's standard commercial dwarfing rootstock. Eighty percent of the apple acreage in Southwest Michigan on dwarfing rootstocks, succumbed in 2000 to a catastrophic Fireblight epidemic.

Publications

  • Marini, R.P., Barden, J.A., Cline, J.A., Perry, R.L. and Robinson, T. 2002. Effect of apple rootstocks on average 'Gala' fruit weight at four locations after adjusting for crop load. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 127:749-753.
  • Lang, G.A. and Perry, R.L. 2002. High density sweet cherry management:point-counterpoint. Compact Fruit Tree 35(4):115-117.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
One apple tree each of seven rootstock treatments and two on B.9 and B.491 have died since establishment in the NC 1994 Gala dwarf rootstock trial. The most vigorous trees in this planting are those on M.26 and V.1 and least vigorous on M.27 and P.22. Cropping in 2001 was highest on V.1 and PJ.2. Cropping over the years has been highest on V.1 and PJ.2. Cumulative yield efficiency in this plot is highest on P.16, followed by B.491 and V.3. Trees on V.1 are the least efficient over the years. No significant differences are reported for fruit size in 2001. Cropping in 2001 was extremely high on all rootstock treatments due to high fruit set and ineffective thinning. In a companion apple rootstock trial for semi-dwarfing stocks, Gala has been most productive on G.30 since establishment, but cumulative yields are not significantly different between this treatment and that of V.2 and P.1. The least productive treatment has been on M.26. Trees of Gala and Jonagold were established at the Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station (CHES) as a cooperating site for the 1998 Cornell-Geneva apple rootstock trial. Cropping of Gala and Jonagold in 2001 and since establishment (cumulative)is not significantly different among three rootstocks for each variety. Trees of Gala are significantly more vigorous on G.16 than M.9 EMLA and M.9 Wafler clones. Interestingly, trees of Jonagold on G.16 are similar in vigor to M.9 and more vigorous than the third treatment, G.41. Trees of MacIntosh were established in the 1999 NC 140 apple rootstock trial on an array of rootstocks according to NC 140 protocol at two sites in Michigan in 1999. The semi-dwarf planting (non-supported) was established at the Northwest Hort Research Station near Traverse City, and a second replicate was established at CHES. A dwarf planting with support was established at CHES. Twelve rootstock treatments are being evaluated at CHES: M.26, M.9 NAKB 337, Sptr 1, 2, and 3, G. 16N, G.16T, CG 13, CG 202, CG 41, CG 179, and CG 935. Trees have been trained to the Vertical Axe system. Cropping in 2001 ranged from 8 to 16 kg per tree. Trees on CG 935 produced the most crop, but no statistical significant differences are reported among treatments for yield. A new NC 140 peach rootstock trial was established in 2001 with cooperator, Dr. Mira Bulatovic-Danilovich at Hackert's Orchard Operation, Ludington, MI with 132 Redhaven peach trees planted on 14 rootstocks treatments. The rootstocks are: BH-4 (P. persica x P. dulcis), SLAP (P. persica x P. dulcis), SC 17 (P. persica), Lovell (P. persica), Bailey (P. persica), Cadaman (P. persica x P. davidiana), Julior (P. insititia x P. domestica), P30-135 (P. salicina x P. persica), Jaspi (P. domestica x P. spinosa), Pumiselect (P. pumila), Hiawatha (P. besseyi x P. salicina), K146-43 (P. salicina x P. dulcis), K146-44 (P. salicina x P. dulcis), VVA-1 (P. cerasifera x P. tomentosa).

Impacts
In the 1994 NC 140 apple rootstock trial, M.9 NAKB 37, the dominating M.9 clonal rootstock in North America today, demonstrates that it is inferior to other M.9 clonal stocks in productivity and precocity. The most interesting rootstock in this planting thus far is PJ.2 which possesses moderate tree size and high cropping efficiency. G.30, a semi-dwarf apple rootstock, is less vigorous, but more productive than standard, M.26 rootstock in this planting.

Publications

  • Perry, R.L. and Byler, G.V. 2001. Effects of 19 rootstocks on the performance of imperial Gala grown in the V system. Proceedings of the VII International Symposium on Orchard and Plantation Systems. Acta Horticulturae 557:77-81.
  • Rieghard, G.L., Anderson, J.L., Anderson, R., Autio, W., Beckman, T., Belding, R., Brown, G., Cowgill, W., Deyton, D., Durner, E., Erb, A., Gaus, A., Hirst, P., Kaps, M., Miles, N., Morrison, F., Myers, S., Perry, R., Rom, C.R., Shane, W., Taylor, B., Taylor, K., Walsh, C. and Warmund, M. 2001. Five-year performance of 19 peach rootstocks at 20 sites in North America. Acta Horticulturae 557:97-102.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
After 3 years, the most vigorous treatments in the 1998 NC-140 sweet cherry rootstock trial at the Northwest Hort Research Station are on Erdi V, MxM 60 and Mahaleb seedling and the most dwarfing is on Gi. 209/1, Edabriz and Gi. 5. Among the 19 rootstocks under test, seven rootstock treatments, are less than 60 percent in vigor of trees on Mazzard; they are Gi. 209/1, Edabriz, W.53, W.72, Gi.5, Gi.7 and Gi.195/20. Blossom clusters were counted and are expressed as a ratio of numbers of clusters per trunk cross sectional area for fall 2000. Hedelfingen is most precocious on Gi.209/10, Gi.7, Gi.195/20 and Gi.5. In an adjacent trial, Montmorency tart cherry after 3 years, is most vigorous on Mahaleb and the most dwarfing treatments are Gi.209/1, Gi.5, Edabriz and Gi.5. Two trees of Montmorency on Gi.53 died in 2000. Infection by the viruses PD or PNRS viruses is suspected as the cause of death. Expressed as blossom density, Montmorency is most precocious on Gi.209/1. Also established in 1998 is a trial of new tart scion varieties Balaton and Danube on several rootstock treatments. Balaton is compared on 5 mahaleb seedling rootstock treatments. They include Hungarian mahaleb seedling lines known as Korponay, CT.500, CT.2753, Erdi V and standard Mahaleb seeding from North America. Danube is compared on 4 mahaleb seedling rootstock treatments to MxM 60 (P.mahaleb x avium hybrid). The mahaleb rootstock treatments include Hungarian mahaleb seedling lines Korponay, CT.500, Erdi V and standard Mahaleb seeding from North America. Trees of Balaton are more vigorous than Danube in this trial. Vigor of Balaton does not differ among the rootstock treatments. Danube is most vigorous on CT.500. Balaton is most precocious on standard Mahaleb seedling . Rootstocks had no effect on precocity of Danube. Balaton and Danube appear more precocious than Montmorency when comparing Blossom density on Mahaleb seedling at 3.02, 1.21 and 0.87, respectively. This observation is duplicated in cropping with 0.11, .008 and .07 kg per tree, respectively.

Impacts
The new sweet cherry rootstocks from Germany are appearing to adequately dwarf the scion so that 7 stocks are reducing tree size by under 60 per cent of standard. These stocks are considerably more precocious than the standard Mazzard seedling rootstock. Standard Mahaleb seedling rootstock is the most vigorous stock and is less precocious than the stocks under test. Gi. 53 has needs to be eliminated from further testing, as it appears to be highly susceptible to the PD and PNRS viruses. Balaton and Danube appear more precocious than Montmorency when comparing blossom density on a common Mahaleb seedling in the adjacent rootstock trial. The vigor of Balaton is high, indicating a need to test more dwarfing and precocious rootstocks for this new promising scion variety.

Publications

  • Perry, R., Reighard,G., Ferree,D., Barden, J., Beckman,T., Brown, G., Cummins, J., Durner, E., Greene, G., Johnson, S., Layne, R., Morrison, Myers, S., Okie, W.R., Rom, C., Rom, R., Taylor, B., Walker, D., Warmund, M.,and Yu, K. 2000. Performance of the 1984 NC-140 Cooperative Peach Rootstock Planting. Journ. Of American Pomological Society. Vol.54(1):6-10.
  • Marini, R.P., Anderson, J.L.,Barritt,B.H., Brown, G.R., Cline,J., Cowgill, W.P.,Jr., Domoto,P.A.,Ferree, D.C., Garner, J., Greene, G.M., . Hampson, C., Hirst, P., Kushad, M.M., Mielke, E., Mullins, C.A., Parker, M., Perry,R.L., Prive, J.P., Robinson, T., Rom,C.R., Roper, T., Schupp, J.R., Stover, E., Unrath, R. 2000. Performance of Gala apple on four semi-dwarf rootstocks; A five year summary of the 1994 NC-140 Semi-dwarf rootstock trial. J. of the American Pomological Society 54(2) 84-91.
  • Marini, R.P., Anderson, J.L., Barritt, B.H., Brown, G.R., Cline, J., Cowgill, W.P. Jr., Domoto, P.A., Ferree, D.C., Garner, J., Greene, G.M., Hampson, C., Hirst, P., Kushad, M.M., Mielke, E., Mullins, C.A., Parker, M., Perry, R. L., Prive, J.P., Robinson, T., Rom, C. R., Roper, T., Schupp, J. R., Stover, E., Unrath, R. 2000. Performance of Gala apple on 18 dwarf rootstocks; A five year summary of the 1994 NC-140 Semi-dwarf rootstock trial. J. of the American Pomological Society 54(2) 92-107.
  • Perry, R.L. and Byler, G.V. 2000. Performance of Liberty on 8 Semi-dwarfing Cornell-Geneva rootstocks. Proceedings of 129th Annual Michigan State Horticultural Society. 129:196-199.
  • Perry, R.L. and Byler, G.V. 2000. Performance of Liberty on 9 Dwarfing and Semi-dwarfing rootstocks in a 1992 NC-140 rootstock trial. Proceedings of 129th Annual Michigan State Horticultural Society. 129:200-203.
  • Perry, R. and Byler, G.V. 2000. Effects of 19 rootstocks on the performance of Imperial Gala grown in the "V" System. Acta Hort. ISHS 7 th Orchard System Plantation Symposium, Jan 31?Feb 4, 2000, Nelson, NZ (In Press).
  • Perry, R. 2000. Planting fruit trees in 2000. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 15(1):2-4.
  • Perry, R., J. Hull and Clements, J. 2000. Internet site helps with apple scion / rootstock selection and planning. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 15(1):4.
  • Perry, R. 2000. Belgium produces more than waffles and chocolates. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 15(2):1-2.
  • Perry, R. 2000. Keys to maintaining productive vertical axe trees. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 15(2):2-3.
  • Perry, R. 2000. Brief comments about new apple stocks. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 15(2):5-7.
  • Perry, R. 2000. Training sweet cherries. American Fruit Grower. Vol. 120 (4):34-38.
  • Perry, R. 2000. Guidelines for establishing sweet cherry trees on Gisela rootstocks. The Fruit Growers News. 39(5):20.
  • Perry, R. 2000. The keys to maintaining productive Vertical Axe trees. The Fruit Growers News. 39(5): 21.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
The trees in a NC-140 1994 Gala apple rootstock trial located at the Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station (CHES) are growing extremely well. Cropping of Gala since 1995 has been highest on V.1. Cumulative yield does not differ for V.1, M.9 Pajam 2, Mark and Ottawa 3 rootstocks. Cumulative yield and yield in 1999 is alarmingly low for one of the standard dwarf M.9 clonal rootstocks, NAKB 337. Even though yields are high on V.1, fruit size on this fruit rootstock are high as well. Fruit size on Mark rootstock is comparatively small, as found in previous studies. An estimate of rootstock trunk surface covered by Burr knots was made in spring of 1999. Pajam 2 and P.16 rootstocks had no Burr knots. Rootstocks with the highest % included Mark, M.26 and V.3. The data also indicated a high standard deviation for this assessment. In an adjacent 1994 NC-140 semi-dwarf apple rootstock trial at CHES, Gala has been most productive on G.30 and V.2 and least productive on M.26. G.30 in this planting is the least vigorous rootstock. There were a significantly lower % of Burr knots found on G.30 and V.2 than on M.26. Yields in the 1990 NC-140 apple orchard rootstock and systems trial in 1999 were some 30-50% lower for Jonagold, than in 1998. In comparing yield, the most productive system for both cultivars on Mark rootstock has been the VA. In the CL system, Empire has been most productive on M.26 , while Jonagold has been best on Mark. In the SS, Bud. 9 and Mark are similar, with trees on M.9 being more vigorous and less productive for both varieties. M.9 EMLA and Mark are the most productive and efficient rootstocks for both varieties in the VA. Trees on M.9 are well balanced and productive in the taller canopied VA system. In contrast, trees on Mark are less vigorous but suit the shorter, more intensive spacing of the SS system. The VA is the most yield efficient system for both varieties. Even though the SS system possesses 950 trees more per hectare, cumulative yields of Jonagold and Empire are generally equivalent to or higher in the Vertical Axe. Rootstock treatments in the 1992 Liberty dwarf apple rootstock trial demonstrate the most vigor on on KSC 28 and CG. 13 rootstocks and the least vigorous on CG. 65. Cropping has been best on Bemali and CG 202. Yield in 1998 was best on M.9 EMLA and Bemali and lowest on M.26 EMLA. As in 1997, Liberty expressed stress symptoms on G.65 in 1999 with leaves appearing yellowish in color. The most vigorous trees thus far are in the 1992 NC-140 Cornell-Geneva semi-dwarf apple rootstock trial are on CG 517 and CG 707. Yields in 1999 were highest on CG 707 and CG 30. The standard stocks MM.106 had the lowest yield in 1999. All trees on M.7a appear stressed in 1997 and were removed. Trees in this plot have not been supported and many are leaning. Those leaning beyond 45 degrees were propped up this growing season to avoid further lean. Thus far, we have lost one tree each on G.30 and CG. 179, 2 trees each on CG. 521 and M.7A and 3 trees on CG. 210.

Impacts
Rootstocks appear to have more of an impact on productivity and fruit quality in this trial than training system and tree density. The Vertical Axe systems appears to be the most productive system for commercial apple growers to use in Michigan. M.9 NAKB 337 is the dominating M.9 clonal rootstock in North America today. M.9 NAKB 337 does not approach performance indices to merit its commercial popularity in Michigan. There has been an accelerated infestation of Dogwood Borer insect pest in Michigan orchards in 1998 and 1999 on dwarfing rootstocks.

Publications

  • Perry, R. and Byler,G. 1999. Performance results of Gala on V system. The Fruit Growers News. Vol. 38(3): 46-47.
  • Perry, R. 1999. Debudding sweet cherry trees. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 14(2):1-2
  • Perry, R. 1999. Debudding and Clothespins, Critical To Success In Developing Dwarf Sweet Cherry Trees In Michigan. The Fruit Growers News. Vol. 38(5):34-35.
  • Perry, R. 1999. Plant density or canopy volume - which makes cents? The Fruit Growers News. Vol. 38(5):44-45.
  • Perry, R. 1999. Two - by - fours help get planting right. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 14(3):4.
  • Perry, R. 1999. Mound tree trunks of dwarf apple trees. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 14(7):1-2.
  • Irish-Brown, A. and Perry, R. 1999. Dogwood borer. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 14(7):2.
  • Perry, R. and Gut,L. 1999. Dogwood borers and the health of dwarf apple trees. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 14(18):2-3.
  • Perry, R. 1999. Monitor tree wraps. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 14(18):3-4.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
Yields in the 1990 NC-140 apple orchard rootstock and systems trials in 1998 were some 25% lower for Jonagold than in 1997. In comparing yield, the most productive system for both cultivars on Mark rootstock has been the VA. In the CL system, Empire has been most productive on M.26, while Jonagold has been best on Mark. In the SS, Bud. 9 and Mark are similar, with trees on M.9 being the most productive for both varieties. M.26, M.9 EMLA and Mark are the most productive and efficient rootstocks for Empire in the VA. Jonagold has performed best on M.9 EMLA in the VA. The high cumulative yields in this trial in the first 7 years are Empire on Bud. 9 in the Slender Spindle. Trees on M.9 are well balanced and productive in the taller canopied VA system. In contrast, trees on Mark are less vigorous but suit the shorter, more intensive spacing of the SS system. The VA is the most yield efficient system for both varieties. Even though the SS system possesses 950 trees more per hectare, cumulative yields of Jonagold and Empire are generally equivalent to or higher in the Vertical Axe. Trees of Hedelfingen and Montmorency were established as cooperative plantings for the NC-140 cherry rootstock trials at the Northwest Horticulture Research Station. Eight replications (randomized complete block design) of Hedelfingen on 20 rootstock treatments were established on April 21. Kristin, Vandalay and Blackgold trees were planted as pollenizers. An adjacent trial was established of 8 replications (randomized complete block design) of Montmorency on 12 rootstock candidates. Only 2 trees died in this planting by the end of the season. Additionally, a Balaton and Danube tart cherry rootstock trial was established adjacent to this NC-140 trial at the Northwest Station. A new sweet cherry crop load and vigor experiment was established at the Clarksville Horticulture Experiment Station. The trial was established on new dwarfing Gisela rootstocks. Previous studies have indicated trees on these stocks are extremely precocious. This results in significant reduced fruit size, branch and tree. Treatments in this trial will include various levels of fruit thinning, irrigation, pruning and tree support.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Perry. R.L. 1998. Training dwarf sweet cherries. Proc. 127th Annual Meeting. Michigan State Hort. Society 127:125-134.
  • Perry, R.L. 1998. Forcing laterals on Vertical Axe leaders with pliers. Proc. Michigan State Hort. Society 127:135-138.
  • Perry. R.l. 1998. Strategies for early production. Proc. Michigan State Hort. Society 127:138-144.
  • Perry, R. 1998. Rootstocks and systems for high density apples. Proc. Utah State Horticultural Association, January 26-28. pp 1-11.
  • Perry, R. 1998. Tree fruit root systems and soils. Proc. Utah State Horticultural Association, January 26-28. pp 22-28.
  • Perry, R., Lang, G., Andersen, R., Anderson, R., Azarenko, A., Facteau, T., Ferree, D., Gaus, A., Kappel, F., Morrison, F., Rom, C., Roper, T., Southwick, S., Tehrani, G. and Walsh, C. 1998. Performance of the NC-140 cherry rootstock trials in North America. Acta Horticulturae 468:291-296.


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
Yields in the 1990 NC-140 apple orchard rootstock and systems trial in 1997 were some 10% and 25% lower for Empire and Jonagold, respectively, than in 1996 due to spring frost. In comparing yield, the most productive system for both cultivars on Mark rootstock has been the Vertical Axe system (VA). In the Central Leader (CL) system, Empire has been most productive on M.26 , while Jonagold has been best on Mark. In the Slender Spindle system (SS), Bud. 9 and Mark are similar, with trees on M.9 being less productive for both varieties. M.26, M.9 EMLA and Mark are the most productive and efficient rootstocks for Empire in the VA. Jonagold has performed best on M.9 EMLA in the VA. The high cumulative yields in this trial in the first 6 years are Empire on Bud. 9 in the Slender Spindle at 180 tons / hectare. Trees on M.9 are well balanced and productive in the taller canopied VA system. In contrast, trees on Mark are less vigorous but suit the shorter, more intensive spacing of the SS system. The VA is the most yield efficient system for both varieties. Even though the SS system requires 950 more trees per hectare, cumulative yields of Jonagold and Empire are generally equivalent to or higher in the Vertical Axe. The most vigorous Liberty apple trees in the NC-140 1992 Cornell-Geneva apple rootstock trial are on KSC 28 and CG. 13 rootstocks and the least vigorous on CG. 65. Cropping has been best on Bemali and CG 202 rootstocks. Yield in 1997 was best on M.9 EMLA and Bemali and lowest on M.26 EMLA. As in 1996, Liberty expressed stress symptoms on G.65 in 1997 with leaves appearing yellowish. Trees of NC-140 Liberty in the 1992 Cornell-Geneva apple Semi Dwarf Apple Rootstock Trial are most vigorous on CG 517 and CG 707 rootstocks. Yields in 1997 were highest on CG 707 and CG 30. The standard stocks, MM.106 and M. 7a, had the lowest yield in 1997. Several trees on M.7a appear stressed and many lack leaves. Trees in this plot have not been supported, and thus far, we have lost one tree each on G.30 and CG. 179, 2 trees each on CG. 521 and M.7A and 3 trees on CG. 210. Fruit size in 1997 differed little among treatments. Trees in the NC-140 1994 Gala Dwarf Rootstock Trial are growing extremely well. Due to an initial error in identity of the G.65 treatment experienced during the propagation phase, trees were removed in 1997. Cropping of Gala since 1995 has been highest on V.1, even though it is the most vigorous treatment in the trial. Cumulative yield does not differ for V.1, Mark and Ottawa 3 rootstocks. Cumulative yield and yield in 1997 is alarmingly low for one the commercial standard dwarf M.9 clonal rootstocks, NAKB 337. Lowest cropping among the treatments is found on M.9 NAKB 337, Bud. 491, M.27 EMLA and Pajam 1. Even though yields are high on V.1, fruit size on this fruit rootstock are high. Fruit size on Mark rootstock is comparatively small, as found in previous studies. In the NC-140 1994 Semi-Dwarf Rootstock Trial (4 rootstocks), Gala was most productive on G.30 and V.2. Cumulative yield for 1995 through 1997 shows these two rootstocks with double the yield over M.26 EMLA and lowest total yield on P.1.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Fernandez, R.T., R.L.Perry & J.A. Flore. 1997. Drought response of young apple trees on three rootstocks: Growth and development. J. Amer.Soc.Hort.Sci. 122:(1): 14-19


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
In the NC 140 apple orchard systems and rootstock trial, Empire has been most productive on M.26 in the Central Leader, while Jonagold has been best on Mark. Bud. 9 has made both varieties most productive in the Slender Spindle. M.26, M.9 EMLA and Mark are the most productive and efficient rootstocks for Empire in the VA system. Jonagold has performed best on M.9 EMLA in the VA. The production of fruit on the Gala guard trees in the first 6 seasons have been highest on Bud. 9 and Mark. In the 1992 Geneva rootstock trial, cropping has been best on CG 202 and Bemali. After 10 years, 50 percent or more (poor survival) of the Montmorency trees in the tart cherry NC 140 rootstock trial have died on GM 79, GI 154/7, GI 196/13, GI 148/8, GI 148/9, 173/9 and GI 172/9. Cumulative yield of Montmorency has been highest on Mahaleb seedling rootstock, with no significant difference between it and MXM 39, S.L. 275 and Colt. The highest cropping rootstocks are among the most vigorous stocks. In the 1987 sweet cherry trial, Hedelfingen has been most vigorous on Colt, MXM 2, Mazzard and MXM 60 rootstocks. All of the Gisela series stocks produced trees 50 percent or less in comparative vigor of trees on standard Mazzard seedling rootstock. Cumulative yield of Hedelfingen has been highest on MXM 2 and Colt rootstocks. Hedelfingen has been least productive over 10 years on GM 9 and GM 79. Yields in the early years were impressive on GI 148/1 and GI 195/1, then improved only slightly over the years.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Perry, R.L. 1996. Rootstocks and High Density Systems in Michigan. Proceedings, Annual New Mexico Apple Growers Conference, Feb 15, 1996, Albuquerque, NM. pp 37-41.
  • Perry, R., et. al. 1996. Perf. NC-140 Cherry rootstock trials in N.A. Comp. Frt. T. 29:37-56. Perry, R.L. 1995. Apple rootstocks for the right system. Proceedings, 125th Annual Michigan State Hort. Society meeting, Grand Rapids, MI, Dec. 5-7, 1995 pg. 66-67.
  • Perry, R. 1996. Planting depth for dwarf apples. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 11(3):2-3.
  • Perry, R. 1996. Pruning apple trees at planting on dwarfing rootstocks. CAT, Fruit Ed. MSU Extension, 11(3):3.
  • Longstroth, M. and R.L. Perry. 1996. Selecting the orchard site, orchard planning and establishment. In: Cherries: Crop Physiology, Production, and Uses. A.D. Webster and N.E. Looney (eds.). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pg 203-222.
  • Perry, R., et.al. 1996. The development of integrated fruit management programs in Michigan, USA. International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production . IOBCwprs Bull. Vol. 19(4): 85-89.
  • Perry, R.L. 1996. Planting stone fruit on ridges: Effects on tree longevity. Pe.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
The top yielding rootstocks in the 1987 NC-140 sweet cherry rootstock trial in 1995 was Colt, followed by MXM 39 and MXM 2. Hedelfingen on Colt is also the most vigorous treatment, according to trunk size. To date, the most productive treatment is on MXM 2 in cumulative yield. While fruit of Hedelfingen is largest on GI 154/7, yield in 1995 was down and appears to be in steady decline since its peak production year of 1993.The most impressive rootstock in this planting is MXM 2, which is large, productive and yields large fruit. Among the more dwarfing rootstocks, GI 148/8 and GI 148/9 show excellent potential. In the tart cherry trial, yields of Montmorency still appear highest on Mahaleb seedling rootstock. The top yielding rootstocks 1995 are MXM 39, Colt, and Mahaleb seedling, followed by trees on Mahaleb clonal stock S.L. 275. Cropping total for the history of the plot is greatest on Mahaleb. Many of the trees on the rootstocks from Germany and Belgium have died. The most vigorous trees in a 1992 Cornell-Geneva dwarf apple rootstock trial with Liberty scion are on KSC 28 and CG. 13 rootstocks and the least vigorous on CG. 65. The greatest yields in 1995 were on Bemali and M.9EMLA and lowest on CG. 65. In the semi-dwarf apple rootstock trial, the most productive trees in 1995 were on CG. 210 and MM. 106 rootstocks. Only CG. 210 has been more productive than the two commercial standard treatments MM. 106 and M.7a.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

    Outputs
    Yields of Hedelfingen in the 1987 NC-140 sweet cherry rootstock trial at the Northwest Michigan Horticultural Experiment Station increased from the previous season.The top yielding rootstock in this plot is MXM 2. Hedelfingen on MXM 2 is also the most vigorous treatment. GI 154/7 was very impressive again in 1994 regarding cropping efficiency and in tree vigor. According to trunk size, GI 154/7 is 54% of standard(Mazzard) and maintains a dominant central leader form. Trees on GI 148/1 and GI 195/1 are declining in vigor. Bud wood collected from these trees this year was found free of viruses. Yields in 1994 of Montmorency in the adjacent rootstock trial declined from 1993 on all rootstocks except Mahaleb seedling. The top yielding rootstock in this plot is Mahaleb seedling followed by trees on Mahaleb clonal stock S.L. 275. There is no statistical difference in Cumulative Yield of Mazzard, MXM 2 and MXM 60. All trees on GI 195/1 are dead and there is only one tree left on GI 172/3. Bud wood collected this winter, indicated that most of these trees are infected with Prune Dwarf and Prunus Necrotic Ring Spot Virus. Many of these trees were damaged by the open winter of 1992/93, as reported in 1993. After 5 years, cumulative yield and yield efficiency of Empire, Jonagold and Gala is highest on Budagovsky 9 than all rootstocks compared in the 1990 NC-140 apple rootstock and orchard systems trial at the Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

      Outputs
      Apple rootstock flooding stress studies were completed in 1993. After flooding trees for various periods of up to 32 days, Golden Delicious was found to be more sensitive on M.26 than intermediate M.9 and most tolerant Mark rootstocks. In the 1987 sweet cherry and tart cherry rootstock trial at NW Michigan Horticulture Research Station, Hedelfingen is most vigorous on Colt, MXM 2, MXM 39 and MXM 60 and least vigorous on GI 172/9, GI 148/9 and GM 9. Cropping was less in 1993 than in 1992 on 4 rootstocks. Annual shoot growth on these rootstocks had also slowed indicating a decline phenomenon. 1993 yield efficiency of Hedelfingen was best on GI 154/7, GI 154/4, GI 172/7 and GI 148/8. Montmorency is most vigorous on Colt, MXM 39, SL 275 and weakest on GI 148/2, GM 9 and GI 172/9. Cropping in 1993 was best on SL 275, MXM 39, GI 172/3 and SL 64. Lowest production was on GM 9, GM 61/1 and GI 148/8. The most cropping efficient trees were on GI 172/9, GI 154/7 and GI 172/3. Lack of snow cover during winter 92/93 caused cold damage of some rootstocks. Six of 8 trees were found dead on GI 195/1; 5 of 8 trees dead on GI 172/3. Other rootstock treatments showing dead or stressed trees of Montmorency as result of cold damage included GI 173/9, GI 154/7, GI 172/7, GI 172/9. Injury included rootstock suckers and lower portions of trunks of trees. In a 1990 NC140 apple orchard systems rootstock trial, cropping on some rootstocks was less in 1993 than in 1992 due primarily to overcropping in 1992.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

        Outputs
        Apple rootstock water stress studies were completed in 1992. Gala trees grown ina rain exclusion shelter on 3 rootstocks differed in their response to 2 imposed stress periods. Trees on M.9 rootstock were less affected than the most sensitive rootstock, Mark. Tissues from Emperor Francis on Mazzard and Mahaleb were sampled for cold hardiness following controlled drought stress treatments. Shoots on Mazzard were more cold hardy than those collected from trees on Mahaleb rootstock. In a 1990 NC140 apple orchard systems rootstock trial at Clarksville Hort Expt Station, most trees in the Vertical Axe system have now reached the top wire (3m). Production increased dramatically in 1992 with Empire and Jonagold yielding 850 to 1000 bu per acre in Slender Spindle system, 750 to 900 bu per acre in Vertical Axe system and 200 to 300 bu per acre in the conventional Central Leader system on Mark rootstock. There are more trees per acre in the higher yielding spindle system. On a per tree basis, trees trained to the Vertical Axe system were yield efficient. Differences among rootstocks in this trial are small. Trees on P.1 rootstock are less productive and too vigorous for these systems and spacing. In the same planting, Gala trained to the Hytec system on 8 rootstocks (guard trees) had highest yields in 1992 on Bud.9, Ottawa 3, Mac 39 and Mark. In the 1987 sweet and tart cherry rootstock trial at NW Michigan Hort Research Station, Hedelfingen is most productive on GI 148/1, GI 195/1 and GI 154/7.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

          Outputs
          In a 1987 NC140 sweet and tart cherry rootstock trial at NW Michigan Hort Research Station, Hedelfingen and Montmorency were most productive on a per tree basis on GI148/1 rootstock. Production on GI148/1 in 1991 was 10 times as great as for Hedelfingen on Mazzard seedling (commercial standard), and for Montmorency, 2.5 times as great as trees propagated on Mahaleb seedling (standard) rootstock. Hedelfingen was least vigorous on GI172/9, GI148/9, GI148/8, GM9 and GI172/7. Tree canopy volume of Hedelfingen is reduced more by the same dwarfing rootstocks than when montmorency is the scion. Several of these clones reduce Hedelfingen vigor by 70-80% of trees grown on standard seedling rootstock.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

            Outputs
            Fruit yields of Hedelfingen sweet cherry and Montmorency sour cherry on 19 and 25 rootstocks, respectively, were recorded for the first time since planting in 1987. Both cherry cultivars in this NC 140 trial were most productive on Giessela series 148/1 and 195/1, as indicated by yield and blossom data. According to trunk size, 7 rootstocks are 30-50% of standard Mazzard seedling size trees thus far for sweet cherry. Anchorage and suckering problems arose in 1990 for the first time for some rootstock treatments. Those suckering excessively are 154/4, 172/7, 154/7, 169/15, 172/3 and 173/9. Trees on 154/4 and 148/9 are leaning and indicate a need for support. Starkspur Supreme Red delicious in an NC 140 trial begun in 1984 has been most vigorous on Seedling, P.18 and Antonovka, and least vigorous on P.22, P.16 and P.2. Thus far, cumulative yield has been greatest on P.1, Mac I and M.4. Lowest yields have been on P.22 and P.2, primarily due to inadequate canopy and vigor, while low yields for Antonovka and Seedling are associated with excessive vigor. New NC 140 trials were established this past spring for plum (Northwest Hort. Exp. Sta.), apple cultivar and rootstock (Southwest MI Res. & Ext. Ctr.) and apple orchard systems and rootstock (Clarksville Hort. Exp. Sta.). Trees in the latter trial were established in the slender spindle, vertical axe and central leader systems with appropriate support. Trees were of high quality and grew very well in their first season.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

              Outputs
              Cherry rootstock trials at the Northwest Horticultural Experiment Station (NWHES) and the Clarksville Horticultural Experiment Station indicate that after 10 years, the clonal rootstocks, MXM 2 and MXM 60 are superior to standard commercial seedling rootstocks Mahaleb and Mazzard for sweet and sour cherries. Vigor of Montmorency sour cherry and sweet cherry cultivars Hedelfingen, Napolean and Gold is similar to Mahaleb and Mazzard for both clonal rootstocks. Cropping of the sweet cherry cultivars on these clonal stocks at NWHES is double that on the standard commercial rootstock Mazzard seedling. Peach rootstocks under evaluation in the NC 140 trial at CHES have segregated into the best performers including Bailey, Halford, and GF 677 and the worst ones including GF 43, GF 655-2, and Damas 1869. StarkSpur Supreme Red Delicious apple has become senescent on the dwarfing rootstocks M.27 EMLA, M.9, M.9 EMLA, Mark and Ottawa 3 after 10 years evaluation at East Lansing. The same scion planted in 1984 on 19 apple rootstocks in another NC 140 apple rootstock trial at CHES is performing well. The most vigorous trees are on Ant.313, Dom. Seedling, M.4, and Mac 1. Trees on P.2, P.16, CG 10 and Bud.9 are most dwarfing.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

                Outputs
                An NC 140 regional project peach rootstock trial, established in 1984, indicatesthat Redhaven scion was most productive in 1988 on Halford, Own Roots, GF 677, Bailey and Siberian C rootstocks. The least productive trees were propagated on GF 43 and Citation. The best survival, thus far, are trees on Lovell and Bailey, and poorest survival are those trees on Damas 1869, GF 43, and GF 655-2. Starkspur Supreme Delicious, planted in 1984 on 19 apple rootstocks was most productive in 1988 on M.4, P.1, Mac 1, Bud.9 and C.6, and least productive on Bud.491, Ant.313 and Domestic Seedling. Montmorency cherries planted in 1980 on eight rootstocks in two locations are producing differently according to site. A spring frost at the Clarksville, Michigan site reduced crops by at least 50% in 1988. mont./Colt bloomed 3-4 days earlier at this site and was injured the greatest by frost. Mont. on MXM 60, 2,and Colt compare well to the standard Mahaleb seedling at the site near Traverse City.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                  Outputs
                  An NC 140 regional project apple rootstock trial, established in 1980, indicatesthat Starkspur Supreme Delicious trees are dwarfing on Ottawa 3, MAC 9, M9, EMLA 26 and EMLA 9; most vigorous on MAC 24, EMLA 7 and OAR 1. Trees on EMLA 27 are below 1 meter in height and least productive. Trees on MAC 9 and EMLA 9 are most efficient in fruit production when related to trunk vigor. A peach rootstock NC 140 trial established in 1984 indicates that Redhaven is most productive on Bailey, Lovell and GF 677. More trees have died on GF 677 and GF 655-2 than all other 8 rootstock trees due to cold damage. Excessive rainfall in September 1986 stressed peach and cherry trees in flat treatments compared to unaffected trees on raised beds established in 1981. Irrigation added to guard row trees on each bed treatment increased yields, fruit size and net rate photosynthesis. Cherry yields continued to be 40% lower in flat treatment compared to the low or medium treatment. Montmorency sour cherry on Mazzard rootstock significantly outperformed that on Mahaleb rootstock when grown in artifically compacted soil conditions. Mazzard roots penetrated the dense layer in cylinders when Mahaleb roots did not.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                    Outputs
                    An NC-140 regional project apple rootstock trial, established in 1980, indicatesthat Stark Spur Supreme Delicious trees are most vigorous on MAC 24, EMLA 7 and OAR 1; intermediate on EMLA 26, EMLA 9, Ottawa 3, MAC 9 and M9 and; very dwarfing on EMLA 27. The highest yields were obtained on Ottawa 3 followed by EMLA 9, EMLA 26, EMLA 7, MAC 9, M9, OAR 1, MAC 24 and least productive on EMLA 27. A peach rootstock NC-140 trial established in 1984 indicates that Redhaven is incompatible with Citation. Trees are most vigorous on GF677 followed in order to least vigorous on Halford, Own rooted scion, Lovell, Bailey, Siberian C, GF43, GF655-2 and Citation. Greatest yields were obtained from GF677, Sib. C, GF655-2 and Bailey. A raised bed study at Clarksville Hort. Exp. Sta. indicates that as in 1985 cherry yields on beds are double that of those growing in flat treatments. Peach yields on beds were less than flat treatments while vigor influence was reversed. Excessive rainfall in September caused peach and cherry in flat treatments early yellowing of leaves to anoxia. The least spring frost injury to cherry blossoms occurred on beds compared to flat. The first year of cropping of Imperial McIntosh apples on 60 Geneva, NY clonal rootstocks revealed 5-10 clones with promising yields and precocity characteristics.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                      Outputs
                      An apple rootstock trial established for the NC-140 regional project in 1980/81 indicates Starkspur Supreme Delicious scion is smallest on EMLA 27 and excessively vigorous on EMLA 7, MAC 24, and OAR 1. Trees on MAC 9, Ottawa 3, EMLA 9, EMLA 26 and M 9 are intermediate in vigor. As in 1984, trees on MAC 9 and EMLA 9 are most precocious and blossom efficient. A peach rootstock NC-140 trial established in 1984 indicates that Redhaven is most vigorous on Halford, Lovell (standard stocks) and GF 677, but least vigorous on Citation and GF 655-2. Own-rooted Redhaven trees are moderately vigorous. Other rootstocks in the test include Siberian C, Bailey, Damas 1869 and GF 43. Trees on Citation continue to express incompatibility symptoms. Excessive suckering may become a negative attribute for Damas 1869. Montmorency sour cherry planted in 1981 on raised beds at Clarksville Hort. Exp. Sta. averaged 4.5, 7.5 and 6.9 kg of fruit for flat (control), medium and high bed treatments respectively. The performance of Imperial McIntosh is being evaluated on 60 advanced clonal apple rootstocks from Geneva, NY. After two years, 3 clones are as precocious as the standard stocks M 9/MM 111 interstem and M 26. Six clones control tree size similar to M 9/MM 111 and M 26 rootstocks. Preliminary results indicate that dense soil layers at 30-60 cm is closely associated with declining Montmorency on mahaleb sour cherry trees and orchards.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                        Outputs
                        An apple rootstock trial established for the NC-140 regional project in 1980/81 is beginning to provide useful information. Starkspur Supreme Delicious scion is most precocious and blossom efficient on MAC 9 and EMLA 9 rootstocks. MAC 24, EMLA 7 and OAR 1 are most vigorous; EMLA 26, MAC 9, Ottawa 3, EMLA 9 are intermediate; and M.9, EMLA 27 and Ottawa 3 are leaning excessively. A new NC-140 uniform peach and apple planting was established at Clarksville Hort. Exp. Sta. in 1984 with 9 and 21 rootstock treatments, respectively. Own rooted scion was included for comparison in both plantings. Soil and plant moisture status was monitored through the growing season for tart cherry and peach grown on high, medium and flat bed treatments at CHES. Trees on high, narrow-crowned designed beds were in greater stress indicated by stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and leaf water potential than medium or flat treatments. Soil moisture depletion was greatest for high treatment, least for flat and intermediate in the wide-crowned, medium bed. Sweet cherry scion cultivars Gold, Hedelfingen and Napolean planted in 1980 at CHES on 8 rootstock treatments were rated for winter injury and Pseudomonas canker sustained following 1983/84 severe winter. The greatest injury was noted on Colt and mazzard. The latter rootstock is the industry standard.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                          Outputs
                          Apple interstem combinations established for the NC 140 regional project in 1976performed similarly to 1981 and 1982. M9 interstem length of 25 cm induced more suckers from MM111 rootstock and produced smaller 'Empire' scion fruits than 10 cm length. A lighter crop in 1983 reduced sample size of a third year study on the effects of interstem in inducing autocatalytic ethylene producin of 'Empire' fruits. A one-time harvest indicated as in 1981 and 1982 that fruit from interstem trees reached climacteric sooner than from 2 piece trees. A foliage analysis of thse trees in Aug. 1983 demonstrated that a calcium deficiency may be involved in causing early initiation of ethylene production. An apple rootstock trial established in 1980/81 for NC 140 fruited for the first time in 1983. Starspur Supreme Delicious performed best on MAC 9 and M9, while no fruits were harvested from excessively vigorous trees on EMLA 7, MAC 24 and OAR 1. Apple and cherry trees planted in 1981 at CHES had the largest trunk cross sectional area and shoot length on medium and to a lesser extent on high raised beds. Bed treatments in 1983 did not affect peach tree growth. Soil moisture content through the season was; Flat > Medium > High beds.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                            Outputs
                            Apple interstem combination established for the NC 140 regional project in 1976 produced the most crop to date in 1982. A comparison of M9 interstem length (10 and 25 cm.) for 'Empire' scion and MM111 rootstock performed similarly to 1981. Trees with 25 cm. interstems were smallest in size, produced more suckers and smaller fruits. In cooperation with D. R. Dilley, ethylene production was monitored from harvested 'Empire' fruit for the second year. As in 1981, 'Empire' fruits harvested from interstem trees reached peak ethylene production earlier than 'Empire' on MM111 (2 piece) trees. There was no difference in ethylene production detected between 10 and 25 cm. interstem lengths. A sour and sweet cherry rootstock trial in Traverse City and Clarksville (CHES) planted in 1980, indicates that Colt is the most vigorous rootstock in both locations. Apple, cherry and peach trees were planted in 1981 at CHES on raised beds (high and medium) and compared to a flat treatment. In cooperation with A. E. Erickson, the water table measured with a neutron probe was highest in the flat treatments all through the growing season. Peach trees died in 2 of 4 flat treatments. In cooperation with K. C. Sink, proceudres developed in micropropagating the cherry rootstocks Colt, Vladimir, MXM14 and Meteor have successfully been adopted for 14 new German dwarfin rootstocks. These stocks have been responsive to 3 mg./1 BAP in proliferating shoots. German stock 172/9 has been difficult to root.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                              Outputs
                              In an effort to assimilate a rootstock genetic collection, 120 cherry, 65 apple,and 45 peach and plum selections were propagated on seedling rootstocks. 'Redhaven' and 'Redskin' scions were budded on 15 candidate peach seedling rootstocks in preparation for a replicated rootstock trial for planting in 1983. Prior to budding, growth measurements indicated that Indian Red and Halford were most vigorous; Bailey, Lovell, Tzim Pee Tao, Tenn. Nat. 282, S-60, Rutgers Red Leaf, Chui Lum Tao, Ferris, Lovell (Bright's) and H 7338001 were moderately vigorous; and Siberian C and Harrow Blood maintained weak growth. Colt rootstock is stimulating more vigor in cherry scions than M x M series numbers 2, 14, 39, 60 and 97 and Mazzard and Mahaleb seedlings at the 1980 planted plots at NWHES and CHES locations. NC 140 apple interstem trial results for 1981 indicate the following: six-year-old Sturdeespur Delicious and Empire scions on M 8 and M 9 interstems. Antonovka rootstock are producing more suckers, smaller in height (by 30%) and maintain smaller trunk circumference. In another trial, five-year-old same scions on M 9, 4" and 10" lengths of interstem/MM 111 rootstock, treatments differ with trees on 4" interstems being larger in trunk and tree height, producing one-half as many suckers and increased yields by 30-50% over 10" interstems.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                                Outputs
                                Previous principal investigator retired July 1, 1979. Successor began August 1,1980. Major effort involved participation in NC 140 Regional Meeting and reporting data on three plantings. In a 1975 planting (formerly NCR-82), where Sturdeespur Delicious and Empire scions were compared with M.8 and M.9 interstem on Antonovka stock, tree height (25-28%) and fruit size were reduced with either interstem. In the 1976 planting, where the same scion cultivars were compared on 10 inch and 4 inch M.9 interstem on MM 111 stock, 10 inch interstemmed trees suckered more and produced smaller trees. The third planting consisted of same scion cultivars on M. 9 interstem and comparing Antonovka, MM 111 and Ottawa stocks. The effect on tree size for both scions was Ottawa greater than Ant greater than MM 111. Fruit yield was greatest on Antonovka stocks. Two nurseries purchased a domestic license to propagate and sell MAC 9 rootstocks and one nursery purchased an international license to sell MAC 9 rootstocks.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                  Outputs
                                  Principal investigator retired July 1, 1979. Major effort involved participation in NC-140 cooperative plantings. Increases were made in apple clone MAC-9 in preparation for formal release. Plant patent application was filed on MAC-9.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications