Source: UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS submitted to
WILD PERENNIAL GLYCINE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0070633
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ILLU-802-355
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2007
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2011
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Hymowitz, T.
Recipient Organization
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
2001 S. Lincoln Ave.
URBANA,IL 61801
Performing Department
CROP SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
The perennial wild relatives of the soybean will be studied for possible sources of germplasm to improve soybean cultivars.
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
60%
Applied
40%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
20218201080100%
Knowledge Area
202 - Plant Genetic Resources;

Subject Of Investigation
1820 - Soybean;

Field Of Science
1080 - Genetics;
Goals / Objectives
1. To maintain clones of a G. max x G. tomentella amphiploid hybrid. Currently they are being tested for cyst nematode resistance. 2. Create unusual genetic stocks. Currently developing a soybean lacking the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, seed lectin and immunodominant soybean allergen p34. 3. To continue updating the database on wild perennial Glycine species. The current database contains 541 articles and has been placed on the PI's website. In addition, we have a copy of all references in the database and would make them available upon request.
Project Methods
1. The germplasm will be collected by the PI, will be collected specifically for him by colleagues or introduced into the U.S. by standard seed exchange procedures. 2. The species will be screened for their somatic chromosome number, for certain chemical components of seed or leaf tissue, and in specific cases conduct investigations on how to multiply accessions in the greenhouse.

Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A bibliographic database containing ca 580 articles was developed to make available the literature about the wild perennial Glycine species related to the soybean for use by any investigator. Due to my retirement, the database was give to Dr. Leslie Domier, USDA/Crop Sciences (ldomier@illinois.edu) In addtion, a collection of seed of those genera allied to the soybean genus Glycine was donated to Dr. J. Brad Morris, at the USDA/Griffen, GA (bradmorris@ars.usda.gov) repository for maintenance, multiplication and distribution. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Due to my retirement, I am no longer collating the database concerning the published literature of the wild perennial Glycine species related to the soybean. The database was given to Dr. Leslie Domier, USDA/Crop Sciences and is available for use by any investigator. Due to my retirement, I am no longer collecting, identifying nor preserving seeds from genera allied to the soybean genus, Glycine. The collection was donated to the USDA/Griffen, GA. Thus, although I am no longer involved in the project it will continue under the capable hands of colleagues.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A bibliographic database was developed to make available the literature about the wild perennial Glycine species related to the domesticated soybean. The database is free for use by any investigator. The database has been placed on the principal investigator's University of Illinois website. In addition, we continue to maintain a seed collection of those genera allied to the soybean genus Glycine. Hatch funds are being used to maintain the collection in the Turner Hall Greenhouse Complex and to pay for an hourly undergraduate assistant. Many of the genera are rare and we are the only readily available source of seed for investigators. To alleviate the problem, systematically as available seed collections are being sent to the USDA/Griffin, GA repository for maintenance, multiplication, and distribution. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Apparently, the soybean rust organism over winters on both kudzu (Pueraria) and jicama (Pachyrhizus) plants growing in tropical and subtropical Mexico and the U.S. Both genera are closely related to the soybean (Glycine). In the past year seeds of genera related to the soybean were distributed primarily to plant pathologists seeking sources of resistance to soybean rust. The bibliographic data base concerning the literature about the wild perennial species related to the domesticated soybean contains 583 references. The data base is on my website (http://www.cropsci.illinois.edu/faculty/hymowitz/genlab/).

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A bibliographic database was developed to make available the literature about the wild perennial Glycine species related to the domesticated soybean. The database is free for use by any investigator. The database has been placed on the principal investigator's Universty of Illinois web site. In addition, we continue to maintain a seed collection of those genera allied to the soybean genus Glycine. Hatch funds are being used to maintain the collection in the Turner Hall Greenhouse Complex and to pay for an hourly undergraduate assistant. Many of the genera are rare and we are the only readily available source of seed for investigators. To alleviate the problem, systematically as available seed collections are being sent to the USDA/Griffin, GA repository for maintenance, multiplication, and distribution. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
This past year, 153 packets containing seed of genera related to Glycine were sent to plant pathologists seeking sources or resistance to soybean rust. These seed are rare. Of particular interest are seed of the genera Pueraria. Increasingly evidence suggests the soybean rust organism over winters on Pueraria plants growing wild in tropical and subtropical Mexico and the U.S. The bibliographic database concerning literature about the wild perennial Glycine species related to the domesticated soybean now contains 576 references. The database has been placed on my website and is free for use by any investigator and is available at http://www.cropsci.illinois.edu/faculty/hymowitz/genlab/.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: A bibliographic database was developed to make available the literature about the wild perennial Glycine species related to the domesticated soybean. The database is free for use by any investigator. The database has been placed on the principal investigator's University of Illinois web site. In addition, we continue to maintain a seed collection of those genera allied to the soybean genus Glycine. Hatch funds are being used to maintain the collection in the Turner Hall Greenhouse Complex and to pay for an hourly undergraduate assistant. Many of the genera are rare and we are the only readily available source of seed for investigators. To alleviate the problem, systematically as available seed collections are being sent to the USDA/Griffin, GA repository for maintenance, multiplication, and distribution. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Not relevant to this project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Rare seed of genera related to Glycine have been distributed as requested freely to investigators. Recently, a paper was published by a USDA/Baylor Medical School investigator on the nutrition of the genus Teramnus. The seed for the study came from the collection at Illinois. In addition, the genus Pueraria is becoming increasingly important to U.S. agriculture as one particular species is the winter host of the soybean rust pathogen in the southern U.S. Thus, the collection has in the past four years increased in value for use by plant pathologists.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
The bibliographic database was continued for the wild perennial Glycine species. A total of 764 references are cataloged and cross referenced in the database. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0 with a Windows XP professional operating system. The hardware is a Dell Optiflex GX 620MT having an INTEL Pentium 4 Processor 650 with HT (3.4 GHz, 2M, 800 MHz FSB). The database can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/~Hymowitz. We continued to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycininae. Some of the genera are extremely rare. Several collections were sent to the USDA/Griffin, GA repository for maintenance and further multiplication and distribution.

Impacts
The genera of the wild perennial Glycine species most closely allied to the cultivated soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest is the genus Pueraria. This genus is being closely examined by pathologists as a possible winter host for the soybean rust pathogen.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
The bibliographic database was continued for the wild perennial Glycine species. A total of 764 references are cataloged and cross referenced in the database. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0 with a Windows XP professional operating system. The hardware is a Dell Optiflex GX 620MT having an INTEL Pentium 4 Processor 650 with HT (3.4 GHz, 2M, 800 MHz FSB). This is a new computer. The old Gateway 2000 computer was too slow for practical use. The database can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. We continued to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycininae. Some of the genera are extremely rare. Several collections were sent to the USDA/Griffin, GA repostory for maintenance and furher multiplicatoin and distribution.

Impacts
The genera of the wild perennial Glycine species most closely allied to the cultivated soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest in the genus Pueraria. This genus is being closely examined by pathologists as a possible winter host for the soybean rust pathogen.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
The bibliographic database was continued for the wild perennial Glycine species. A total of 764 references are cataloged and cross referenced in the database. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0 with a Windows XP professional operating system. The hardware is a Dell Optiflex GX 620MT having an INTEL Pentium 4 Processor 650 with HT (3.4 GHz, 2M, 800 MHz FSB). This is a new computer. The old Gateway 2000 computer was too slow for practical use. The database can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. We continued to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycininae. Seed of some of the genera are extremely rare. Several collections were sent to the USDA/Griffin, GA repostory for maintenance and further multiplication and distribution.

Impacts
The genera of the wild perennial Glycine species most closely allied to the cultivated soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest in the genus Pueraria. This genus is being closely examined by pathologists as a possible winter host for the soybean rust pathogen.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
The bibliographic data base was continued for the wild Glycine species. A total of 531 references are catalogued and cross referenced in the database. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0, Windows 2000 Professional. The hardware is a Gateway 2000 computer (Pentium 266 MHZ) with a 4.3 GB hard drive. The database can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. We continued to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycinnae. Seed of some of the genera are extremely rare. The genus and number of accessions currently in the collection are as follows: Amphicarpaea (2);Cologania (3); Dumasia (5); Neonotonia (35); Nogra (1); Pseudoeriosema (3); Pseudovigna (4); Pueraria (151); Shuteria (2); Terammus (45); and Teyleria (2). I plan to increase the number of accessions of Teramnus, the genus most closely allied to Glycine, for possible use in wide hybridization experiments. Currently seven species of Terammus are being grown in the greenhouse for multiplication for use in future studies.

Impacts
The genera of the wild Glycine species most closely allied to the cultivated soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest are the genera Amphicarpaea, Teramnus and Pueraria. These genera are being examined closely by pathologists as possible alternative hosts for the soybean rust pathogen.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
The bibliographic data base was continued for the wild Glycine species. A total of 505 references are catalogued and cross referenced in the data base. The data base can be accessed at http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. We continued to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycinnae. Seed of some of the genera are extremely rare. The genus and number of accessions currently in the collection are as follows: Amphicarpaea (2); Cologania (3); Dumasia (5); Neonotonia (35); Nogra (1); Pseudoeriosema (3); Pseudovigna (4); Pueraria (151); Shuteria (2) Terammus (45); and Teyleria (2). I plan to increase the number of accessions of Teramnus, the genus most closely allied to Glycine, for possible use in wide hybridization experiments. Currently seven species of Terammus are being grown in the greenhouse for multiplication for use in future studies.

Impacts
The genera of the wild Glycine species most closely allied to the cultivated soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest are the genera Amphicarpaea, Teramnus and Pueraria.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
The bibliographic data base was continued for the wild Glycine species. A total of 483 references are catalogued and cross referenced in the database. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0, Windows 98. The hardware is a Gateway 2000 computer (Pentium 266 MHZ) with a 4.3 GB hard drive. The data base can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. We continued to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycinnae. Seed of some of the genera are extremely rare. The genus and number of accessions currently in the collection are as follows: Amphicarpaea (2); Cologania (3); Dumasia (5); Neonotonia (35); Nogra (1); Pseudoeriosema (3); Pseudovigna (4); Pueraria (151); Shuteria (2); Terammus (45); and Teyleria (2). I plan to increase the number of accessions of Teramnus, the genus most closely allied to Glycine, for possible use in wide hybridization experiments.

Impacts
The genera most closely allied to the soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest are the genera Amphicarpaea, Teramnus and Pueraria.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
The bibliographic database was continued for the wild Glycine species. A total of 483 references are catalogued and cross referenced in the database. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0, Windows 98. The hardware is a Gateway 2000 computer (Pentium 266 MHZ) with a 4.3 GB hard drive. The data base can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. We continued to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycinnae. Seed of some of the genera are extremely rare. The genus and number of accessions currently in the collection are as follows: Amphicarpaea (2); Cologania (3); Dumasia (5); Neonotonia (35); Nogra (1); Pseudoeriosema (3); Pseudovigna (4); Pueraria (151); Shuteria (2); Teramnus (45); and Teyleria (2).

Impacts
Those genera most closely allied to the soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest are the genera Amphicarpaea, Teramnus and Pueraria.

Publications

  • LEE, J. 2000. Molecular genetics of the genus Glycine: 1. Phylogenetic study of the subtribe Glycininae. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Illinois. 137 pp.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/30/00

Outputs
The bibliographic data base was continued for the wild Glycine species. A total of 471 references are catalogued and cross referenced in the data base. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0, Windows 95. The hardware is a Gateway 2000 computer (Pentium 200 MHZ) with a 4.3 GB hard drive. The data base can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. We continue to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycininae. Seed of some of the genera are extremely rare. The genus and number of accessions currently in the collection are as follows: Amphicarpaea (2); Cologania (3); Dumasia (5); Neonotonia (35); Nogra (1); Pseudoeriosema (3); Pseudovigna (4); Pueraria (151); Shuteria (2); Teramnus (45); and Teyleria (2).

Impacts
Those genera most closely allied to the soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest are the genera Amphicarpaea, Teramnus and Pueraria.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
The bibliographic data base was continued for the wild Glycine species. A total of 460 references are catalogued and cross referenced in the data base. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0, Windows 95. The hardware is a Gateway 2000 computer (Pentium 200 MHZ) with a 4.3 GB hard drive. The data base can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. We continued to maintain and update a seed collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycinnae. Seed of some of the genera are extremely rare. The genus and number of accessions currently in the collection are as follows: Amphicarpaea (6); Cologania (3); Dumasia (3) Neonotonia (19); Pseudoeriosema (2); Pseudovigna (1); Pueraria (34); Shuteria (1); Teramnus (39); and Teyleria (1).

Impacts
Those genera most closely allied to the soybean might be useful as sources of genetic diversity needed to improve soybean cultivars. Of special interest are the genera Amphicarpaea, Teramnus and Pueraria.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

Outputs
This year we updated our computer system. At present, we are utilizing a Gateway 2000 computer (Pentium 200 MHZ) with 4.3 GB hard drive and a visual dBase software program on a Windows 95 operating system. The bibliographic database was continued for the wild perennial Glycine species. A total of 437 references were catalogued and cross referenced in the database. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 4.0 for Windows 95. The data base can be accessed at URL http://www.cropsci.uiuc.edu/Hymowitz. A new data base was established for the collection of those genera allied to the genus Glycine. The genera are in the subtribe Glycinnae. Seed of some of the genera are extremely rare. The genus and the number of accessions currently in the collection are: Pseudovigna (1); Pueraria (33); Teramnus (36); Amphicarpaea (4); Cologania (3); Dumasia (3); Neonotonia (12); Shuteria (1); and Teyleria (1).

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
The perennial Glycine database has increased dramatically within the past 5 years. There are now 1032 accessions plus passport data for each accession in the database. The entire database was copied onto a diskette and sent to the assistant curator of the USDA soybean germplasm collection for placement into the Germplasm Resources Information Network system. This year we updated our computer system. At present, we are utilizing a Gateway 2000 computer (Pentium 200 MHZ) with 3.2 GB hard drive and visual dBase software program on a Windows 95 operating system. A bibliographic data base was established for the wild perennial Glycine species. A total of 409 references were catalogued and cross referenced in the database. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 2.0/Windows 3.1 or Windows 95.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/95 to 09/30/96

Outputs
The perennial Glycine data base has increased dramatically within the past 4 years. There are now 968 accessions plus passport data for each accession in the data base. The entire data base was copied onto a diskette and sent to the assistant curator, USDA soybean germplasm collection for placement into the Germplasm Resources Information Network system. At present the Dell 450/L computer system (486 DX2, 50MHz) with 230 MB hard drive is no longer efficient, effective or has the storage capacity to handle an increasing larger wild perennial Glycine data base. This coming year, we plan to purchase a pentium computer having much larger data storage capacity. A bibliographic data base was established for the wild perennial Glycine species. A total of 401 references were catalogued and cross referenced in the data base. The software being utilized is FileMaker Pro 2.0/Windows 3.1.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/94 to 09/30/95

    Outputs
    A bibliographic data base was established for the wild perennial Glycine species. The software being utilized is File Maker Pro 2.0/Windows 3.1. A total of 389 references were catalogued and cross referenced in the data base.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/93 to 09/30/94

      Outputs
      The major activity this year was devoted to harmonizing the wild perennial Glycine data bank descriptors between the Australian (CSIRO/Canberra) and the U.S. (USDA/University of Illinois) collections. At the University of Illinois this was accomplished utilizing the newly purchased Dell 450/L computer system. Ultimately the data base program being used will be changed from dBase IV to FileMaker Pro.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 10/01/92 to 09/30/93

        Outputs
        A totally new computer and associated peripheral systems were purchased, primarily to increase hard drive space and also to improve output capability and ease of use. 1. Dell 450/L computer system (486 DX2. 5OMHz) with 230 MB hard drive. This system provides greater disk storage space and more rapid data retrieval. 2. Network Interface Card. The card provides the capability to transfer data via e-mail. 3. File Marker Pro. This is a new data base program with improved output capability and which has the capacity of strong graphic image files. 4. DOS 6.0. This software provides greater hard disk capacity by doubling of hard disk space. 5. Logitech Scanner. This instrument provides capability to generate leaf and other images for inclusion in data bases and publications.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 10/01/91 to 09/30/92

          Outputs
          Purchase of d-Base IV, 1.5 from 1.1; Windows 3.1 from 3.0; Professional Draw Program 1.0; and Free Lance Program 4.0 for assistance in analysis of data. The wild perennial Glycine data base now is in the GRIN system and available for use by the public.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 10/01/90 to 09/30/91

            Outputs
            The wild perennial Glycine inventory list is updated on a day to day basis utilizing an IBM PS/2 model 70 computer. The system was upgraded with the purchase of a HP Laser Jet Series III printer, a 2MB memory board for Laser Jet Series III, a PS/2 2MB memory kit, a PROCOM external 5.25" floppy drive (1.2 MB), and a 16 MZ coprocessor. A large data base of about 110 morphological characters for some 3000 soybean accessions was presented to the USDA, Soybean Germplasm Unit, for inclusion into the GRIN system.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 10/01/89 to 09/30/90

              Outputs
              The wild perennial Glycine inventory list is updated on a day to day basis utilizing an IBM PS/2 model 70 computer. A large morphological database was presented to the USDA, Plant Germplasm Unit, for inclusion into the GRIN system.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 10/01/87 to 09/30/88

                Outputs
                All morphological data recorded during the past 10 years was sent on a tape to Gail Juvik, Assistant Curator, Soybean Germplasm Collection, Urbana, IL. She will incorporate all the data into the GRIN system.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 10/01/86 to 09/30/87

                  Outputs
                  As revisionary work on the genus Glycine Willd. and its allies progresses, new techniques are added to the arsenal used to attack its complexities. Chromosomal pairing at meiosis, isozyme patterns, and DNA mapping refine projected taxonomic relationships, which are necessary for anticipated expansion of the gene pool of the cultivated soybean via intersubgeneric hybridization. However, traditional morphology when coupled with a computer still enjoys a role in that readily visible morphological features can be efficient and useful indications of taxonomic/genetic similarities. Adventitious roots were observed on 3 wild perennial Glycine species, in G. microphylla (Benth.) Tind., G. latifolia (Benth.) Newell and Hymowitz, and most G. tabacina (Labill.) Benth (2X, 4X, 6X) while other species lacked adventitious roots. This suggests that the adventitious roots trait is associated with "B" genome species. Intra- and interspecific F(1) hybrids revealed that adventitious roots apparently is inherited recessively.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/86 to 09/30/86

                    Outputs
                    Of 359 accessions graded for each of 103 variables, (including qualitatives recoded as ordinal numerics), 178 were complete. These have been studied by preliminary numerical taxonomic methods. Initial steps in data preparation were: standardization of written comments of qualitative characters; coding of qualitative characters into ordinal numeric states when 6 or more classes were present; reformatting data to be acceptable to SAS-CMS and SPSSX-CMS; 1-way analysis of variance for continuous numerics and nonparametric 1-way analysis of variance for ordinal numerics to find and discard characters invariant among species to reduce the data set; principal components analysis of raw data to examine how well such ordination reflected both original species and original total variance; and principal components analysis based on canonical variates (formed to maximize discreteness of original species clusters) when original principal components did not provide strong clusters) when original principal components did not provide strong clustering.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                      Outputs
                      The collection of ca 500 wild perenial Glycine accessions representing nine species were measured for 30 inflorescence and 39 vegetative characters. These data are currently being entered into a computerized data base management system for analyses. All data are being stored with an IBM-PC computer that is in communication with a CYBER 175 computer. During the year two plant exploration trips were made to Queensland, N.S.W. and South Australia by a team from CSIRO/Canberra sponsored by IBPGR. The accessions will be grown out in Canberra and then multiplied seed will be sent on to the University of Illinois. These accessions will be grown out in the greenhouse, measured for inflorescence and vegetative characters and incorporated into the present data base.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                        Outputs
                        The collection of ca 450 wild perennial Glycine accessions representing eight species were measured for 30 inflorescence and 39 vegetative characters. These data are currently being entered into a computerized data base management system for analyses. All data is being stored with an IBM-PC computer which is in communication with a CYBER 175 computer. During the year, a plant exploration trip was made to the Kimberley Region of Western Australia. Approximately 50 accessions representing three known species and perhaps two species to be described were collected. These accessions will be grown out in the greenhouse, measured for inflorescence and vegetative characters and incorporated into the present data base.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                          Outputs
                          The collection of ca 270 wild perennial Glycine accessions representing seven species were measured for 30 inflorescence and 39 vegetative characters. These data are currently being entered into a computerized data base management system for analyses. Morphometric data will be analyzed using SAS, SPSS, NTSYS and other statistical package programs. During the year a plant exploration trip was made to the Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Approximately 100 accessions representing five species was collected. These accessions will be grown out in the greehouse, measured for inflorescence and vegetative characters and the data will be into the present data base.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                            Outputs
                            Accessions of wild perennial species in Glycine subgenus Glycine were analyzed for chromosome number, oil and fatty acid content. The range in total oil content was from 7.2 to 15.1%. The mean oil content appears to be similar in seed of those species with 2n=40. The popyploid accessions (2n=80) of G. tabacina and G. tomentella had about the same amount of oil as did their diploid counterparts. The fatty acids detected in all seeds were palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic and behenic. Within the G. tabacina accessions, there was very little difference in fatty acid content between the diploid (2n-40) and the tetraploid (2n=80) accessions. Among the species, the fatty acid content of G. clandestina was the most variable. Each accession currently is being measured for 27 inflorescence and 31 vegetative characters.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 09/01/81 to 12/30/81

                              Outputs
                              The collection of accessions belonging to species of the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign currently numbers 246 accessions. Plants are grown out in the greenhouse and scored for 58 morphological characters. Measurements are taken on 31 vegetative and 27 inflorescence characters. Pollen mother cells are analyzed for chromosome number, and to date a total of 81 accessions has been completed.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                                Outputs
                                The current information on sources of resistance to various soybean pathogens isscattered and often is contained in progress reports or similar publications with a limited circulation. Over 100 pathogens are known to effect soybeans, of which about 35 are of some economic value. For 16 of the economic pathogens there is little or no information. A complete literature search was made for 19 pathogens--brown spot (Septoria glycines), brown stem rot (Philaphora gregata), downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica), frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina), phytophthora root and stem rot (Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae), purple seed stain (Cerospora kikuchii), pythium root rot (Phythium spp.), soybean rust (Phakospora pachyrihizi), sclerotinia stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), sclerotium blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), diaporthe stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora), bacterial blight (Psuedomonas glycinea), bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojense), soybean mosaic (soybean mosaic virus), bean yellow mosaic (bean yellow mosaic virus), cowpea chlorotic mottle (cowpea chlorotic mottle virus), peanut mottle (peanut mottle virus), root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). The sources of resistance of each pathogen, a description of the importance of each pathogen with a description of symptoms, and a photograph of advanced symptoms are provided in the below listed publication.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                  Outputs
                                  A world-wide comprehensive literature search was completed on the germplasm sources resistant to the following 19 most important organisms that attack soybeans: Septoria glycines (Brown spot); Phialophora gregata (Brown stem rot); Peronospora manchurica (Downy mildew); Cercospora sojina (Frogeye leaf spot); Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae (Phytophthora root rot); Cercospora kikuchii (Purple stain); Pythium aphanidermatum (Pythium damping off); Phakospora pachyrhizi (Rust); Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Sclerotinia stem rot); Sclerotium rolfsii (Sclerotium blight); Diaporthe phaseolorum (Stem canker); Pseudomonas glycinea (Bacterial blight); Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis (Bacterial pustule); Bean yellow mosaic virus (Yellow mosaic); Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (Cowpea chlorotic mottle); Peanut mottle virus (Peanut mottle); Soybean mosaic virus (Soybean mosaic); Meloidogyne spp. (Root-knot nematode); and Heterodera glycines (Soybean cyst nematode).

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                                    Outputs
                                    Six species are currently recognized in the subgenus Glycine: G. canescens, G. clandestina, G. falcata, G. latrobeana, G. tabacina and G. tomentella. Distribution of the subgenus extends from South China to Tasmania and includes several Pacific Islands. A collection of these species was examined cytologically and morphologically in an attempt to evaluate existing variability between and within taxa. Chromosome counts confirmed G. canescens, G. clandestina, G. falcata and G. latrobeana to be diploid with 2n equal to 40. Both tetraploids (2n equal to 80) and diploids were found in G. tabacina. Glycine tomentella accessions were primarily tetraploid, but several collections were found to be aneuploid with 78 chromosomes. One collection was aneuploid at the diploid level with 38 chromosomes. Numerical techniques in the form of cluster analysis and principal components analysis were applied to morphological data on 31 vegetative and 27 inflorescence characters obtained from each accession. Numerical analysis grouped the accessions essentially according to current species delimitations. Seed morphology of collections representing the six species of the subgenus Glycine was examined in detail by a scanning electron microscope to elucidate inter- and intraspecific variability. Seed of the genus Glycine typically exhibits a muriculate appearance resulting from adherence to the true seed coat of the perisperm or inner pod wall.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                      Outputs
                                      Data from approximately 4200 accessions (plant introductions, old varieties, genetic T lines and wild Glycine species) have been coded, punched on computer cards and transferred to a disk. The taxonomic information retrieval (TAXIR) system has been modified for use in retrieving Glycine germplasm data. At present there are about 175 descriptors per accession. This past year data on the following descriptors have been added to the germplasm bank: information on banding patterns of seed proteins (cathodic system); results on screening for resistance to root knot nematode (M. arenaria), results on screening for resistance to 5 additional races of Phytophthora rot; results on screening for resistance to infestations of beet western virus yellows; and results on screening for resistance to corn ear worm. In addition, as new information became available gaps within accessions for various descriptors were filled in the data bank. Numerical techniques in the form of cluster analysis and principal components analysis were applied to morphological data on 3l vegetative and 27 inflorescence characters obtained from accessions of the 6 species in the subgenus GLycine for the purpose of evaluating variability between and within taxa. These analyses grouped the accessions essentially accoridng species deliminations.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 10/01/76 to 12/30/76

                                        Outputs
                                        Soybean germplasm data (plant introductions, forage crop introductions, old varieties, and genetic T lines) as well as the Glycine species collection data published in the USDA Regional Soybean Laboratory manuals, scientific journals and annual reports up to 1974 have been coded, punched on computer cards and transferred to a disc. The taxonomic information retrieval (TAXIR) system has been modified for use in retrieving Glycine germplasm data.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications