Source: PURDUE UNIVERSITY submitted to
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) STRATEGIES FOR THE GERMAN COCKROACH AND ITS ALLERGENS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
REVISED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0057199
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
IND011432
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2011
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2016
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Bennett, G. W.
Recipient Organization
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
WEST LAFAYETTE,IN 47907
Performing Department
Entomology
Non Technical Summary
The German cockroach is a common indoor pest of residential housing as well as commercial establishments. It is one of the most important urban pests in terms of frequency of occurrence and dollars spent on control. Human health, property, food supplies and the environment in which we live, work and play are affected by the presence of this cockroach; thus, our quality of life is impacted. Its cosmopolitan distribution, universally unacceptable aesthetic appeal, and association with filth while cohabitating with man have resulted in the German cockroach being one of the most socially, economically and medically important pests with which man has to deal. Management of the German cockroach still relies extensively on insecticides. The advent of highly effective bait products in the late 1990s significantly reduced the number and size of German cockroach infestations in the U.S., and reduced liquid and dust insecticide use as well. Through many years of pesticide use, the German cockroach developed resistance to virtually every class of insecticide used in its management. Recently, cockroach resistance to gel baits has been reported, with some cockroaches being highly resistant to a variety of current gel baits in the market. Given this history of insecticide resistance, including the recent gel bait aversion, in the German cockroach, it is imperative that more non-chemical control technologies be developed for use in management programs.
Animal Health Component
40%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
40%
Applied
40%
Developmental
20%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
72131101130100%
Knowledge Area
721 - Insects and Other Pests Affecting Humans;

Subject Of Investigation
3110 - Insects;

Field Of Science
1130 - Entomology and acarology;
Goals / Objectives
Objectives: 1. Develop green (non-chemical and low-impact insecticide) technologies for use in German cockroach control. a. Evaluate new insecticide chemistries and formulations. b. Identify and develop insect growth regulating (IGRs) compounds, pheromones, attractants, and repellents that are used in insect pest management (IPM) programs. c. Identify and develop new exclusion, removal, trapping, and other non-chemical technologies. d. Evaluate and develop biopesticides (such as essential oils, fungi, and other pesticides derived from animals, plants, and bacteria) for cockroach IPM. 2. Develop German cockroach resistance management strategies through a better understanding of behavioral and toxicological factors that influence insecticide resistance. 3. Identify and develop technologies and intervention techniques for use in cockroach allergen reduction.
Project Methods
Viable and sustainable German cockroach management programs (IPM) will be developed by evaluating new chemistries, formulations, and treatment strategies. Low impact and non-chemical technologies will be evaluated for use in IPM programs. German cockroach growth, development, behavior and survival will be evaluated in the laboratory to observe effects of new technologies and analyze their use in IPM. New classes of delayed-action insecticides are being developed for use in cockroach baits, as are other formulations. Existing chemistries are being reformulated for use in management programs. New juvenile hormone analogs, chitin synthesis inhibitors and other IGRs will also be evaluated. Least toxic insecticides, boric acid and other borate materials, diatomaceous earth, and biopesticides, will be studied; non-chemical technologies (ie: exclusion, sanitation, vacuuming, trapping) must be fully understood to implement environmentally sound IPM strategies. Field studies will be conducted in public housing communities where serious cockroach infestations occur. Treatments include various sanitation and exclusion measures, cockroach removal (vacuuming, trapping, baiting, low-impact crack and crevice sprays, IGRs and dusts, flushing, etc) and other chemical and non-chemical treatments. New formulations and delivery systems will be investigated to assess their use in sustainable management programs. Insecticide resistance and bait resistance continues to be a serious problem in German cockroach management programs. Resistance monitoring in field-collected populations, along with basic toxicology (LD50) studies will be conducted to determine resistance levels and modes of action. Consumption, palatability and mortality studies will be conducted to better understand behavioral (bait resistance) and physiological resistance. Laboratory studies will be used to identify insecticide/formulation strategies to incorporate into management programs. Field trials will be conducted to facilitate the development of resistance solutions using measured management programs that can become practiced and sustainable. The role of IGRs, other chemistries, and non chemical technologies will also be evaluated to determine their potential use and sustainability in management programs. The role of inspection and the monitoring of cockroach populations as relates to program sustainability will also be measured. Asthma and other allergic reactions have been established as diseases associated with the German cockroach. Dust samples will be collected before and after management programs and sent to reputable labs for allergen analysis. Post-treatment analysis will determine the comparative allergen reduction between treatments, and the relationship between cockroach reduction and removal and allergen reduction within treatments over time. Improvement in the health of residents will be evaluated in a collaborative project with the IU School of Medicine and the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Their long-range goal is to develop drugs to specifically reduce allergic reactions to the proteins associated with the German cockroach, its excretions, and secretions.

Progress 10/01/12 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: pest management professionals and housing managers Changes/Problems: Integrated pest management continues to be the most successful approach to cockroach management. By using all the tools available, both non-chemical and chemical, the best long-term management of German cockroach populations can be attained. Education of professionals and consumers is key to gaining acceptance of the IPM concept--getting "applicators" to move away from dependence on insecticides, but this will require an extended period of time. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Professionals and consumers are being reached through presentations and publications about the importance of IPM. These opportunities for training are crucial to the success of IPM. The long-term goal is to move these groups away from dependence on insecticides alone. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Presentation and publications are being used to reach these communities of interest. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Expand the educational programs--education is the key to successfully implementing the concept of integrated pest management.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Integrated pest management (IPM) systems are being evaluated, with a focus on trapping and biopesticides. Several kinds of traps and essential oils continue to be evaluated in the lab. Essential oils are being evaluated for activity on different surface types and at selected times after application to determine the residual activity of these compounds. German cockroach population reduction has not been significant unless there is direct contact with most of the essential oils. Sticky traps have been found to be the most effective in monitoring German cockroach populations, but have not generally been found to be effective in population reduction. Results of these studies have been disseminated through presentations to pest management professionals and housing managers. Training and education are key to the long-terms success of IPM programs. We will continue to stress IPM in all our extensions presentations to these "user" groups.

Publications


    Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/12

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: German cockroach populations were monitored from approximately 100 apartments before and after the implementation of an IPM program (cockroach gel baits, clutter reduction, and vacuuming). Cockroach population samples were taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment. Cockroach population reduction was significantly elevated at all periods following treatment. Results of this study have been disseminated through presentations and publications to pest management professionals, housing managers, and scientific audiences. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: pest management professionals and housing managers PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

    Impacts
    At two months, the IPM program and all baits had reduced cockroach population levels by 90% or more compared with that before program implementation. The reduction of cockroach population levels was limited by lack of resident cooperation, and the presence of food sources that be removed on a consistent basis.

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Dust samples were collected from approximately 75 apartments before and after the implementation of a German Cockroach IPM program (comprised of clutter reduction, cockroach gel baits, and and vacuuming up accessible cockroaches). Dust samples were collected at month 0, 6, and 12 for analyzing cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) levels. Cockroach allergen reduction as a result of the IPM program was elevated. Results of this study have been disseminated through presentations and publications to housing managers, professional pest managers, and scientific audiences. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Developed a guide for use by housing managers and residents in reducing cockroaches and their allergens. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

    Impacts
    At month 12, the IPM program reduced the geometric mean allergen (Bla g 1) levels by 52.5% compared with that before the program implementation. The reduction of allergen levels was limited by lack of maintenance of the apartments, lack of cooperation from residents, and generally poor sanitation conditions.

    Publications

    • Wang, C., Saltzmann, K. D., Chin, E., Bennett, G. W., & Gibb, T. (2010). Characteristics of Cimex lectularis infestations and dispersal in a high-rise apartment building. J. Econ. Entomol., 103(1): 172-177.


    Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Frequent applications of insecticides for German cockroach control can not only induce cockroach resistance and contaminate the environment, but more importantly they can pose danger to humans. High levels of cockroach resistance to sprays, baits, and other formulations have been reported. Numerous insecticides have been detected in indoor air and dust that has settled in buildings. Thus, increased interest in physical control technologies for use in integrated cockroach management programs has been investigated as a means of reducing insecticide use. In general, sticky traps are much more effective than jar traps in catching cockroaches. Sticky trap types vary in their effectiveness; those with openings on the sides or top enhance trapping efficacy. Flat glue boards were significantly more effective in trapping cockroaches than triangular traps. Small nymphs were more likely to be trapped than large nymphs. Sticky traps were better at establishing age structure similar to field population structure. Results of this study have been disseminated through presentations and publications to professional pest managers and scientific audiences. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Cockroach control professionals and home owners PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

    Impacts
    An understanding of cockroach trap design and construction are important in maximizing their usefulness in integrated cockroach management programs. More effective IPM technologies will allow pest management professionals to deliver programs that are least toxic, as well as more sustainable. In addition, traps as monitors for cockroach population levels will be improved in estimating infestation levels in buildings.

    Publications

    • Wang, C., T. Gibb, G. Bennett and S. McKnight. 2009. Bed bug attraction to traps baited with CO2, heat and chemical lure. 102:1580-1585.


    Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: A new tool that may assist pest management professionals in countering the German cockroach's high reproductive potential was investigated. Exponential KillTM refers to a unique process of horizontal transfer whereby a single donor cockroach fed Advion cockroach gel is capable of transferring the bait's active ingredient, indoxacarb, to a large number of recipient cockroaches, thus killing them. The horizontal transfer of indoxacarb from adult males to first-instar nymphs (secondary mortality) was first examined. The transfer of indoxacarb was then examined from first-instar nymphs (killed via secondary kill) to adult male recipients (tertiary mortality). Results of this study have been disseminated through presentations and publications to professional pest managers and scientific audiences. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Pest Management Professionals PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

    Impacts
    Indoxacarb is effectively transferred from adult donor males resulting in significant mortality of first-instar nymphs. The transfer of indoxacarb continues beyond secondary mortality to tertiary mortality when male cockroaches died by having contact with nymphs that were killed through secondary mortality. Thus, this bait provides a trophic cascade or chain reaction that leads to mortality of cockroaches that are never directly exposed to the insecticide, even to the tertiary level. This bait, and perhaps others that come into the market, can provide high levels of population reduction with smaller numbers of bait placement.

    Publications

    • Buczkowski, G., C.W. Scherer and G.W. Bennett. 2008. Horizontal transfer of bait in the German cockroach: indoxacarb causes secondary and tertiary mortality. J. Econ. Entomol. 101:894-901.
    • Buczkowski, G., G.W. Bennett and C.W. Scherer. 2008. Tertiary mortality in the German cockroach. Pest Control Tech. 36(5): 90, 91, 94-95.


    Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: The cost and effectiveness of integrated pest management in reducing German cockroach infestations and cockroach allergen levels was evaluated in public housing complexes. Approximately 500 apartments were utilized, with about 40 percent being serviced by Purdue University entomologists and 60 percent being treated by a commercial contractor. Residents were educated on cockroach control and allergen reduction through printed materials and demonstrations. Cockroach infested apartments were treated with a combination of boric acid dust and hydramethylnon or fipronil bait. Each apartment was monitored monthly to quarterly using sticky traps or interviews with residents to evaluate program effectiveness. Dust samples were collected from kitchens before program implementation and at 6 and 12 months to evaluate program effectiveness. Dust samples were collected from kitchens before program implementation and at 6 and 12 months to evaluate cockroach allergen reduction. Results of this study have been disseminated through reports and bulletins to housing residents and managers, and presentations and publications to professional pest managers and scientific audiences. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Urban entomologists and managers of low income housing. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

    Impacts
    Entomologists spend significantly more time and applied more boric acid dust for each apartment than the contractor technicians. The entomologists - delivered integrated pest management program (E-IPM) resulted in significantly faster cockroach reduction than the contractor-delivered integrated pest management program (C-IPM). The mean monthly cost based on material and labor expenses were not significantly different. The effectiveness of both programs was affected by the lack of staff assistance with periodic inspections of apartments, lack of proper maintenance of the properties, and inadequate cooperation of residents.

    Publications

    • Wang, C., M. Abou El-Nour and G.W. Bennett. 2008. Survey of pest infestation, asthma, and allergy in low-income housing. J. Community Health. 33:31-39.


    Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: To design and evaluate an effective cockroach management program in public housing, we conducted a comparative study on baiting and integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. The costs, insecticide use, and efficacy of the two strategies were compared. A total of 12 buildings and 66 apartments were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over seven months. We found that effective long-term management of cockroach infestations depends on community-wide action. It consists of continuous monitoring using traps and visual inspection, education, enforcement (focused on removing clutter and improving sanitation), and careful application of insecticides. Non-chemical tools, such as vacuum cleaners and sticky traps, are also beneficial. IPM methods are more costly than baiting alone programs because of the labor involved. However, the cost difference should diminish over time. The IPM strategy not only eliminates cockroaches more effectively, but also lowers insecticide use. The main obstacles to implementing IPM programs in public housing are a lack of cooperation or understanding on the part of tenants, ongoing sanitation problems, and cost constraints. TARGET AUDIENCES: Managers of public housing who control cockroaches

    Impacts
    By overcoming obstacles to integrated pest management (IPM) programs, sustainable management of the German cockroach can be achieved.

    Publications

    • Sun, W., V. Margam, L. Sun, G. Buczkowski, G. W. Bennett, B. Schemerhorn, W. M. Muir and B. R. Pittendrigh, 2006. Genome-wide analysis of phenobarbital-inducible genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect. Mol. Biol. 15: 455-464.
    • Zhou, X., J. A. Smith, P. G. Koehler, F. M. Oi, G. W. Bennett and M. E. Scharf. 2007. A system of collaborative cellulose digestion in the lower termite reticulitermes flavipes. Gene. 395: 29-39.
    • Kuruganti, S., V. Lam, X. Zhou, G. W. Bennett, B. R. Pittendrigh and R. Ganguly. 2007. High expression of Cyp6g1, a cytochrome P450 gene, does not necessarily confer DDT resistance in Drosophila melanogaster. Gene. 388: 43-53.
    • Buczkowski, G. and G. W. Bennett. 2007. Protein marking reveals predation on termites by the woodland ant, Aphaenogaster rudis. Insect. Soc. 54: 219-224.
    • Buczkowski, G., C. Wang and G. W. Bennett. 2007. Immunomarking reveals food flow and feeding relationships in the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes. Envir. Entomol. 36: 173-182.


    Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

    Outputs
    German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), distribution within low-income apartment kitchens was determined by monitoring feeding activity with capacitive proximity sensors. Six sensors were placed in each kitchen in the cabinets below and above the sink, beside the stove, behind the refrigerator, and on the counter on top of the upper cabinet. In both apartments, cockroach feeding activity was as follows: in the cabinet below the sink, beside the stove, behind the refrigerator, in the cabinet above the sink, on the countertop next to the sink, and top of the upper cabinet. Environmental loggers that recorded light intensity, relative humidity and temperature were placed beside each proximity sensor. Areas with the greatest feeding activity were dark and humid. Areas of less feeding activity were most often well-lit, dry and exposed to human activity.

    Impacts
    Understanding the biology, behavior, and ecology of the German cockroach is essential to developing IPM programs for the most economically important pest in urban structures. Only through the consistent use of integrated pest management can sustainable management of the German cockroach be achieved.

    Publications

    • Sedenger, B. D., D. R. Suiter and G. W. Bennett. 2006. German cockroach feeding activity in apartment kitchens. J. Entomol. Sci. 41:49-56.
    • Nuss, A. B., D. R. Suiter and G. W. Bennett. 2005. Continuous monitoring of the trail behavior of the black carpenter ant. Sociobiol. 45:497-618.
    • Saltzman, K. A., K. D. Saltzman, J. J. Neal, M. E. Scharf and G. W. Bennett. 2006. Effects of the juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen on German cockroach tergal gland development and production of tergal gland secretion proteins. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.


    Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

    Outputs
    A benzoylphenyl urea insect growth regulator with the common name noviflumuron was evaluated for efficacy and residual activity on the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). In laboratory studies evaluating residual activity, 0.05% noviflumuron suspension concentrate produced 100% nymphal mortality 120 d after application to steel and masonite substrates. Residual activity of noviflumuron was more variable on painted plywood substrates compared with stainless steel and masonite. In bioassay arenas, population reductions caused by noviflumuron were significantly greater than Archer and the untreated populations. A field study in multifamily housing complexes showed noviflumuron (0.2 and 0.5%) to provide 73.3 +- 8.0 and 90.6 +- 3.6% trap catch reduction at 4 wk posttreatment, respectively. There were no significant differences in the performance of noviflumuron, Maxforce FC Roach Bait Stations (0.05% [AI] fipronil), and Avert dust bait (0.05% [AI] abamectin B1). Noviflumuron shows excellent potential for use in cockroach management programs.

    Impacts
    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are specific to insects, and are least toxic alternatives to traditional insecticides. Noviflumuron is the first IGR that will be used as a "stand alone" treatment for cockroaches, although using it with other IPM technologies will enhance its sustainability as a pest management technology.

    Publications

    • Scharf, M. E., D. Wu-Scharf, X. Zhou, B. R. Pittendrigh and G. W. Bennett. 2005. Gene expression profiles among immature and adult reproductive castes of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Insect Mol. Bio. 14:31-44.
    • Ameen, A., C. Wang, W. Kaakeh, G. W. Bennett, J. E. King, L. Karr and J. Xie. 2005. Residual activity and population effects of noviflumuron for German cockroach control. J. Econ. Entomol. 98:899-905.
    • Wang, C., M. E. Scharf and G. W. Bennett. 2004. Behavioral and physiological resistance of the German cockroach to gel baits. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:2067-2072.
    • Scharf, M. E., C. R. Ratliff and G. W. Bennett. 2004. Impacts of residual insecticide barriers on perimeter-invading ants. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:493-497.
    • Scharf, M. E., X. Zhou and G. W. Bennett. 2005. The application of molecular genomics in addressing long-standing questions on termite biology. Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Urban Pests. Singapore. pp. 19-27.
    • Scharf, M. E., C. R. Ratliff, D. Wu-Scharf, X. Zhou, B. R. Pittendrigh and G. W. Bennett. 2005. Effects of juvenile hormone III on Reticulitermes flavipes: changes in hemolymph protein composition and gene expression. Insect Biochem. Mol. Bio. 35:207-215.


    Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

    Outputs
    Gel baits have been the main method for German cockroach control in the past 5-8 years. Some field populations have now demonstrated that they will not feed on gel baits. One such strain exhibited a high level of behavioral resistance to 0.05% abamectin and 0.01% fipronil gel baits. Topical application assays indicated moderate levels of physiological resistance (resistance ratios to abamectin and fipronil were 2.5 and 8.7, respectively). The bait averse strain showed avoidance to sugars, which are phagostimulants in lab strains. The bait averse strain produced significantly smaller oothecae and lower numbers of eggs per capsule, suggesting fitness costs are associated with resistance.

    Impacts
    The emergence of bait aversion poses new challenges to pest management professionals. Rotating gel baits with different active ingredients and the use of other matrix ingredients will not prevent the development of this behavioral resistance. Only through the consistent use of integrated pest management can long term management of the German cockroach be achieved.

    Publications

    • Bennett, G.W., J.M. Owens and R.M. Corrigan. 2004. Truman's Scientific Guide to Pest Management Operations. 6th ed. Advanstar, Cleveland. 606 pp.
    • Scharf, M.E., D. Wu-Sharf, B.R. Pittendrigh and G.W. Bennett. 2003. Caste and development-associated gene expression in a lower termite. Genome Biology 4(10):R62
    • Bennett, G.W. 2004. Cockraches and disease. pp. 136-139 in J. L. Capinera (ed.). Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer-Verlag, New York.


    Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

    Outputs
    Male tergal glands play a critical role in German cockroach reproductive biology because females feed on tergal gland secretion to stimulate mating. Tergal gland-secreted proteins first appeared in the secretion 2-3 days post-eclosion, increased in concentration until day 5, and remained relatively constant through day 10. The influence of a juvenile hormone analog used in cockroach control (pyriproxyfen) on tergal gland tissue was examined using light and transmission electron microscopy, and was found to decrease the amount of tergal gland tissue present, cause a deformation of the tissue present, and result in a less orderly arrangement of the cells present.

    Impacts
    A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying German cockroach reproductive behavior is highly desirable. Disrupting behavior by altering the production of tergal gland secretions that are necessary for successful reproduction is important in limiting the German cockroach as a pest of our food and health. Juvenile hormone analogs disrupt tergal gland secretions, thus disrupting reproduction.

    Publications

    • Scharf, D.W., M.E. Scharf, B.R. Pittendrigh and G.W. Bennett. 2003. Expressed sequence tags from a polyphonic Reticulitermes flavipes cDNA library. Sociobiology. 41:479-490.
    • Scharf, M.E., E.A. Buss, C.R. Ratliff and G.W. Bennett. 2002. Invertebrate taxa associated with subterranean termite monitoring devices in the eastern Midwest. Sociobiology. 39:441-445.


    Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

    Outputs
    Two proteins have been isolated from tergal gland secretion that are targets for molecular cloning. The two proteins targeted for cloning were chosen because they are highly expressed in the secretion and do not appear to be present generally on the cockroach body surface (surface proteins were collected from various areas of males, females and nymphs). The approximate molecular sizes for these proteins are 62.5 and 23 kDa, respectively. With sequence similarity to other proteins established, the next goal is to form hypotheses regarding the putative function of tergal secretion proteins.

    Impacts
    Due to the negative economic and public health impact that German cockroaches have on humans, improved understanding of mechanisms underlying reproductive behavior is desirable. Beyond the present goal of characterizing proteins secreted by tergal glands, it is hoped that efforts to improve German cockroach monitoring and control technologies will be enhanced.

    Publications

    • Scharf, M.E., D.W. Scharf, G.W. Bennett and B.R. Pittendrigh. 2001. Flavin-containing monoxygenases in insects: cloning, sequence analysis of two forms occurring in Drosophila melanogaster. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 10:139-146.
    • Scharf, M.E., C.R. Ratliff, D.J. Brad, and G.W. Bennett. 2002. Invertebrate taxa associated with subterranean termite monitoring devices in the Midwest. Sociobiology. 39:441-451.


    Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

    Outputs
    The effect of protein on the feeding behavior of protein-stressed and field-collected German cockroaches was determined through electronic monitoring with a datalogger and capacitive proximity sensors. The number of feeding visits, and the duration of feeding over a 3-day period by laboratory-reared adult male, adult female and fifth instar male cockroaches was influenced by the protein content of available diets. The results of these studies are important in both the development of baits for cockroach management and in developing the baiting management program itself.

    Impacts
    An understanding of cockroach nutrition and developing baits that best meet the nutritional needs of this pest are important factors in maximizing the effectiveness of baiting programs for German cockroach control. This research is useful in developing baits and baiting programs that enable pest management professioanls to better solve German cockroach problems.

    Publications

    • Ramakrishnan, R., D.R. Suiter, C.H. Nakatsu and G.W. Bennett. 2000. Feeding inhibition and mortality in Reticulitermes Davipes after exposure to imidacloprid-treated soils. J. Econ. Entomol. 93(2):422-8.
    • Tripp, J.M., D.R. Suiter and G.W. Bennett. 2000. Lincoln index derived forager population estimates in the black carpenter ant, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (Hymenoptera:Formicidae). Sociobiol. 35(1):109-18.
    • Tripp, J.M., D.R. Suiter, G.W. Bennett, J.H. Klotz and B.L. Reid. 2000. Evaluation of control measures for black carpenter ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 93(5):1493-7.


    Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

    Outputs
    The toxicity of five bait formulations (Avert PT310, Maxforce, Combat, Raid Max, and Magnetic Roach Food) against various stages and sexes of Jwax-susceptible and Muncie-resistant strains of the German cockroach showed the biological activity of all five baits differed markedly among the different stages and sexes of both strains in both choice and no-choice bioassays. The range of LT50s for each bait was wider and slower in killing cockroaches in choice bioassays than in no-choice bioassays. Overall, efficacy ratings showed Avert > Combat and Maxforce > Raid Max > Magnetic Roach Food.

    Impacts
    Bait active ingredients vary in their basic toxicity and effectiveness to German cockroaches. It is also important to incorporate attractive palatable food bases with active ingredients, use proper techniques when delivering baits, and dispense enough active ingredient/bait to affect the most resistant stages and strains of the German cockroach.

    Publications

    • Kaakeh, W. and G. W. Bennett. 1999. Developmental stage- and gender-dependent differential susceptibility of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) to various commercial baits. J. Agric. Urban Entomol. 16: 9-24.
    • Scharf, M. E., C. Y. Lee, J. J. Neal, and G. W. Bennett. 1999. Cytochrome P450 expression in insecticide-resistant German cockroaches (Dictypotera: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 92: 788-793.
    • Kells, S. A., J. T. Vogt, A. G. Appel, and G. W. Bennett. 1999. Estimating nutritional status of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), in the field. J. Insect Physiol. 45: 709-717.


    Progress 10/01/98 to 09/30/99

    Outputs
    Nutritional status of German cockroaches from the field was estimated using uric acid content to measure amount of protein consumed, and respiratory quotient to measure fat and carbohydrate metabolized. Field cockroaches consume less protein and carbohydrates, and more fat compared to those provided a standard lab diet. Thus, field diets were found to be suboptimal, resulting in physiological stress. These findings will enable further studies on diet selection, foraging behavior and population growth by using a diet more representative of the field situation.

    Impacts
    The use of cockroach baits in successfully controlling the German cockroach depends upon formulating a bait that is attractive, palatable and efficacious. Nutritionally optimal baits are key to their success.

    Publications

    • Kells, S. A. and G.W. Bennett. 1998. Providing a balanced diet for German cockroaches. Pest Control. 66 (7): 34-36. Scharf, M.E., J.J. Neal and G.W. Bennett. 1998. Changes of insecticide resistance levels and detoxication enzymes following insecticide selection in the German cockroach. Pesti. Biochem. Physiol. 59: 67-79. Kells, S.A. and G.W. Bennett. 1999. Estimating nutritional status of the German cockroach in the fiels. J. Insect Physiol. 45: 709-717.


    Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

    Outputs
    In field studies, sticky traps and vacuum cleaners were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in the control of German cockroaches infesting multifamily housing. Trapping and vacuuming treatments were compared with insecticide baiting and residual spraying methods. There were no significant differences in cockroach catch between treatments at all sampling periods after treatment. Trapping and vacuuming led to significant reductions in trap catch at all sampling times after treatment. The use of flushing agents before vacuuming led to a greater population reduction and removal of hard-to-reach gravid females. Sticky traps and vacuum cleaners also were effective as monitoring devices.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • Scharf, M.E.,Neal,J.J.and Bennett,G.W. 1998. Changes of insecticide resistance levels and detoxication enzymes following insecticide selection in the German cockroach. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 59:67-79.
    • Kaakeh, W., Scharf, M.E. and Bennett,G.W. 1997. Comparative contact activity and residual life of juvenile hormone analogs used for German cockroach control. J. Econ. Entomol. 90:1247-53.
    • Dong, K.,Scharf, M.E. and Bennett,G.W. 1998. The knockdown resistance mutation in pyrethroid resistant German cockroaches. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 60:195-204.
    • Alali, F.Q.,Kaakeh,W., Bennett, G.W. and McLaughlin, J.L. 1998. Annonaceous acetogenins as natural pesticides: toxicity against insecticide-susceptible and-resistant German cockroaches. J. Econ. Entomol. 91:641-9.


    Progress 10/01/96 to 09/30/97

    Outputs
    A combination of insecticidal, biochemical and electrophoretic assays on a field-collected strain of German cockroach showed the highest levels of resistance were to chlordane and bendiocarb with a resistance ratio at 95% response of 21.9 and 15.7, respectively. Resistance levels showed significant yearly variation at the 50% level. Treatment with piperonyl butoxide produced results suggesting that a monooxygenase resistance mechanism coexists with other mechanisms int his strain. Biochemical assays confirmed the existence of elevated levels of cytochrome P450 monoxygenase (in the adult male stage) and esterase activity (in 1st instars). Native esterases from 1st instars in the field-collected strain differed electrophoretically from those of the susceptible strain.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • Kaakeh, W. and G.W. Bennett. 1997. Evaluation of commercial sticky traps used for the German cockroach. J. Agric. Entomol. 14: 349-53.
    • Kaakeh, W. and G.W. Bennett. 1997. Toxicity of fipronil to German and American cockroaches. Entomol. Exper. et Appl. 84: 229-37.
    • Kaakeh, W., M.E. Scharf and G.W. Bennett. 1997. Efficacy of conventional insecticide and juvenoid mixtures on an insecticide-resistant field population of German cockroach. J. Agric. Entomol. 14: 339-48.
    • Scharf, M.E., J. Hemingway and G.W. Bennett. 1996. Toxicological and biochemical characterization of insecticide resistance in a field collec ted strain of Blattella germanica (L.). J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 322-31.
    • Kaakeh, N., W. Kaakeh and G.W. Bennett. 1996. topical toxicity of imidacloprid, fipronil and seven conventional insecticides to the adult convergent lady beetle. J. Entomol. Sci. 31:315-22.
    • Scharf, M.E., J. Hemingway, G.J. Small and G.W. Bennett. 1997. Examination of esterases from insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of the German cockroach. Insect Biochem. Molec. Biol. 27: 489-97.
    • Kaakeh, W. and G.W. Bennett. 1997. Evaluation of trapping and vacuuming compared with low-impact insecticide tactics for managing German cockroaches in residences. J. Econ. Entomol. 90:976-82.
    • Scharf, M.E., W. Kaakeh and G.W. Bennett. 1997. Changes in an insecticide-resistant field population of German cockroach after exposure to an insecticide mixture. J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 38-48.
    • Scharf, M.E. and G.W. Bennett. 1997. Insecticide resistance and current options available for its management in the German cockroach. Recent Res. Devel. Entomol. 1:23-35.


    Progress 10/01/95 to 09/30/96

    Outputs
    In field studies, trapping and vacuuming treatments were compared to baiting andresidual sprays for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). The percent cumulative population reductions caused by Siege gel bait, Victor Roach Pheromone sticky traps, flushing-and-vacuuming, vacuuming, Empire spray, and Suspend spray treatments were not significantly different at 4-week and 8-week post-treatment sampling periods, indicating that the treatments were equally effective in controlling German cockroach infestations. The use of a flushing agent before vacuuming led to a greater population reduction and removal of hard to reach gravid females.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • SCHARF, M.E., BENNETT, G. W., REID,B.L. and C. QUI, 1995. Comparisons of three insecticide resistant detection methods for the German cockroach. J. Econ. Entomol. 88(3): 536-42.
    • KAAKEH, W. and G. W. BENNETT. 1996. Horizontal transmission of the entomophagousfungus, Metahrizium anisopliae and hydramethylnon among German cockroaches. J. Entomol. Sciences. 31: 378-90.
    • SCHARF, M. E. and G. W. BENNETT. 1996. Changes in an insecticide resistant fieldpopulation of the German cockroach following exposure to an insecticide. J. EconEntomol. 89 (2): 322-31.


    Progress 10/01/94 to 09/30/95

    Outputs
    The influence of sterilization by hydroprene on population dynamics in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), was studied in the laboratory where more detailed and accurate assessments could be achieved than would be possible under typical field situations. The gradual accumulation of sterile adultoids (i.e., adults with twisted wings, indicating exposure to hydroprene) during treatment, or their decreasing abundance after treatment,produced distinctive patterns in the dynamics of treated populations. The percentage of gravid females (a reproductive index) was first to respond to treatments, because increases (or decreases) in the percentage of gravid females preceded reductions (or recoveries) in sample density and nymph-to-adult ratios by 4-6 wk. Trends in the percentage of adultoids were negatively correlated with the percentage of gravid females and indirectly measure the activity of hydroprene. Initial reductions in the percentage of gravid females, sample density, and nymph-to-adult ratios began at or about the time when ca. 80% of adults had twisted wings (i.e., were adultoids). As the percentage of adultoids attained (or declined below) the 80% level, we can accurately predict the subsequent decline (or recovery) in nymph-to-adult ratios and, thus, sample density.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/93 to 09/30/94

      Outputs
      Computerized moving-image analysis was used to determine movement behavior of individual German cockroach nymphs between food, water, and harborage sites. Both second and fifth instars (n=10) were examined for the entire nymphal stadium. Both nymphal stages exhibited a pattern of high activity for the first half of the nymphal stadium, especially during each scotophase. For the last third of the stadium, the nymphs remained continuously in the harborage, moved very little, and consumed little or no resources. A stationary markov chain analysis indicated both an age and sex difference in the foraging efficiency of nymphs. Thus, an integrated approach to German cockroach control is re-emphasized to take advantage of this new information on movement behavior and foraging patterns.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 10/01/92 to 09/30/93

        Outputs
        Comparisons of tarsal to thoracic lethal dose responses with three strains of German cockroaches were made using tarsal/thoracic ratios. In all three strains, tarsal/thoracic ratios showed no significant differences in the dose required to produce mortality at LD(subscript 50) and LD(subscript 95) levels in all three strains. The differing results in tarsal/thoracic ratios between insecticides is thought to be a function of the differing sites of action for chlorpyrifos, which acts specifically in the insect central nervous system; and cypermethrin, which acts in both the insect peripheral and central nervous systems. Resistance ratios for the three exposure methods ranked tarsal> thoracic> jar in most instances. An ANOVA upon the factors strain, bioassay (exposure method), and insecticide showed strain to comprise the majority of total variability (followed by bioassay) in the production of these resistance ratios.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 10/01/90 to 09/30/91

          Outputs
          The sensitive developmental period of last-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), to topical applications (10(mu)g/(mu)l) of fenoxycarb and hydroprene was determined. Developmental duration of last instars treated with fenoxycarb on days 1, 3, or 6 was 9-11 d longer than the development of nymphs treated with hydroprene or acetone. In addition, fenoxycarb caused mortality in 59% of the nymphs treated on day 6. A high level of wing twisting and sterility was observed among female and male cockroaches treated with fenoxycarb or bydroprene on days 1, 3, or 6 of the last stadium. Nymphal production by adults treated with juvenoids on day 9 of the last stadium (3-4 d before eclosion) was not affected. Our findings show that the sensitive developmental period for juvenoid-induced effects in last-instar B. germanica is limited to the first half of the stadium. Residual effectiveness of insecticides was compared for two treatment methods at various sites within two commercial kitchens. For all sites and insecticides, German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), mortality was greatest for treatments of cracks and crevices than for treatments of exposed surfaces. Mortality at the dishwashing site was lower than at all other sites. We attributed reduced mortality at the dishwashing site to a higher vapor pressure deficit. Mortality and the amount of insecticide residue recovered from treated surfaces were closely correlated.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 10/01/89 to 09/30/90

            Outputs
            The effects of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) on nymphal and oothecal stagesof the German cockroach were determined. Chlorfluazuron was significantly the most toxic compound to nymphs. UC 94572 also killed nymphs at low concentrations. Adults surviving nymphal exposure were often deformed and weakened; however, most surviving adults were able to reproduce normally. When fed to females at the LC(50) dosage, hexafluron and triflumuron caused 100% inhibition of oothecal hatching. Ootheca of females fed CSI(s) before mating and after the ootheca had protruded from the abdomen were not affected. Reproductive capabilities of males were not affected, and compounds were apparently not transferred to untreated females during mating. The influence of the juvenoid hydroprene on German cockroach dynamics has shown reductions in reproduction, population size and nymphal abundance to occur as adultoid frequencies reach 80%. Decreasing adultoid frequency indicated declining juvoinoid efficacy, and declines below 80% frequency predicted population recovery. This limit will be an effective action threshold for timing juvenoid retreatments in long-term management programs for chronic German cockroach infestations.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 10/01/88 to 09/30/89

              Outputs
              Effectiveness and persistence of residual insecticides for German cockroach control have been evaluated in both lab and field experiments by comparing crack and crevice treatments with exposed surface treatments. All insecticide treatments declined in effectiveness and persistence over time; however, crack and crevice treatments were more effective and persistent than exposed surface treatments. These result s indicate the importance of proper placement and timing of insecticidal treatments to maximize effectiveness and minimize hazards to humans, pets and their foodstuffs.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 10/01/87 to 09/30/88

                Outputs
                Numerous chitin synthesis inhibitors have been evaluated for mortality, development abnormalities and ovicidal activity. Nymphal studies determined that all compounds were active, with lower diet concentrations required to kill second stage nymphs. All compounds were ovicidally active when fed to reproducing female. Reproductive capabilities of males were not affected. Males did not effectively transfer the compounds to untreated females during mating.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 10/01/86 to 09/30/87

                  Outputs
                  At present, the only insect growth regulators registered for control of the German cockroach are fenoxycarb and hydroprene. Both compounds have shown promising results in field testing programs. Findings from this research show fenoxycarb to exhibit greater versatility than hydroprene in its activity towards this insect. Both compounds can sterilze adults treated during the last nymphal stage, but only fenoxycarb can reduce nymphal production when applied to adults. In addition, fenoxycarb can also cause mortality when applied to young nymphs and newly formed egg capsules. Laboratory research and field trials evaluating the efficacy and residual life of a number of insecticides demonstrated the importance of insecticide formulation to German cockroach control. Two distinct formulations which attempt to reduce the objectionable odor of an insecticide spray were found to actually reduce insecticidal activity. The process of microencapsulation was shown to enhance insecticidal activity in two ways; reducing the contact time necessary to achieve mortality, and prolonging the residual activity of the treatments. A bioassay technique was developed to assess both the flushing and knockdown activity of the synthetic pyrethroids against the German cockroach.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 08/01/85 to 07/30/86

                    Outputs
                    Cockroach movement studies involving mark/recapture techniques have shown that 1) single treatments of 0.5% synergized pyrethrins, 1.0% diazinon, 0.2% permethrin + 0.2% neopynamin, or 1.1% Baygon result in reduced rates of movement within treated apartments as well as between adjacent treated and nontreated apartment pairs, and 2) multiple treatments with the repellent insecticides 0.2% permethrin + 0.2% neopynamin or 1.1% Baygon + 0.2% DDVP did not prevent cockroaches from entering treated apartments from adjacent nontreated apartments -- movement rates were not significantly different between treated and untreated apartments. Relatively high levels of mortality occurred; thus there were fewer cockroaches to move. The influence of the flushing agents (synergized pyrethrins and resmethrin) on individual cockroach movement behavior has been determined using a moving image analyzer to measure parameters such as velocity, distance traveled, % time stopped, and % time spent next to the experimental arena's edge. Males were most mobile and gravid females least mobile and most thigmotrophic. The flushing agents caused a distorted movement - fast movement with frequent stops to groom. Synergized pyrethrins caused cockroaches to travel longer distances while resmethrin increased the time stopped to conduct grooming.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                      Outputs
                      Several insect growth regulators with activity against the German cockroach are currently being evaluated. These include 3 compounds with juvenile hormone activity and 1 with chitin synthesis inhibition properties. Preliminary results look encouraging and future studies will focus on their use in urban pest management programs. Additionally, baseline research is being conducted to determine the specific reproductive effects of these compounds on both individuals and populations of German cockroaches. Several new insecticide formulations have been evaluated in both the laboratory and public housing. A large part of this work centers around a fourth generation of synthetic pyrethroids that show a higher degree of activity against cockroaches. Other novel work includes the evaluation of an encapsulated formulation, an insecticide paint, and a toxic bait. In addition, ongoing studies aimed at evaluating the residual activity of insecticides aged under both laboratory and field conditions will be continued.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                        Outputs
                        In laboratory studies, the influence of sanitation on German cockroach populations was evaluated through key factor analysis. The removal of food, water and harborage were all found to increase cockroach mortality, with water removal being significant. Significant reductions occurred as early as week 2 when water was removed, with levels of significance increasing for all 3 factors in most cases at subsequent weeks post-treatment. Analysis of mark and recapture studies conducted in public housing was revealed in considerable detail on German cockroach movement. Adult cockroaches are more mobile than previously recognized. Plumbing connections to adjacent apartments significantly increased population interchanges between connected apartments. Intra-apartment movement rates were also quite high. These results demonstrated the need to reconsider current control practices, and represent important considerations for the future design of successful German cockroach management practices. Hydroprene, an insect growth regulator for the German cockroach, has been evaluated in the laboratory and in heavily infested apartments. Results showed that hydroprene altered the population growth curve significantly and is capable of substaining high reduction levels well beyond those seen with conventional blatticides.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                          Outputs
                          German cockroach population sampling techniques were compared in laboratory and field studies. Abilities to generate sample numbers and accurately estimate important population qualities were determined. These results will benefit blatticide efficacy and cockroach population ecology research efforts. A face-to-face survey of 958 households was conducted in North Central Indiana to determine the pattern of pesticide use in homes. A high proportion of households was found to use pesticides. A dramatic lack of knowledge was also illustrated in selecting and using pesticides properly. Very few of the interviewees sought help in the diagnosis of their pest problems, methods of pest control, or insecticide selection. Those who did seek assistance received help primarily from retail sales personnel and promotional literature. Frequently, methods of application, storage, and disposal were less than adequate. Considering the environmental impact and health hazards these use patterns pose, it is essential that greater control of the use of pesticides by householders be attained.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                            Outputs
                            Analysis of mark and recapture studies conducted in low-income housing has revealed considerable detail on the movement of German cockroaches. Plumbing connections to adjacent apartments significantly affect population interchanges between the connected apartment. Movement was significantly higher in apartments with common plumbing than to any other apartments. In addition, movement to an adjacent apartment, not sharing common plumbing, was significantly higher than movement from one end of the four-apartment complex to the other. The immediate effect of a pesticide application was one of increased movement in every apartment studied. Laboratory studies on factors affecting movement are in progress. The influence of sanitation on German cockroach populations has been evaluated through key factor analysis. Food, water and harborage removal have all been found in the laboratory to impact upon cockroach movement and mortality, with the removal of water having the most immediate impact upon populations. However, the implementation of extensive sanitation programs in seriously infested multi-family dwellings has not shown significant short-run population reductions. A comparative study of the three most frequently used repellency test methods (to evaluate repellency of insecticides to German cockroaches) has shown that all three methods have serious biases and limitations, and that it is virtually impossible to evaluate the relationship of results obtained by these methods.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                              Outputs
                              Laboratory and field experiments have shown that German cockroach movement is a necessary consideration in developing control tactics. Male cockroaches have been found to be more mobile than females. Certain insecticidal applications will increae the movement of adults out of treated apartments. Movements between and within apartments is greatly influenced by construction practices and plumbing patterns. By eliminating common plumbing and access to wall voids between apartment units, cockroach movement is greatly reduced and control efforts are enhanced. Laboratory experiments to determine the limitations and biases of repellency tests currently being used to evaluate German cockroach avoidance of insecticidally treated surfaces are providing useful information in reducing detrimental effects that repellency may have on control programs.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                                Outputs
                                Field experiments were designed to evaluate the movement of German cockroach popoulations within and between apartments in urban housing projects. Movement rates were found to be substantial enough to make it necessary to treat all areas within a building to avoid movement of cockroaches from treated rooms and apartments to untreated ones. Several new pesticide formulations have been evaluated in laboratory and field experiments for efficacy against German cockroaches and other species of urban pests. Field efficacy studies on high infestation levels of German cockroaches have shown Safrotin, Dursban/DDVP and Knox-Out formulations to perform satisfactorily for at least one month. Two formulations of Orthene showed lower reduction levels and a permethrin stick formulation gave substantially lower reductions. Knox-Out was found to reduce flea infestation levels significantly.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                  Outputs
                                  Field experiments were designed to evaluate the influence of sanitation on German cockroach population reduction. General cleaning procedures (harborage modification was not attempted) were shown to have no significant impact on population reduction during the 2-month long experiments. A sanitation rating system was developed and used in over 300 cockroach infested apartments. No correlation between sanitation level and population numbers could be found. Several new pesticide formulations have been evaluated in laboratory and field experiments for efficacy against German cockroaches and other species of urban pests. Field efficacy studies on high infestation levels of German cockroaches have shown 1) an encapsulated diazinon formulation gave long-term (over 2 months) reduction levels, 2) a new sodium bicarbonate dust formulation and two Sevin formulations performed unsatisfactorily, and 3) Baytex and Ficam formulations were moderately successful (as compared to the encapsulated diazinon formulation). Baygon (0.5%) was found to reduce flea infestation levels significantly. Laboratory studies have shown 1) several new synthetic pyrethroid formulations are promising German cockroach, housefly and flour beetle control materials and 2) a new encapsulated pyrethrins dust formulation has potential for German cockroach control.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                                    Outputs
                                    Several new pesticide formulations have been evaluated in laboratory and field experiments for efficacy against German cockroaches and several species of stored product pest. Field efficacy studies on high infestation levels of German cockroaches have shown 1) two new Sevin formulations performed unsatisfactorily, 2) of two new synthetic pyrethroid (Permethrin) formulations, 0.5% EC gave the highest levels of reduction, and 3) an encapsulated diazinon formulation was the most efficacious formulation tested with significantly higher reduction levels one month after treatment than the other formulations tested. Laboratory efficacy studies have shown 1) 0.25% Ficam was highly active against four stored product pest species for over one month, 2) two Orthene formulations gave high levels of German cockroach mortality over a one month period when applied as a 0.5% spray, and 3) encapsulated resmethrin and encapsulated synergized pyrethrins gave excellent control of houseflies while nonencapsulated formulations were virtually inactive against the same species. Laboratory chamber and field experiments were designed to elucidate the relative precision and/or biases of several different types of sampling techniques to detect various cockroach population parameters. Commonly used sampling techniques appear to give rather biased information about population age and sex structure. Also, German cockroach movement was studied within and between pairs of adjacent apartments.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                      Outputs
                                      Laboratory and field studies of new control methodologies and insecticide formulations have shown 1) no higher or longer lasting reductions of cockroaches were produced with several Raid residual formulations than from an initial knockdown with a non-residual Raid product, 2) Bolt cockroach baits to be the most effective formulation tested in the field in 1977, 3) 4% Baygon InsecTape gave little or no reduction in visible cockroach field populations, 4) the Zoecon cockroach trap caught significantly higher numbers than other traps tested, and 5) microencapsulated pyrethrins efficacious against field populations of cat fleas and German cockroaches.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/76 to 12/30/76

                                        Outputs
                                        The efficacy of several insecticide formulations have been investigated. Encapsulated formulations of pyrethrins and resmethrin have been found to be effective for the control of several species of household invading insects as well as a number of pests of food processing and storage areas. Insecticide impregnated resin tapes have been evaluated for cockroach control in both the laboratory and the field, but have been found less effective than insecticides currently registered for this use. Field studies have investigated the relativeefficiencies of different ultra-low volume insecticide applications in commercial floricultural situations. Optimum insecticide particle size for penetrating the foliar mass and subsequent impingement on the target pest has been found to be 10-20 microns in diameter. Application techniques which generate turbulence within the target area have improved control results. Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography as a chemotaxonomic tool has been used to characterize seven of food-infesting beetles. A method for expanding this chemotaxonomic key to include unlimited numbers of species has also been developed. Specific equations have been formulated for each step of the decision-making process in identifying unknown insect fragments, and the entire system has been computerized for rapid analysis.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/75 to 12/30/75

                                          Outputs
                                          Laboratory and field studies (in structures) on the distribution, penetration, impingement and overall efficacy of insecticide particles produced by ultra-low volume application equipment have shown: (1) various sized particles are distributed uniformly within a treated area, (2) there is a direct relationship Under moderate RH the Minnesota ecotype was more active at lower temperatures various sized particles and (3) ULV applied synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are highly effective control materials for adult greenhouse whiteflies. The evaluation of pyrolysis-gas chromatography as a technique for identifying contaminating substances (primarily insect fragments) in stored products is continuing. Fifteen species of stored product insects (both larvae and adults) have been characterized by PGC (with over 1300 pyrolysis characters developed for each species)..A computer program is now being tested as a tool for identifying unknown insect samples through comparative analysis of the PGC characteristics. The efficacy of various insecticides have been investigated. Ficam W has been found to be a very effective flea and cockroach control compound. Encapsulated pyrethrins used as residual sprays have been found less temperatures (0(0)C) than the European cornborer (10(0)-15(0)). Black cutworm males were generally found to be less responsive to the light source than the females. European corn borer males were active at lower temperatures

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                            Outputs
                                            Laboratory and field studies on the utilization of ultra-low volume aerosols forthe control of German cockroaches have indicated that residual sprays should be used with formulations of pyrethrins registered for indoor use to obtain satisfactory control. It has also been found that the more complex the cockroach hiding areas, the less effective ULV treatments were in flushing and killing the insects. The evaluation of pyrolysis-gas chromatography as a technique for identifying contaminating substances (primarily insect fragments) in stored food products is continuing. Five species of stored product insects have been studied with these results: minimum detection levels of 20 ug, chromatograph conditions have been optimized, and several food product extraction chemicals have not been found to influence the pyrogram. Chlordane and dieldrin have been found to be persistent as termiticides, but their horizontal and vertical movement is significantly restricted so that any form ofenvironmental contamination is remote.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/73 to 12/30/73

                                              Outputs
                                              The evaluation of ultra-low volume dispersal equipment using synergized pyrethrins, resmethrin and dichlorvos for the control of German cockroaches has resulted in the determination of minimum effective application rates, the isolation of factors influencing the effectiveness of treatments and recommendations for operational procedures. Particle size distribution and penetration, as they relate to ULV equipment effectiveness, have also been evaluated. Olfactory conditioning experiments with German cockroaches have shown that this insect will not accept stimuli through habituation nor, the presence of a reinforcing stimulus such as food. However, Pavlovian conditioning was demonstrated in American cockroaches.

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/72 to 12/30/72

                                                Outputs
                                                Response of German cockroaches to chemical stimuli-investigation of behavioral patterns has indicated an avoidance reaction is involved rather than behavioral resistance to repellent compounds. The efficacy of insecticide formulations is seriously affected if certain of the constituents are repellent. The thresholdsof repellent response to certain of the stimuli have been determined. The cockroaches, over a period of test trials, have exhibited the ability to learn to avoid chemical stimuli that were not initially repellent. The verticle and horizontal movement of insecticides applied to soils around and beneath buildings for the control and prevention of termites has been investigated and found to be negligible for dieldrin and the gamma isomer of Chlordane 15-20 years after application. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography has been developed as a chemotaxonomic method for the identification of several cockroach species and three Trogoderma spp. The "fingerprinting" of adults, immatures, and adult fragments can be easily accomplished using this technique. Gardona and dichlorvos sprays have been evaluated as protectants for stored wheat and corn and their milling products. Dichlorvos was nonpersistent, but Gardona was present in both stored corn and wheat and the milling and baking products 200 days after treatment.

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications


                                                  Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                                  Outputs
                                                  The normal activity rhythms and tactic responses of the German cockroach Blattella germanica to selected insecticidal spray constituents have been defined in the laboratory. German cockroaches, given the chance of entering or avoiding dark areas that had been treated with either nontoxic or toxic constituents at sublethal levels, were either highly repelled during initial trials or learned to avoid treated areas after 4-10 trials. Repellency was found to be the most important factor affecting the efficacy of insecticides. All buildings treated 15 years ago for protection against subterranean termites were found to be free of termites even though less than 15% of the original theoretical residue remained. See IND 01719 for movement.

                                                  Impacts
                                                  (N/A)

                                                  Publications


                                                    Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                                    Outputs
                                                    No significant results to report.

                                                    Impacts
                                                    (N/A)

                                                    Publications