Source: CORNELL UNIVERSITY submitted to
GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) FOR YIELD, PEST RESISTANCE AND FOOD VALUE
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0074297
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NYC-145467
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
W-150
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2000
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2005
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Halseth, D. E.
Recipient Organization
CORNELL UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
ITHACA,NY 14853
Performing Department
HORTICULTURE
Non Technical Summary
Some of the major factors affecting bean yield are: daylength, temperature, moisture, photosynthesis, disease and insect pests, mineral deficiences and other stresses. More needs to be learned about the genetic processes that regulate plant adaptation, disease and pest resistance and consumer quality. To maintain the competitiveness of our bean growers, bean yields must be increased. Approaches to improve bean yields are multi-faceted, including selection of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, introgression of exotic germplasm, and the utilization of molecular technologies.
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
60%
Applied
40%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2031410102030%
2011410108040%
2041410102030%
Goals / Objectives
1. Maximize productivity and global competitiveness. 2. Improve abiotic and biotic stress management strategies through a combination of classical and bio-technical approaches. 3. Elucidate genetic controls for food quality and value added components.
Project Methods
1. To contribute further to the understanding of the physiological genetics of yield and its stability by collaborating with the Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery (CDBN) sent out by the University of Idaho and grown by about 20 US states and four provinces of Canada. Those growing the yield trials will be asked to supply yield, plant biomass and weather data, and Wallace will analyze the G x E interaction effects. Daylength (photoperiod) and temperature interactions among genotypes will be studied for their impact on biomass, maturity, yield, it's stability and cultivar adaptation. Crosses made with parents selected for optimal yield potential (within normal length of a typically short NYS growing season) will be screened for stability and quality of yield. 2. Accessions will be screened to identify new sources to biotic and abiotic stresses, including disease resistance and heat tolerance. Disease screening techniques will also be improved to increase the reliability of inoculation and rating of stress symptoms. Inheritance studies will be initiated on resistance sources to better characterize the genetic control, and this work will be backed-up using molecular characterization with PCR-based markers. Plants will be crossed to combine sources of disease resistance and pyramid resistance genes with important economic benefits. 3. Canning trials will be conducted on breeding lines and cultivars to select for superior processing attributes. Trials will be conducted at several locations and utilizing varied cultural practices. Lines with the best combination of processing characteristics and yield stability (section 1 above) will be used in crosses for inheritance studies and new cultivar development.

Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/05

Outputs
White mold resistant red kidney and black bean breeding lines were developed following selection of materials in greenhouse white mold screens in 2003 and 2004. These lines are based primarily on material derived from crosses of Cornell lines with RedKanner and Montcalm for red kidney material, and crosses with T-39 for black bean material. Two of twelve lines field-tested for canning and yield in 2004 were designated as Cornell 603 (dark red kidney) and Cornell 605 (light red kidney). Two additional lines developed through greenhouse inoculations were designated Cornell 604 and Cornell 606 (both black bean). These breeding line releases represent new breeding material for the development of white mold resistant dry beans. All four lines have been tested in multi-state white mold nurseries during 2005 in collaboration with bean breeders and researchers involved in the W-1150 multi-state project. Crosses between Tio Canella (heat tolerant small red bean) and Montcalm were advanced to the F4 stage to introgress environmental tolerance from tropical germplasm into temperate red kidney types. Twenty-six breeding lines developed from these populations through crossing and backcrossing to commercial cultivars including Montcalm, CELRK and RedKanner, were field tested at TARS, Mayaguez, PR for yield under heat stress. By developing populations from crosses with Tio Canella, it may be possible to generate and select red kidney breeding lines with increased tolerance to stresses that include heat and restricted water in NY State. Currently F5 populations, and F2BC1S2 lines are being increased and evaluated for seed color and quality greenhouses, and will be increased for field testing in 2005/2006. Additional heat tolerant materials are being generated through crosses with heat tolerant snap bean material to CELRK, a cultivar that has a short flower flush making it susceptible to brief seasonal heat waves at flowering. The Extension dry bean program between 2001 and 2005 evaluated annually on average 259 breeding lines, new varieties and standard varieties in ten bean classes, with the majority of the effort (77 percent) on the Light Red Kidney class. These included lines and varieties developed out of eleven public programs and commercial companies in the US and Canada. One of the primary goals of our trials is to identify lines with yield and canning quality comparable to RedKanner, but with earlier maturity. Replicated yield trials were grown at the Vegetable Research Farm at Freeville, NY, where initial selections and screening were accomplished. Seven to twelve grower strip-trials were also conducted each season in western NYS evaluating our most advanced materials. Canning was conducted at the Geneva Experiment Station Food Technology Lab. Four V-96 and seven V-98 LKR lines have been commercially multiplied in Idaho and have been in grower strip trial in 2004 and 2005. All 4 of the V-96 lines were included in the Cooperative Dry Bean National Nursery for 2004 and 2005, which was planted in 13 locations in 11 states.

Impacts
Environmental constraints on New York State dry bean production include a short growing season, heat and drought stress and several plant diseases. When these factors are not addressed both yield and seed quality are impacted for both the processing and dry-pack trade. Due to the highly variable and unpredictable nature of these production constraints, the best production strategy is the utilization of plant genetics which offer resistance or at least tolerance for many of these problems. The development of new dry bean varieties with appropriate maturity, excellent processing ability and seed appearance, and a range of disease resistances will provide the most economical and efficient means for addressing these production needs. A resistant variety in the field will be ready for the problem, rather than having to determine the correct timing and selection of a controlling spray or other cultural practice. Nine advanced light red kidney breeding lines from the Cornell program are now in commercial seed production and in grower trials. These lines offer improved yields over variable environmental factors, are shorter in maturity, have excellent processing characteristics, and fit into the standard cultural practices of our growers.

Publications

  • Halseth, D.E., Sandsted, E.R., Hymes, W.L., MacLaury, R.L., Kelly, J.M., Rich, B., Hoy, D. 2005. 2004 New York State dry bean variety trials. Department of Horticulture Report 35, Cornell University, 28pp.
  • Halseth, D.E., Sandsted, E.R., Hymes, W.L., MacLaury, R.L., Kelly, J.M., Rich, B., and Hoy, D. 2005. Dry bean fact sheet 2004 New York State. Department of Horticulture Report 34, Cornell University, 23pp.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Efforts focused on breeding, evaluation and development of dry bean varieties that are highly adapted to NYS growing environments and markets continues in this project. During 2004, crosses were made between advanced light red kidney lines from the program of Dr. Wallace concentrating primarily on 760-V98 (good yield, early, good canner), 1060-V98 (very good yield, good canner, medium maturity), 1120-V96 (good yield, very good canner, later maturity), 749-V98 (early maturity) and 830-V98 (best canner, large seed size, fairly short maturity). Red kidney and black bean breeding lines were advanced through greenhouse inoculation and selection for white mold tolerance during 2004. These lines are based primarily on material derived from crosses of Cornell lines with RedKanner and Montcalm for red kidney material, and crosses with T-39 for black bean material. Crosses were initiated between Tio Canella and Montcalm to intogress environmental tolerance from tropical germplasm into temperate red kidney types. These populations have been advanced and backcrossed to commercial cultivars including Montcalm, CELRK and RedKanner, where selection for plant type and seed size has been made. Tio Canella is a small red Middle-American bean grown throughout the Carribean for its tolerance to stressful environments. By developing populations from crosses with Tio Canella, it may be possible to generate and select red kidney breeding lines with increased tolerance to stresses that include heat and restricted water in NY State. A major emphasis of our variety testing program over the past ten years has been on light red kidneys developed by Don Wallace, with 137 of the 185 light red kidney lines tested in 2004 coming out of his program. Thirty-eight new crosses were made by our project in the greenhouse in the spring of 2004. These were planted in the field as F1 lines. One of the primary purposes underlying the Wallace crosses and the new F1 lines has been to identify lines with yield and canning quality comparable to or higher than RedKanner, but with earlier maturity. Six generations of Wallace material were tested: 52 F3; 41 F5; 17 F6; 18 F7 and above. The most advanced lines include: 4 V-96, 11 V-98 and 3 V-00 lines. The F3 and F5 material was tested and selected on a single plant basis. The F6 and older generations have been bulked and are in intermediate (Freeville research farm) to advanced (grower field) yield and quality trials. Our most advanced material, the 4 V-96 lines, were sent to Idaho for increase in 2002. They were increased for two years and limited seed of all four were made available this year for grower trials. However, since the greatest need is for early to midseason lines, the two latest (1132-V96 and 18 V-96) were not increased in Idaho. Larger quantities of the other two early lines (1031-V96 and 1120 V-96) will be available for 2005 testing. Five V-98 lines were multiplied in Idaho for the second season this year and limited seed will be available in 2005 for NYS grower planted strip trials.

Impacts
Environmental constraints on NYS dry bean production include a short growing season, heat and drought stress and several plant diseases. When these factors are not addressed both yield and quality are impacted for both the processing and dry pack trade. Due to the highly variable and unpredictable nature of these production constraints, the best production strategy is the utilization of plant genetics which offer resistance or at least tolerance for many of these problems. The development of new dry bean varieties with appropriate maturity, excellent processing ability and seed appearance, and a range of disease resistances will provide the most economical and efficient means for addressing these production needs. A resistant variety in the field will be ready for the problem, rather than having to determine the correct timing and selection of a controlling spray or other cultural practice. Nine advanced light red kidney breeding lines from the Cornell program are now in commercial seed production and in grower trials. These lines offer improved yields over variable environmental factors, are shorter in maturity, have excellent processing characteristics, and fit into the standard cultural practices of our growers.

Publications

  • Halseth, D.E., Sandsted, E.R., Hymes, W.L., MacLaury, R.L., Kelly, J.M., and Rich, B. 2004. 2003 New York State dry bean variety trials. Department of Horticulture Report 28, Cornell University, 24pp.
  • Halseth, D.E., Sandsted, E.R., Hymes, W.L., MacLaury, R.L., Kelly, J.M., and Rich, B. 2004. Dry bean fact sheet 2003 New York State. Department of Horticulture Report 27, Cornell University, 25pp.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Red kidney breeding lines were advanced through three generations of greenhouse inoculations and selections for white mold tolerance during 2003. These lines are based primarily on material derived from crosses of Cornell lines with RedKanner and Montcalm. One hundred and thirty four lines have been selected at the F6 through F8 generations and are currently being re-screened under greenhouse conditions using the straw test to select the most promising lines for additional crossing and field testing. Of the 134 lines, selections will be made for crosses of DRK types with Montcalm, and LRK types with CELRK and RedKanner. Approximately 10-20 lines will be selected for more comprehensive advanced testing and field evaluation. The light red kidney breeding line Cornell 601 was released in 2002, and incorporated into W-150 national trials, where it ranked first in New York trials, and third overall based on multiple field and greenhouse testing sites nationally. Cornell 601 and a resistant snap bean selection Cornell 501 were crossed to black turtle soup varieties including Midnight, Millenium Black and T39. These black bean selections have high levels of resistance to white mold, and additional crosses to T39 will be made to improve plant habit through selection in 2003-2004. Heat tolerant accessions and varieties of common been were selected for greenhouse studies of heat tolerance under four temperature regimes to characterize the effects of incremental heat increase on seed set and yield components. Differential responses were observed including a reduction in mean seed size of CELRK under heat stress, even though it maintained setting ability. Crosses were initiated between Tio Canella and Montcalm to introgress environmental tolerance from tropical germplasm into temperate red kidney types. Tio Canella is a small red middle American bean grown throughout the Carribean for its tolerance to stressful environments. By developing populations from crosses with Tio Canella, it may be possible to generate red kidney breeding lines with increased tolerance to stresses that include heat and restricted water in NY State. A major emphasis of our Extension variety testing program has been on light red kidneys developed by Don Wallace, with 342 of the 353 light red kidney lines tested in 2003 coming out of his program. One of the primary purposes underlying the Wallace crosses has been to identify lines with yield and canning quality comparable or higher than RedKanner, but with earlier maturity. Six generations of Wallace material were tested: 84 F2; 168 F4; 72 F5; 4 F6; 10 F7 (V-98 series) and 4 F8 (V-96 series) lines. The F2 and F4 material was selected on a plant basis while the F5 and older generations have been bulked and are in intermediate (research farm) to advanced (grower field) yield and quality trials. Our most advanced material, the 4 V-96 series lines, have completed their second year of Idaho seed multiplication with limited seed available for grower planted trials in 2004. Seven V-98 lines were multiplied in Idaho for the first season this year with seed available in 2005 for NYS grower planted trials.

Impacts
Dry bean production in New York State is restricted by a short growing season and highly variable rainfall and growing temperatures. The objectives of this project is to screen for genotypes with relatively short plant maturity, stress tolerance (particularly at seed set), disease resistance, and utilization quality appropriate for processing and dry pack markets. Dry bean varieties identified from these studies will allow growers to more consistently produce a higher quality crop with higher yields while using lower levels of inputs.

Publications

  • Halseth, D.E., Sandsted, E.R., Hymes, W.L., MacLaury, R.L., Kelly, J.M., and Rich, B. 2003. 2002 New York State dry bean variety trials. Department of Horticulture Report 21, Cornell University, 24pp.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Light Red Kidney (LRK) beans is the predominant class of dry beans grown in New York State, with the majority processed into canned products. The NYS growing environment is stressful, with highly variable rainfall and temperatures, plus has a relatively short growing season at 90 to 110 days. Large seed size has become a processing requirement and good seed appearance is still needed for the dry-pack trade. During the winter of 2001-2002 greenhouse multiplication was completed with F4 generation LRK material from crosses of RedKanner, Cornell line 10132 and CELRK with a late maturity, upright, highly productive light red kidney selection which has a plant with 9 nodes, large pods and large seed size. Seed was also multiplied for crosses made in 2000 with the earliest flowering selections from this population with other lines that we have identified as excellent yielders and canners. Based on our March 2002 canning trials 26 of the best canners from F5, F6 and F7 generations (populations developed by crossing high yielding Cornell selections with 10132, CELRK and RedKanner) were grown from March to June in the greenhouse to produce disease-free seed for summer 2002 plantings in farmer fields and also at the Cornell University Freeville research farm. Cornell LRK lines 18-V96, 1031-V96, 1120-V96 and 1132-V96 have been identified in six years of trials as having higher yield and better canning scores than CELRK, but are 7 to 19 days longer in maturity. These four lines are now in commercial seed increase in Idaho and seed will be available for commercial scale testing in 2004. The Extension dry bean program in 2002 evaluated 342 breeding lines, new varieties and standard varieties. These included lines and varieties developed out of public programs and private commercial companies in the US and Canada. University/government cooperators: Agriculture Canada; Colorado State University; Cornell University; Michigan State University; University of California-Davis; University of Idaho (which includes entries from the National Dry Bean Nursery Trials); University of Nebraska; and USDA-ARS/Washington State University (Prosser). Private industry programs: Agri Sales, Inc. (California); ASI; Gentec; Idaho Seed Bean Company; Seedgrow; and Seminis. The 342 varieties and breeding lines tested consisted of the following classes: Light Red Kidney (295); Pinto (13); Black Turtle Soup (12); Dark Red Kidney (7); White Kidney (5); Great Northern (3); Cranberry (2); Navy (2); Canario (1); Pink (1); and Small Red (1). A major emphasis of our variety testing program over the past ten years has been on light red kidneys developed by Don Wallace, with 281 of the 295 light red kidney genotypes tested in 2002 coming out of his program. One of the primary purposes underlying the crosses from which a majority of those 281 lines were selected has been to identify lines with improved yield and canning quality superior to RedKanner, but with significantly earlier maturity.

Impacts
Dry bean production in New York is restricted by a short growing season and variable rainfall and growing temperatures. The objectives of this project is to screen for genotypes with relatively short plant maturity, stress tolerance (particularly at seed set) and utilization quality appropriate for processing and dry pack markets. Dry bean varieties identified from these studies will allow growers to more consistently produce a higher quality crop with higher yields while using lower levels of inputs.

Publications

  • Halseth, D.E., Sandsted, E.R., Hymes, W.L., and MacLaury, R.L. 2002. 2001 New York State dry bean variety trials. Department of Horticulture Report 14, Cornell University, 25pp.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
During the winter of 2000-2001 greenhouse multiplication was completed with F3 generation material from crosses of RedKanner, Cornell line 10132 and CELRK with a late maturity, upright, highly productive light red kidney selection which has a plant with 9 nodes, large pods and large seed size. Seed was also multiplied for crosses made in 2000 with the earliest flowering selections from this population with other lines that we have identified as excellent yielders and canners. Based on our March 2001 canning trials on 55 advanced Cornell lines, 20 of the best canners were grown from March to June in the greenhouse to produce disease-free seed for summer 2001 plantings in farmer fields and also at the Freeville research farm by Halseth, Sandsted and Hymes. An additional 44 lines were grown and harvested from (Varna, NY) field trials (planted in 2 replications) with good preliminary canning scores for another canning evaluation this winter. Also at our Varna location two additional sets (58 lines from F4 generation and 23 lines from F3 generation populations made by crossing high yielding selections with 10132, CELRK and RedKanner) of material were grown in single replications for initial canning evaluation. Maximum greenhouse seed multiplication (Oct to Dec 2001) was made of our most advanced yield and canning lines (lines 18, 1031, 1120 and 1132) for use in replicated yield trials at Freeville and on Extension-grower farm trials in 2002. The Extension dry bean program in 2001 evaluated 123 breeding lines, new varieties and standard varieties. These included lines and varieties developed by public programs and private commercial companies in the US and Canada. University/government cooperators: Cornell University; Michigan State University; University of Idaho (which includes entries from the National Dry Bean Nursery Trials); USDA/Washington State University (Prosser); University of California at Davis; Colorado State University; Agriculture Canada; and the University of Saskatchewan. Private industry programs: Agri Sales, Inc. (California); Asgrow; Gentec; and Idaho Seed Bean Company. The 123 varieties and breeding lines tested consisted of the following classes: Light Red Kidney (50); Black Turtle Soup (15); Dark Red Kidney (12); White Kidney (8); Cranberry (6); Navy (6); Great Northern (9); Pink (1); Pinto (12); Red Mexican (1); and Yellow (1). A major emphasis of our variety testing program over the past ten years has been on light red kidneys developed by Don Wallace, with 37 of the 50 light red kidneys tested in 2001 coming out of his program. One of the primary purposes underlying the crosses from which those 37 lines were selected has been to identify lines with yield and canning quality comparable to RedKanner, but with earlier maturity.

Impacts
Dry bean production in New York is restricted by a short growing season and variable rainfall and growing temperatures. The objectives of this project is to screen for genotypes with relatively short plant maturity, stress tolerance (particularly at seed set) and utilization quality appropriate for processing and dry pack markets. Dry bean varieties identified from these studies will allow growers to more consistently produce a higher quality crop with higher yields while using lower levels of inputs.

Publications

  • Halseth, D.E., Hymes, W.L., MacLaury, R.L., Gonzales, A., Becker, D.A., and Lee, T.J. 2001. 2000 New York State dry bean variety trials. Department of Horticulture Report 7, Cornell University, 32pp.
  • Halseth, D.E., Hymes, W.L., MacLaury, R.L., Gonzales, A., Becker, D.A., and Lee, T.J. 2001. Dry Bean Variety Fact Sheet - 2000 - New York State. Department of Horticulture Report 8, Cornell University, 25pp.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
Genetic studies were conducted in the year 2000 to provide further understanding of the physiological genetics of crop yield and its stability. Crop data provided by collaborators from the Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery (CDBN), conducted by the University of Idaho and representing 20 states and four provinces of Canada, was analyzed for genotype by environment interaction effects using the AMMI model. The additive main effects with multiplicative interaction model (AMMI) analyzes the additive main effects using the ANOVA procedure and then utilizes principal components analysis (CPA) to partition the remaining residual (interaction) effects. The AMMI model then plots sources of interaction grouped by CPA into bi-plot graphs that visually illustrate associations between sources of variation such as genotypes and environments. Daylength (photoperiod) and temperature interactions among genotypes were studied for their impact on total biomass, maturity, yield and overall cultivar adaptation to diverse environments. During the winter of 1999-2000 greenhouse multiplication was completed with F2 generation material from crosses with RedKanner, 10132 or CELRK and a late maturity, upright, highly productive light red kidney selection which has a plant with 9 nodes, large pods and large seed size. Crosses were also made with the earliest flowering selections from this F2 population and other lines identified as excellent yielders and canners. Replicated yield trials of 55 advanced light red kidney selections were conducted in 2000 to identify lines that have stable, high yield, reasonable maturity requirements and are excellent canners. While the Cornell developed variety RedKanner has proven to be the best canning and highest yielding light red kidney variety available in New York State, it has a late maturity that will be too long in seasons such as the very wet year 2000 where many beans were planted 30 to 45 days later than normal. Thus crosses with RedKanner are being screened for earlier maturity, improved seed shape and comparable canning ability.

Impacts
Utilization of various statistical and crop physiology models will help identify specific positive and negative genotype by environmental interactions. This approach will help breeders assemble the most useful (optimal) combination of genetically controlled attributes for various production areas. Dry bean varieties identified from these studies will allow growers to more consistently produce a higher quality crop with higher yields while using lower levels of inputs.

Publications

  • HALSETH, D.E., HYMES, W.L., MACLAURY, R.L., GONZALES, A., and FARNHAM, B.S. 2000. 1999 New York State dry bean variety trials. Fruit and Vegetable Science Report 86, Cornell University, 24pp.
  • HALSETH, D.E., HYMES, MACLAURY, R.L., GONZALES, A., and FARNHAM, B.S. 2000. 1999 New York State dry bean variety trials - variety fact sheet. Fruit and Vegetable Science Report 87, Cornell University, 20pp.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Crop yield is due to integrated activities of about 30,000 gene activities integrated into ultimate processes of:1) biomass accumulation (growth) attended by an A) autonomous capability to develop to flowering and harvest maturity. Any B) photoperiod gene activity inhibits the A) autonomous developmental advance by inhibiting partitioning to organs that become yield, thereby reducing 2) harvest index, while competitively enlarging 1) aerial biomass, and 3) extending days to develop to harvest maturity because, lowered-receipt of photosynthate reduces rate of growth and of development of organs that become yield. Included are tubers, bulbs, etc. that are yield for some crops. For seed crops, ultimate processes 1, 2, and 3 account in full for every expressed level of yield, while A and B fully account for every expressed days to flowering and to harvest maturity. Interconnections among all five ultimate processes indicate control by the complete biological system. That system's two ultimate components are I) all genes of the plant (the complete genotype) and II) every environmental resource required for a gene activity. Each gene's instruction and consequent maximum gene-action occurs only if all environmental resources required for that action are optimally available. Reciprocally, no environmental effect arises except through its limiting of gene activity(s). Every activity will be enlarged by the Q10 effect of low to higher temperature (T) that remains below optimal. Therefore, genotype x photoperiod x temperature (GPT) interaction strongly controls all five ultimate processes 1, 2, 3 and A, B. Progressively higher Ts each cause an effect toward progressively earlier flowering and harvest maturity through the complete thermal response (CTR) until T is above optimal for continued more rapid developmental advance. Simultaneously, the same progressively higher Ts cause progressively later flowering and maturity through the complete photoperiod response (CPR). From low to intermediate T, part of each larger T-caused effect toward earlier flowering through the CTR is cancelled by the complete equal-size mutually-cancelled smaller opposite T-caused effect toward more days to flowering through the CPR. At a genotype-photoperiod-dependent intermediate-T the two opposite effects become mutually and exactly cancelled. Yet higher Ts cause the now smaller total effect toward yet fewer days to flowering through the CTR to mutually cancel its equivalent of the now larger total effect toward more days through the CPR. Thus, at all but T too low to allow any autonomous developmental advance the non-canceled part of the larger total delay through the CTR or CPR becomes the single ultimate process with actually-expressed observable-control over the visually-observable photoperiod-response or else thermal response. These insights indicate every reduction of the observed days to flowering by higher T should now be judged to be the observable partial thermal response. Likewise, every increase of days to flowering by photoperiod should be judged as being only the partial photoperiod response.

Impacts
Research targeted at the most-near-fully-integrated (ultimate) processes that account in full for each output from a complex biological system provides a focus for enlarging understanding of the whole biological system functioning. This is illustrated using yield and days to flowering. Such whole-system research will complement the much more in-vogue, better-funded reductive research commonly accepted as basic research. Reductive-research and whole-system research each reveals what the other cannot, and complements the other's enlarged understanding of system functioning.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
The breeding line 10195 was grown in 1996, 1997 in the Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery, managed by the University of Idaho. Yield and canning trials were conducted again in 1998. The CDBN was grown in about 15 states of the US and two provinces of Canada. The CDBN yield trials show 10195 to yield 10 to 15% higher than currently available red kidney class cultivars. Canning tests in New York for each of the last eight years show 10195 to have canning quality superior to any other red kidney variety. Line 10195 is in the process of being released as the cultivar RedKanner. Limited certified seed is available for 1999 plantings.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
The breeding line 10195 was grown in 1996 and 1997 in the Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery, managed by the University of Idaho. The Nursery was grown in about 15 states of the US and two provinces of Canada. The CDBN yield trials show 10195 to yield 10 to 15% higher than currently available red kidney class cultivars. Canning tests in New York for each of the last eight years show 10195 to have canning quality superior to any other red kidney variety. Line 10195 will be released as the cultivar RedKanner.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
Photoperiod response (Sp(P - Popt)2(T - Tbp)2) interacts with thermal response St(T - Topt) to account for days to flowering (DTF) and growing degree days to flowering (GDDs). T and P are the average temperature and photoperiod. Popt = the optimum P. It prevents photoperiod-gene delay of DTF by P and a higher T. Sp = sensitivity to non-optimal P. Tbp = the lowest T allowing any photoperiod gene activity. St = sensitivity to T lower than Topt. Below Topt, each higher T reduces DTF through the thermal response. For pigeonpea and bean respectively, correlations are: 1) Between DTF and GDDs to flower all across genotypes r = 0.999 & 0.984. 2) Between GxE interaction control over DTF and over GDDs across genotypes: r = 0.987 & 0.970. Between GxE interaction control over DTF and GDDs across environments r = 0.986 & 0.982. Such high correlations verify accurate accounting across all genotypes. Control is through the holistic: genetic-parameters x photoperiod response x thermal response interaction. Across all environments correlation between DTF and GDDs = -0.182 & 0.332, reflecting that photoperiod-caused delay of DTF enlarges GDDs, but delay of DTF through the thermal response by low temperature reduces GDDs. DTF and GDDs of insensitive genotypes are reduced by higher T, but enlarged for photoperiod sensitive genotypes. GDDs predict DTF, even if DTF is enlarged (not reduced) by higher T. GDDs theory excludes interaction with photoperiod, but GDDs predictive success incorporates this interaction.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Yan, W-K. and D.H. Wallace. 1996. A model of photoperiod x temperature interaction effects on plant development. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 15:63-96.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
A Genotype x Photoperiod x Temperature interaction model (GPTmodel) software application has been developed that predicts days to flowering (DTF) of varieties with higher R squared fit than other models. The equation is DTF=Db+St(T - Topt)2+Sp(P-Popt)2(T-Tbp)2(T#Tbp) (1) Where: the average temperature (T) and photoperiod (P) interact with 6 genotype established parameters. Popt=the optimum P, under which there is no photoperiod-gene activity and no delay of DTF by P. Sp=the sensitivity to non-optimal P. Tbp=the base (lowest) T that allows any photoperiod gene activity. The Q10 effect of any higher T enlarges the photoperiod response. Topt=the optimum T; it can be observed only if Popt occurs simultaneously. Topt & the sensitivity to T (St) are determined, collectively, by all genes#other than & in addition to any photoperiod gene(s) and/or any vernalization gene(s)#that each partially control growth & the consequent development of the plant. Topt is always relatively high compared with where a crop is grown. Db=the basic (shortest) DTF that a genotype can express. If P & T are the Popt & Topt, the DTF is not delayed by either P or T, thereby allowing full expression of Db. DTF data are needed from at least 5 combinations of P & T, that should span Topt & perhaps Popt. Data needed include: 1) genotype name; 2) average T & 3) average P from planting to flowering; 4) expressed DTF.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

    Outputs
    The days to flowering of the cultivars within the Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery (CDBN) distributed by the University of Idaho during 1991, 1992 and 1993 were subjected to the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction effects (AMMI) statistical analysis. These CDBN trials are grown in about 12 US states plus in one or two provinces of Canada. As for bean cultivars grown at the temperatures of different elevations in Guatemala, and shown for pigeonpea grown at different daylength-temperatures in India, the AMMI analysis shows locations with the longest daylengths to cause the largest positive contribution to the genotype x environment (G x E) interaction effect on the days to flowering. Cultivars which are most sensitive to photoperiod also contribute positively, indicating that their days to flowering and maturity is delayed by long photoperiod. The least photoperiod sensitive cultivars and environments with lowest temperatures and/or shortest daylengths contribute negatively, in agreement with the other data for bean and pigeonpea. The temperatures and daylengths of the yield trial locations will be applied to the biplot graph of the AMMI analysis of the days to flowering, to provide further interpretation of the genotype x environment interaction effects on the days to flowering, on the harvest index, rate of yield accumulation, and on the yield.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

      Outputs
      Ten breeding lines which have a superior canned product were sent for seed increase and comparison in California. Nine have the standard determinate plant habit of red kidney beans, while the tenth has a very upright indeterminate plant habit. All were selected for their superior canning quality. The seed increases will be used for grower tests and large r-scale canning tests in 1993/94 of the lines judged to be superior during 1991/1993. The ten lines were grown in 1992 in several county trials by the bean extension program. The ten plus 41 additional lines were grown in a yield trial at Ithaca. To continue, the breeding, the nine determinate lines were crossed with the indeterminate line. And, crosses were made to segregates with with red-kidney seed color and determinate plant habit. These crosses are an attempt to transfer the higher rate of biomass accumulation and also higher harvest index of the pinto and pink classes of indeterminate bean into the red kidney bean type. Progenies with potential resistance to new (African) strains of virus and selected segregates t grown in the field in 1991, which were selected for bush habit and red kidney seed color, were tested for these resistance to the new viruses.. The resistant segregates were backcrossed to the both the lines with superior canning capability.

      Impacts
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      Publications


        Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

        Outputs
        The 3 major, genetically-controlled, physiological components of yield are: 1) the total plant biomass; 2) the harvest index, & 3) the time used to grow to harv. maturity. A 4th physiological component is the growing season duration & attendant environ. which affect all gene activities. If most of the photosynthate is partitioned to already-initiated buds, pods & seeds, they grow rapidly & develop to harv. n a short time, with reinforcement because this photosynthate cannot support continuation of vegetative growth. The short time for growth, but high rate of yield accumulation & high harv. index give adaptation & high yield for a short growing season. Alternative partitioning to continued vegetative growth, slows growth or even aborts the earliest buds, increases the number of nodes, leaves & leaf area, & extends the time to maturity, while enlarging the potential no. of reproductive organs (yield). This gives adaptation & highest yield for a long growing season. The competitive partitioning to existing yield organs vs. to more vegetative growth causes negative correlations between: 1) the total biomass & harv. index, & 2) the harv. index & days to maturity. The negative correlations, plus simultaneous control over harv. index & maturity by relatively few genes (giving them high heritability) contrast with control over total biomass by all genes (giving it low heritability). Therefore, efficient improvement of yield requires simultaneous selection for biomass, harv. index & days to maturity.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

          Outputs
          The first contribution is that a single photoperiod gene provides major control over the 3 week difference in maturity between early and late maturing red kidney beans. Second is that, for a given site, since beans are planted at near the same time (daylength) each year, effects by this photoperiod gene on the time needed to develop to flowering and maturity (the cultivar adaptation to the site) are modulated by variations of mean temperature rather than by varied daylength. Third, activity of this photoperiod gene was shown to control the partitioning of the available photoassimilates between the reproductive growth (the yield) & the vegetative growth. Control over partitioning on reproductive growth is control over the rate of yield accumulation plus over the harvest index. This suggests the hypothesis that the rate of yield accumulation (growth rate of the reproductive organs) controls the time that these organs need to grow (and consequently develop) to flowering and then to maturity. The rate of its yield accumulation controls a cultivar's adaptation. The fifth contribution is demonstration that principal component analysis of the genotype x environment sums of squares derived from an analysis of variance can quantify this photoperiod-gene control over the adaptation vs. the simultaneous control over adaptation by temperature modulation of the average time required for a node to develop. The 6th contribution isdevelopment of a yield systems analysis procedure as an adjunct to yield trials.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

            Outputs
            About 120 advanced lines were grown in yield trials. A few root rot resistant lines with relatively large red kidney seed were early and did not lodge so badly. A number of lines from the yield breeding objective had early to moderate maturity with excellent yield and minimal lodging. Some breeding lines had 10 or more nodes (leaves) on very stiff and upright stems, but were too late to be potential cultivars. One line had 10 nodes but matured early. During the summer it was noted as having very vigorous flowering and pod development. In the growth chamber, it had been observed to flower late because of its 10 nodes. Thus, in spite of having many nodes and consequent later flowering it matures early, because it partitions more photosynthate to the seed in less time. It is not made to be late, like Redkote and similar germplasm, because a daylength-sensitive gene combined with the long summer daylength of New York cuts off the flow of photosynthate to the yield. Its photoperiod insensitivity and many nodes may permit combining later flowering plants with more nodes and accumulation of high yield, plus a stiff stem and non lodging. Oncoming advanced generations in the root rot resistance breeding have larger seed and less lodging. A few are relatively early, with relatively good root rot resistance.

            Impacts
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            Publications


              Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

              Outputs
              Bean lines were identified and selected for yield trials which have stiff non lodging stems and many seeds per pod. Most are early in maturity. Lines from crosses were identified which have red kidney seed color, and later flowering than current cultivars as caused by genetic factors other than sensitivity to daylength, the usual cause of late flowering and maturity. F8 generation progenies verified that the sensitivity to daylength is controlled by only one or two photoperiod genes. Accumulating evidence indicates that these genes strongly affect yield by interacting with both daylength and temperature to control the proportion of the total plant weight that is partitioned to the seed. This controls the growth rate of the organs that become the yield, which controls the days to flowering and to maturity. Selection for the yield per day of plant growth will be the most efficient way of selecting for higher yield. We will continue to investigate potential for breeding for higher yield by recombining these characteristics. Progress was made toward combining these characteristics with root rot resistance while maintaining halo blight and mosaic resistance.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                Outputs
                A yield system analysis was developed to improve efficiency of breeding for higher yield. As an adjunct procedure attached to yield trials, eight integrated outputs from the plant's yield system are analyzed for each tested variety. Three directly measurable outputs are: 1) total accumulated plant weight, i.e. vegetative growth. 2) seed weight, i.e. reproductive growth. 3) days to flowering, and days to maturity which is the duration of active growth. Calculations provide five more outputs: 4) the harvest index, i.e., partitioning to economic yield. 5) seed weight per day of plant growth; 6) total plant weight accumulated per day of growth; 7) days duration of reproductive growth; 8) seed yield per day of reproductive growth. The genes for sensitivity to day length were shown to exert a valve-like control over the flow, i.e. partitioning, of assimilates from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. This gives these genes minor to near total control over the expressed level of each yield-system output. Activity by the day length sensitive genes adapts (maximizes yield) or fails to adapt each variety to the growing season duration of the location of growth. The yield-system analysis facilitates selecting the superior expression of the alternative physiological pathways to yield and thereby assembling the "yield" genes. Recurrent intercrossing will recombine the "yield" genes to maximize yield at the given location.

                Impacts
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                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                  Outputs
                  Root rot resistant lines that approach red kidney beans in seed color and seed size were selected. Crosses were made to improve upon these characteristics including the root rot resistance. Line 4109 which has good red kidney color and seed size was sent to Idaho and breeders seed was produced in preparation for release as an improved red kidney bean cultivar. A genetic analysis was completed indicating that two genes control the photoperiod-temperature sensitivity vs. insensitivity respectively of cultivars Redkote and Redkloud. Redkote is late and Redkloud is an early maturing cultivar, the maturity differences arising from delay of the days to flowerering by the joint modulations by daylength and temperature over activity of the photoperiod sensitive genes.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                    Outputs
                    Bean line 4109 has for the fourth year yielded about 20% more than the standard red kidney cultivars. It is early maturing with a high harvest index and long pods with many seeds. This line will be released as cultivar. Some lines from the root rot breeding program of the Department of Plant Pathology, derived from crosses to Phaseolus coccineus, have similar or high yields, but with only about 3 seeds per pod. They flower slightly later, achieve a larger total plant dry weight and also have a high harvest index. The seed type is not commercially acceptable. Both of these lines will be used as parents for crosses aimed at developing cultivars with even higher yield.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                      Outputs
                      In the yield trials of the past two years, root rot resistant red kidney line 79-53, now dropped because of poor seed shape, yielded an average of 28% more than, and was two weeks earlier than, Redkote. Preliminary trials of early generation material with acceptable seed indicate that several lines have satisfactory yielding ability. Although it generally is of minor importance in dry bean production, a natural occurring serve epidemic of bean virus 2 showed that some common blight resistant lines were resistant to the virus and some were segregating, but the majority were susceptible. It should be possible to recover resistance to both diseases by intercrossing between lines. It was shown that the general concepts developed in the growth chamber for the photoperiod-temperature interactions with genotype and the consequent modulations of maturity also occur in the field. The concepts hold across elevations fo 2,800, 1,800 and 1,000 meters at CIAT, Colombia. The slopes of change in days to maturity with change of temperature were, however, more steep in the growth chamber than field. Genotypes that are slight, moderately or highly sensitive to photoperiod have corresponding sensitivities to temperature, suggesting that temperature and photoperiod sensitivity may be essentially the same phenomenon.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                        Outputs
                        Pyramiding of genes for common blight resistance from several sources has built up levels of resistance that probably are the best of any available. Resistance should be increased further as more intercrosses are made. Work is started on the introduction of red kidney characters into this superior resistance. Yield trials the past two years show several near-commercial root rot resistant lines yield as well as or better than Redkote and Redkloud in the absence of root rot. They yield comparatively better in the presence of root rot. With a shortage of moisture, one early line yielded an average of 50% better than these susceptible cultivars. One more round of intercrossing probably is needed in this material to combine good seed shape and color with good root rot resistance. A mean temperature of about 23 degrees C was identified as optimum for flowering; it gave fewest days to flowering. Lowering or raising temperature increased days. The diurnal difference and the durations of day and night temperatures (weighted means) influenced days most strongly. These factors caused maximum delays only in the presence of long daylength (delaying photo-period) and vice versa. Genotypes ranged from near insensitive to slightly, moderately, highly and very highly sensitive. Identical F(2) populations gave different segregation ratios in different environments. Dominance floated progressively from few early (recessive) through more and more early in different plantings in the fields.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                          Outputs
                          Yield trials were conducted on the first root rot resistant bean lines to be developed that appear to have most of the desired characters of red kidney. Some lines yielded as well as, and possibly better than, Redkote in the absence of (or with only mild) root rot. From intercrosses of these lines, and more recently developed lines, we now have many early generation lines that look promising. These have yet to be tested for yielding ability. Emphasis is now being put on the transfer of high level halo blight and anthracnose resistance into root rot resistant lines. A disease resistance program (root rot, anthracnose, and halo blight) parallel to that in red kidney is being conducted with small (black and white) seeded material. An optimum mean temperature (23 degrees) was found to give the fewest days to first flowering of beans. This fewest days was called the flowering tendency; it varies by cultivar (genotype) between 25 and 70 days. Mean Ts below 23 degrees activate the general temperature response which delays flowering; the delay is amplified by lowering day or night T and also by enlarging the day T/night T difference. Mean Ts above 23 degrees activate the photoperiod-temperature response which also delays flowering. This delay is amplified by raising day T or night T, by enlarging the day T/night T difference, and by extending daylength. A red kidney yield trial was conducted with 2 replications at each of 4 locations. About 30 to 80 lines were advanced to further testing.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                            Outputs
                            Early maturing bean cultivars were shown to be photoperiod insensitive while late ones are sensitive. The universal temperature response decreases days to first flower as temperature is increased in both early and late lines as temperature is increased; this response is almost entirely caused by night temperature. Increases beyond moderate levels of temperature and/or daylength cause, on the contrary, increases in days to first flower of both insensitive (early) and photoperiod sensitive (late) cultivars. The gene(s) that differentiate the late genotype causes this increase to be 10 fold larger in the late than early maturing lines. About 300 early and late lines with 1 to 2 extra seeds per pod were grown in yield trials. Recurrent selection has been continued to combined root rot resistance with large seed and other desired horticultural characters of red kidney. Several lines appear to have attained this goal. Seed is now available for yield trials of the first "acceptable" material. Three families of seven lines each were grown in isolation last summer for clean seed production. In a separate program the level of resistance to Xanthomonas phaseoli is gradually being increased by intercrossing lines that derive resistance from different sources. The best progeny of these are then intercrossed in order to concentrate genes from several sources into the same germplasm.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                              Outputs
                              Progress continues to be made on the incorporation of red kidney characters intolarge seeded root rot resistant material. It appears in some segregating populations that plants with bush habit have smaller seed than do sibs with vines. Likewise, in other families, seed with light red kidney color tend to be smaller than seed of sibs with other color. In spite of this trend, it appears that satisfactory seed size can be combined with desired root rot resistance and horticultural characters. Several early generation plants have been obtained with red kidney color, bush habit, large seed, and good root rot resistance. High level resistance to halo blight and anthracnose are being backcrossed into this material. Progress is being made toward combining the following characters: early, intermediate or late maturity; 8-9 seeds per pod; long slender pods; high-borne pods; red kidney seed color, shape and size; vigorous roots; long tap root; halo blight and mosaic resistance. F(4) and F(5) lines derived through single pod descent of the F(2) and F(3) were selected, prepared for yield trials in 1979; and recurrently intercrossed.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                Outputs
                                Large variations in beans in days to flowering, maturity, morphological locationof flowers and pods, branching, leaf number, harvest index and yield have been shown to be simultaneously controlled by tow genes, the action of which is strongly modified by day-length, mean temperature and night-day difference in temperature. It appears that the simulaneous control is because these genes control synthesis or activity of certain hormones, abscisic acid being the one that has been identified. A search has begun for bean lines that flower and mature late for reasons other than the above described daylength-temperature sensitivity. The effects of the different facets of temperature and daylenth on flowering, sensitivity. The effects of the different facets of temperature and daylength on flowering, maturity and plant morphology will be further studied and further related to endogenous hormonal contents. The problem of small seed size being associated (linked?) with root rot resistance of beans has been overcome sufficiently to facilitate the production of root rot resistant lines with seed size and horticultural characters comparable with Light Red Kidney. Crosses have been made among progenies of some of the best plants. Numerous potential candidates for release should appear when F(2) plants from these crosses are grown in the root rot screening plot next summer. Resistance to halo blight and anthracnose are being introduced into the root rot breeding program.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications