Source: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
BREEDING AND GENETICS OF HAZELNUT
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0056503
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
ORE00003
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 2002
Project End Date
Jun 30, 2007
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Mehlenbacher, S. A.
Recipient Organization
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
CORVALLIS,OR 97331
Performing Department
HORTICULTURE
Non Technical Summary
Hazelnut is well-adapted to the Willamette Valley, but current leading cultivars have noticeable weaknesses including susceptibility to eastern filbert blight and poor suitability to the blanched kernel market. The purpose of this project is to develop new hazelnut cultivars and improve our understanding of hazelnut genetics.
Animal Health Component
80%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
20%
Applied
80%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2011210108010%
2021210108020%
2031210106020%
2041210106020%
2121210116030%
Goals / Objectives
Objectives: 1. Develop improved hazelnut cultivars, with emphasis on resistance to eastern filbert blight and suitability for the kernel market 2. Obtain information on the genetic control of traits and study genetic variability in Corylus species, cultivars, and seedling populations of hazelnut. 3. Construct a consensus linkage map for hazelnut using DNA markers.
Project Methods
1. Hazelnut Breeding. Traditional plant breeding methods will be used to develop new and improved cultivars. Each year, about 5000 seedlings from about 50 parental combinations will be planted. 2. Hazelnut Genetics - Genetic Control of Traits and Genetic Variability in Hazelnut. Inheritance of morphological traits will be investigated using the principles of Mendelian genetics. The combined germplasm collections of the USDA Repository and OSU provide an excellent opportunity to study genetic variability in the genus Corylus. As new additions to the collection come into bearing, standard descriptors will be recorded and trueness-to-name verified. New introductions will also be inoculated with EFB to see if any remain free of infection. Incompatibility alleles will be identified using fluorescence microscopy. 3. DNA Markers and Construction of a Consensus Linkage Map for Hazelnut . RAPD and AFLP markers linked to traits of interest will be identified with an emphasis on new sources of single-gene immunity to EFB. The two parents, three resistant seedlings, and three susceptible seedlings will be used to screen primers and identify markers linked to resistance from other sources, including 'Ratoli' and OSU 408.040. Additional microsatellite-containing sequences from the library will be examined and compared to previous sequences to detect duplicates. For new unique sequences, primers will be designed using the Primer 3 program. The optimum annealing temperature for each primer pair will be determined using a gradient thermocycler. Genetic diversity in a set of 19 standard genotypes will be initially evaluated using agarose gels. Fluorescently labeled primers, post-PCR multiplexing, and the capillary electrophoresis system at the Central Services Lab of the Center for Gene Research and Biotechnology at OSU will be used to evaluate more than 200 C. avellana cultivars in the collection. Allele sizes at each locus will be entered for each accession, and measures of genetic diversity calculated. Based on a measure of genetic dissimilarity [1- (proportion of shared alleles), a dendrogram will be constructed. A list of suspected duplicate accessions has been prepared and these will also be evaluated at more than a dozen loci. The double pseudotestcross configuration (backcross option) and Mapmaker EXP are being used in the construction of a genetic map for hazelnut.

Progress 07/01/02 to 06/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Crosses in the hazelnut breeding program emphasize combining resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) with suitability to the blanched kernel market. A proposal was prepared for the release of selection OSU 542.102 as new cultivar with complete resistance to EFB in January 2006. It has early-maturing nuts, good kernel quality, and complete resistance to eastern filbert blight. Scions of 3 advanced selections with complete resistance were distributed to nurseries. Two late-shedding pollinizer selections compatible on OSU 703.003 were identified, and scions distributed to nurseries. About 4000 seedlings from controlled crosses made in 2006 were planted in the field in October. DNA marker-assisted selection is used to identify seedlings that carry the 'Gasaway' resistance gene. RAPD markers UBC152-800 and UBC268-580 that flank the dominant resistance gene are used. Seedlings with at least one marker were planted in the field. Recombinant seedlings were labeled and set aside for use in fine mapping the chromosome region around the resistance locus. Work with microsatellite markers is being continued by Ph.D. student Kahraman Gurcan in collaboration with Nahla Bassil at the USDA Repository and Roberto Botta at the University of Torino. Several new sequences were obtained from enriched CA and GA libraries, and others from repeats in sequenced ISSR fragments. Grad student Vidyasagar Sathuvalli identified RAPD markers linked to eastern filbert blight resistance from OSU 408.040, Ratoli, and Georgian selection OSU 759.010. He successfully defended his MS thesis. Resistance from 'Ratoli' was placed on linkage group 7 near microsatellite marker B751, while resistance from 'Gasaway' is on likage group 6. A J-1 scholar from Romania (Mihai Botu) was co-hosted with Nahla Bassil for a two-month training program in hazelnut. PARTICIPANTS: Vidyasagar Sathuvalli successfully defended his MS thesis and will continue research in pursuit of a PhD degree. Mihai Botu, a J-1 scholar from Romania, was co-hosted with Nahla Bassil for a two-month training program on DNA markers in hazelnut. TARGET AUDIENCES: The Oregon hazelnut industry will benefit from new cultivars. Hazelnut researchers will benefit from new knowledge about genetic diversity in hazelnut. Plant breeders and plant geneticists will receive new knowledge about hazelnut genetics. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: none

Impacts
The recent discovery of eastern filbert blight in several locations in the southern Willamette Valley has growers keenly interested in new hazelnut cultivars with resistance to this disease. 'Lewis', 'Clark', and 'Sacajawea', new cultivars with quantitative resistance released by the OSU hazelnut breeding program are being planted in Oregon. The quantitative resistance of these cultivars allows hazelnuts to be planted where eastern filbert blight is present, and acreage in the Willamette Valley has remained constant at nearly 30,000 acres. Their kernel quality will allow Oregon to compete effectively on the world kernel market. 'Santiam', the first cultivar with complete resistance to eastern filbert blight, was released in February 2005. We expect release of OSU 542.102 as a second cultivar with complete resistance in the near future. Our understanding of hazelnut genetics continues to improve, as quantitative traits, Mendelian traits, and molecular markers are studied. Microsatellite loci have been developed and used in germplasm characterization, including the identification of duplicates in the collection. RAPD markers identified in earlier research are now used by the breeding program in marker-assisted selection for eastern filbert blight (EFB) resistance. Several new sources of EFB resistance have been identified and used as parents in breeding. Growers are optimistic that new resistant cultivars will allow the Oregon hazelnut industry to remain competitive and eventually expand. Micropropagation is being used to rapidly multiply promising new selections.

Publications

  • Molnar, T.J., D.E. Zaurov, J.C. Goffreda and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2007. Survey of hazelnut germplasm from Russia and Crimea for response to eastern filbert blight. HortScience 42:51-56.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., A. N. Azarenko, D. C. Smith, and R. L. McCluskey. 2007. 'Santiam' hazelnut. HortScience 42:715 - 717.
  • Chen, H., S.A. Mehlenbacher and D.C. Smith. 2007. Hazelnut accessions provide new sources of resistance to eastern filbert blight. HortScience 42:466-469.


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Crosses in the hazelnut breeding program emphasize combining resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) with suitability to the blanched kernel market. Selection OSU 540.130 was released as new cultivar 'Sacajawea' in January 2006. It has early-maturing nuts, excellent kernel quality, and a high level of quantitative resistance to eastern filbert blight and is described in more detail in Extension publication EM 8914-E. Scions of 8 advanced selections with complete resistance were distributed to nurseries. Two late-shedding pollinizer selections compatible on OSU 703.003 were identified. About 3900 seedlings from controlled crosses made in 2005 and 93 seedlings grown from nuts collected in Latvia or Lithuania were planted in the field in October. About 1065 additional seedlings from nuts collected in Turkey in August 2004 were planted in April 2006, bringing the total number of Turkish seedlings to 3571. DNA marker-assisted selection is used to identify seedlings that carry the 'Gasaway' resistance gene. RAPD markers UBC152-800 and UBC268-580 that flank the dominant resistance gene are used. Seedlings with at least one marker were planted in the field. Recombinant seedlings were labeled and set aside for use in fine mapping the chromosome region around the resistance locus. Work with microsatellite markers is being continued by Ph.D. student Kahraman Gurcan in collaboration with Nahla Bassil at the USDA Repository and Roberto Botta at the University of Torino. Several new sequences were obtained from enriched CA and GA libraries. From the GA-containing sequences, 51 new polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. About one-third of SSR markers published for birch also amplify fragments in hazelnut. M.S. student Vidyasagar Sathuvalli identified RAPD markers linked to eastern filbert blight resistance from OSU 408.040, Ratoli, and Georgian selection OSU 759.010. Two J-1 scholars were hosted for training programs in hazelnut. Jorge V. Mohr, an undergraduate from Universidad Catolica in Santiago, Chile was in Oregon for a six-month training program (8/7/05 - 2/2/06) and Matthieu Reigne, an intern from Beaugas, France was in Oregon for a four-month training program (8/7/06-12/11/06).

Impacts
The recent discovery of eastern filbert blight in several locations in the southern Willamette Valley has growers keenly interested in new hazelnut cultivars with resistance to this disease. 'Lewis', 'Clark', and 'Sacajawea', new cultivars with quantitative resistance released by the OSU hazelnut breeding program are being planted in Oregon. The quantitative resistance of these cultivars allows hazelnuts to be planted where eastern filbert blight is present, and acreage in the Willamette Valley has remained constant at nearly 30,000 acres. Their kernel quality will allow Oregon to compete effectively on the world kernel market. 'Santiam', the first cultivar with complete resistance to eastern filbert blight, was released in February 2005. Our understanding of hazelnut genetics continues to improve, as quantitative traits, Mendelian traits, and molecular markers are studied. Microsatellite loci have been developed and used in germplasm characterization, including the identification of duplicates in the collection. RAPD markers identified in earlier research are now used by the breeding program in marker-assisted selection for eastern filbert blight (EFB) resistance. Several new sources of EFB resistance have been identified and used as parents in breeding. Growers are optimistic that new resistant cultivars will allow the Oregon hazelnut industry to remain competitive and eventually expand. Micropropagation is being used to rapidly multiply promising new selections.

Publications

  • Lunde, C.F., S.A. Mehlenbacher and D.C. Smith. 2006. Segregation for resistance to eastern filbert blight in progeny of 'Zimmerman' hazelnut. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 131:731-737.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. and D.C. Smith. 2006. Self-compatible seedlings of the cutleaf hazelnut. HortScience 41:482-483.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., R.N. Brown, E.R. Nouhra, T. Gokirmak, N.V. Bassil and T.L. Kubisiak. 2006. A genetic linkage map for hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) based on RAPD and SSR markers. Genome 49:122-133. (published on-line 2/3/06).
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., D.C. Smith and R.L. McCluskey. 2006. 'Sacajawea' hazelnut. EM 8914-E. (August 2006).


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Crosses in the hazelnut breeding program emphasize combining resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) with suitability to the blanched kernel market. About 3400 seedlings from controlled crosses and 2500 seedlings grown from nuts collected in Giresun, Turkey were planted in the field in October. About 1200 additional seedlings will be planted in Spring 2006. DNA marker-assisted selection is used to identify seedlings that carry the 'Gasaway' resistance gene. RAPD markers UBC152-800 and UBC268-580 that flank the dominant resistance gene are used. Seedlings with at least one marker were planted in the field. Recombinant seedlings were labeled and set aside for use if fine mapping the chromosome region around the resistance locus. Selection OSU 509.064 was released as new cultivar 'Santiam' in February. It has complete resistance to eastern filbert blight and is suited to the kernel market, although kernel quality is not high enough to command a premium price. The incidence of kernel mold is a concern. Selection OSU 540.130 in the 1999 trial continued to perform well and is a candidate for release in January 2006. M.S. student Tufan Gokirmak used 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to characterize 270 hazelnut accessions, and placed 30 SSR loci on the linkage map. SSR research is being continued by Ph.D. student Kahraman Gurcan in collaboration with Nahla Bassil at the USDA Repository and Roberto Botta at the University of Torino. About one-third of SSR markers published for birch also amplify fragments in hazelnut. M.S. student Vidyasagar Sathuvalli identified RAPD markers linked to eastern filbert blight resistance from Georgian selection OSU 759.010. Papers presented at the International Hazelnut Congress held in 2004 were published as a volume of Acta Horticulturae.

Impacts
The recent discovery of eastern filbert blight in several locations in the southern Willamette Valley has growers keenly interested in new hazelnut cultivars with resistance to this disease. 'Lewis' and 'Clark', recently released by the OSU hazelnut breeding program, are now the most widely planted cultivars in Oregon. The quantitative resistance of these two cultivars allows hazelnuts to be planted where eastern filbert blight is present, and acreage in the Willamette Valley has remained constant at nearly 30,000 acres. The kernel quality of 'Lewis' and 'Clark' will allow Oregon to compete effectively on the world kernel market. 'Santiam', the first cultivar with complete resistance to eastern filbert blight, was released in February 2005. Our understanding of hazelnut genetics continues to improve, as quantitative traits, Mendelian traits, and molecular markers are studied. Microsatellite loci have been developed and are now ready for use in germplasm characterization, including the identification of duplicates in the collection. RAPD markers identified in earlier research are now used by the breeding program in marker-assisted selection for eastern filbert blight resistance. Several new sources of resistance have been identified and used as parents in breeding. Growers are optimistic that new resistant cultivars will allow the Oregon hazelnut industry to remain competitive and eventually expand. Micropropagation is being used to rapidly multiply promising new selections.

Publications

  • Gokirmak, T. 2005. Characterization of European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cultivars using SSR markers. M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
  • Chen, H., Mehlenbacher, S.A., and Smith, D.C. 2005. AFLP markers linked to eastern filbert blight resistance from OSU 408.040 hazelnut. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130:412-417.
  • Boccacci, P., Akkak, A., Bassil, N.V., Mehlenbacher, S.A., and Botta, R. 2005. Characterization and evaluation of microsatellite loci in European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and their transferability to other Corylus species. Molec. Ecol. Notes (published online Sept. 2005).
  • Bassil, N.V., Botta, R., and Mehlenbacher, S. 2005. Microsatellite markers in hazelnut: Isolation, characterization and cross-species amplification. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130:543-549.
  • Bassil, N.V., Botta, R., and Mehlenbacher, S.A. 2005. Additional microsatellite markers of the European hazelnut. Acta Hort. 686:105-110.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., Brown, R.N., Nouhra, E.R., Bassil, N.V. and Kubisiak, T.L. 2005. A linkage map for hazelnut. Acta Hort. 686:135-140.
  • Erdogan, V., Mehlenbacher, S.A., Koksal, A.I., and Kurt, H. 2005. Preliminary results of incompatibility alleles expressed in pollen of Turkish hazelnut cultivars. Acta Hort. 686:157-162.
  • McCluskey, R.L., Azarenko, A.N., Mehlenbacher, S.A., and Smith, D.C. 2004. Advanced selection and cultivar performance of trials planted in 1994 and 1998 at Oregon State University. Acta Hort. 686:71-78.
  • Gokirmak, T., Mehlenbacher, S.A., and Bassil, N.V. 2005. Investigation of genetic diversity among European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cultivars using SSR markers. Acta Hort. 686:141-147.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. 2005. The hazelnut situation in Oregon. Acta Hort. 686:665-667.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Crosses in the hazelnut breeding program emphasize combining resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) with suitability to the blanched kernel market. About 3,500 seedlings from controlled crosses were planted in the field in October. DNA marker-assisted selection is used to identify seedlings that carry the 'Gasaway' resistance gene. RAPD markers UBC152-800 and UBC268-580 that flank the dominant resistance gene are used. Seedlings with at least one marker were planted in the field. Recombinant seedlings were labeled and set aside for use if fine mapping the chromosome region around the resistance locus. The complete EFB resistance of Finnish seedling COR 187 was confirmed. Complete resistance was detected for the first time in Serbian selections 'Uebov' and 'Crevejne 3/96' (imported from Cacak, Yugolslavia) and Lozovskoi Sharovidnii (from Kharkiv, Ukraine). Several Turkish selections showed a good level of quantitative resistance to EFB. OSU 509.064 in the 1998 replicated trial performed well, although the incidence of kernel mold was higher than in previous years. A proposal was prepared to release OSU 509.064 as a new cultivar. Selections OSU 553.090 and OSU 540.130 in the 1999 trial are also performing well and are candidates for release in January 2006. M.S. student Tufan Gokirmak used 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to characterize 270 hazelnut accessions, and has begun to place 40 SSR loci on the linkage map. SSR research continues in collaboration with Nahla Bassil at the USDA Repository and Roberto Botta at the University of Torino. S. Mehlenbacher, D. Smith, and T. Gokirmak attended and presented papers at the VI International Congress on Hazelnut in Tarragona, Spain in June.

Impacts
The recent discovery of eastern filbert blight in several locations in the southern Willamette Valley has growers keenly interested in new hazelnut cultivars with resistance to this disease. 'Lewis' and 'Clark', recently released by the OSU hazelnut breeding program, are now the most widely planted cultivars in Oregon. The quantitative resistance of these two cultivars allows hazelnuts to be planted where eastern filbert blight is present, and acreage in the Willamette Valley has remained constant at nearly 30,000 acres. The kernel quality of 'Lewis' and 'Clark' will allow Oregon to compete effectively on the world kernel market. Our understanding of hazelnut genetics continues to improve, as quantitative traits, Mendelian traits, and molecular markers are studied. Microsatellite loci have been developed and are now ready for use in germplasm characterization, including the identification of duplicates in the collection. RAPD markers identified in earlier research are now used by the breeding program in marker-assisted selection for eastern filbert blight resistance. Several new sources of resistance have been identified and used as parents in breeding. Growers are optimistic that completely resistant cultivars will be released in the near future.

Publications

  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., R.N. Brown, J.W. Davis, H. Chen., N.V. Bassil, D.C. Smith, and T.L. Kubisiak. 2004. RAPD markers linked to eastern filbert blight resistance in Corylus avellana. Theor. Appl. Genet. 108:651-656.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. and M.M. Thompson. 2004. Inheritance of style color in hazelnut. HortScience 39:475-476.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. and D.C. Smith. 2004. Hazelnut pollenizers 'Gamma', 'Delta', 'Epsilon', and 'Zeta'. HortScience 39:1498-1499.
  • Bassil, N.V., R. Botta, and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2004. Dinucleotide microsatellites of the European hazelnut. Abstracts of the VI International Congress on Hazelnut.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., R.N. Brown, E.R. Nouhra, and Nahla V. Bassil. 2004. A linkage map for hazelnut. Abstracts of the VI International Congress on Hazelnut.
  • Erdogan, V., S.A. Mehlenbacher, A.I. Koksal, and H. Kurt. 2004. Preliminary results of incompatibility alleles expressed in pollen of Turkish hazelnut cultivars. Abstracts of the VI International Congress on Hazelnut.
  • R.L. McCluskey, A.N. Azarenko, S.A. Mehlenbacher, and D.C. Smith. 2004. Advanced selection and cultivar performance of trials planted in 1994 and 1998 at Oregon State University. Abstracts of the VI International Congress on Hazelnut.
  • Gokirmak, T., S.A. Mehlenbacher, and N.V. Bassil. 2004. Identification and genetic diversity among European hazelnut (Corylus avellana) cultivars with SSR markers. Abstracts of the VI International Congress on Hazelnut.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Crosses in the hazelnut breeding program emphasize combining resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) with suitability to the blanched kernel market. About 3,900 seedlings from 50 controlled crosses were planted in the field in October 2003; a few more will be planted next spring. About 1,600 seedlings from nuts collected overseas (mainly Russia, Ukraine, and Armenia) were also planted. Several selections with different sources of EFB resistance (C. americana, C. californica, and C. colurna) or a high level of quantitative resistance were used as parents in controlled pollinations. DNA marker-assisted selection is used annually to identify seedlings that carry the dominant EFB resistance gene from 'Gasaway'. Two RAPD markers that flank the resistance gene are used: UBC 152-800 and UBC 268-580. In 2003, DNA was extracted from about 6,000 plants. Seedlings with both markers are planted in the field, seedlings lacking both markers are discarded, and recombinant seedlings are retained for disease phenotyping and fine mapping of the region around the resistance locus. A total of 36 RAPD markers linked to EFB resistance have been identified in mapping population OSU 252.146 x OSU 414.062. Honglin Chen's M.S. thesis research identified additional sources of complete EFB resistance: Spanish cultivar 'Culpla', Finnish accession COR 187, a C. heterophylla var. sutchuensis x C. avellana hybrid (Estrella #1), and two more groups of interspecific hybrids--C. americana hybrids (COR 506, G081S, Weschcke TP-1, Weschcke TP-2, and Weschcke TP-3) and C. colurna hybrids (Chinese Trazel Gellatly #6, Chinese Trazel Gellatly #11, Turkish Trazel Gellatly #3 and Lisa). She also showed that when OSU 408.040 is crossed with susceptible genotypes, resistance is transmitted to half of its progeny, indicating control by a single dominant gene. She identified 5 AFLP markers linked in coupling to resistance. Replicated trials of advanced selections are planted each year; this year's plot included 45 new selections. OSU 509.064 in the 1998 replicated trial planting and OSU 528.018 in the 1999 trial are performing well and are candidates for release in December 2004 and 2005, respectively. Both carry the 'Gasaway' gene for EFB resistance. Hazelnut cultivars imported from Serbia, Azerbaijan, and the Republic of Georgia were released from post-entry quarantine and planted in the field. Forty selections from Russia remain in post-entry quarantine. Four pollinizers ('Gamma', 'Delta', 'Epsilon', and 'Zeta') were released in January 2002; the release notice was accepted for publication in HortScience. Although all hazelnut cultivars tested to date are self-incompatible, two seedlings of the cutleaf hazelnut were found to be self-compatible. Primers have been designed for about 50 microsatellite loci. Tufan Gokirmak is working on microsatellite markers in his M.S. thesis research in collaboration with Nahla Bassil at the USDA Repository and Roberto Botta at the University of Torino.

Impacts
The recent discovery of eastern filbert blight in several locations in the southern Willamette Valley has growers keenly interested in new hazelnut cultivars with resistance to this disease. 'Lewis' and 'Clark', recently released by the OSU hazelnut breeding program, are now the most widely planted cultivars in Oregon. The quantitative resistance of these two cultivars allows hazelnuts to be planted where eastern filbert blight is present, and acreage in the Willamette Valley has remained constant at nearly 30,000 acres. The kernel quality of 'Lewis' and 'Clark' will allow Oregon to compete effectively on the world kernel market. Our understanding of hazelnut genetics continues to improve, as quantitative traits, Mendelian traits, and molecular markers are studied. Microsatellite loci have been developed and are now ready for use in germplasm characterization, including the identification of duplicates in the collection. RAPD markers identified in earlier research are now used by the breeding program in marker-assisted selection for eastern filbert blight resistance. Several new sources of resistance have been identified and used as parents in breeding. Growers are optimistic that completely resistant cultivars will be released in the near future.

Publications

  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., Brown, R.N., Davis, J.W., Chen, H., Bassil, N., and Smith, D.C. 2003. RAPD markers linked to eastern filbert blight resistance in Corylus avellana. Theor. Appl. Genet. (Published online 21 October 2003).
  • Fatahi, R., Ebadi, A., Bassil, N., Mehlenbacher, S.A., and Zamani, Z. 2003. Characterization of Iranian grapevine cultivars using microsatellite markers. Vitis (Dec. 2003 issue).
  • Chen, H. 2003. New sources and linked AFLP markers for eastern filbert blight resistance in hazelnut. M.S. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
  • Bassil, N., Botta, R., and Mehlenbacher, S.A. 2003. Microsatellite markers of the European hazelnut. HortScience 38:740-741 (abstract). Bassil, N.V., Botta, R., and Mehlenbacher, S.A. 2003. Initial analysis of microsatellite loci in Corylus. Abstracts XI Plant & Animal Genome Conference, January 11-15, San Diego, CA (Poster 184) (abstract).
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. 2003. Progress and prospects in nut breeding. Acta Hort. 622:57-79.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Crosses in the hazelnut breeding program emphasize combining resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) with suitability to the blanched kernel market. About 6,200 seedlings were planted in the field in October 2002 and an additional 800 will be planted next spring. About 6,000 of these seedlings represent 62 controlled crosses made in winter 2001, and the remainder are from seeds collected in Azerbaijan and the Republic of Georgia. Seeds were collected in August from southern Russia and Crimea (Ukraine) and placed in stratification, along with this year's hybrid seed. Several selections with different sources of EFB resistance (Russian selection 495.072, C. americana 'Winkler' derivatives, and C. heterophylla 'Ogyoo' derivatives) were used as parents in controlled pollinations. DNA marker-assisted selection is used annually to identify seedlings that carry the dominant EFB resistance gene from 'Gasaway', using RAPD marker UBC152-800. In 2002, DNA was extracted from about 8,000 plants. Only seedlings with the marker are planted in the field. An additional 19 RAPD markers linked to EFB resistance have been identified in mapping population OSU 252.146 x OSU 414.062. Several advanced selections with quantitative resistance to EFB were identified, including seedlings of 'Sant Pere' and 'Tonda di Giffoni'. Honglin Chen's M.S. thesis research has identified additional sources of EFB resistance. Replicated trials of advanced selections are planted each year; this year's plot included about 40 new selections. Selection OSU 509.064 in the 1998 replicated trial planting is performing well, and is a candidate for release in December 2004. It carries the 'Gasaway' gene for EFB resistance. Scions of hazelnut cultivars were imported from Serbia, Azerbaijan, and the Republic of Georgia, and grafted trees are in post-entry quarantine. Several selections of Turkish origin were donated to the USDA Repository. Redleaf selection OSU 349.040 was released as new ornamental cultivar 'Rosita', and described in a release notice in HortScience. Four pollinizers ('Gamma', 'Delta', 'Epsilon', and 'Zeta') were released in January 2002. A recessive gene for pale yellow pollen color was identified in seedlings of 'Montebello' and inheritance summarized in an article in Euphytica. Although all hazelnut cultivars tested to date are self-incompatible, two seedlings of the cutleaf hazelnut were found to be self-compatible. Primers have been designed for 20 microsatellite loci, and sequences obtained for an additional 20. Tufan Gokirmak will work on microsatellite markers in his M.S. thesis research, in collaboration with Nahla Bassil at the USDA Repository and Roberto Botta at the University of Torino. Mr. Reza Fatahi, a graduate student from the University of Tehran, spent 11 months at OSU. His research was on microsatellite markers for identification of Iranian grape cultivars, and investigation of a DNA marker for seedlessness. He also assisted in marker-assisted selection for hazelnut.

Impacts
'Lewis' and 'Clark', recently released by the OSU hazelnut breeding program, are now the most widely planted cultivars in Oregon. The quantitative resistance of these two cultivars allows hazelnuts to be planted where eastern filbert blight is present, and acreage in the Willamette Valley has remained constant at nearly 30,000 acres. The kernel quality of 'Lewis' and 'Clark' will allow Oregon to compete more effectively on the world kernel market. Our understanding of hazelnut genetics continues to improve, as quantitative traits, Mendelian traits, and molecular markers are studied. RAPD markers are now used in marker-assisted selection for eastern filbert blight resistance. Several new sources of resistance have been identified and used as parents in breeding. Growers are optimistic that completely resistant cultivars will be released in the near future.

Publications

  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. 2002. Hazelnuts in Georgia and Azerbaijan. Proc. Nut Growers Soc. of OR, WA and BC 87:42-59.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. and D.C. Smith. 2002. Inheritance of pollen color in hazelnut. Euphytica 127:303-307.
  • Smith, D.C. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2002. 'Rosita' ornamental hazelnut. HortScience 36(7):in press, Dec. issue.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Crosses emphasize combining resistance to eastern filbert blight with suitability for the blanched kernel market. 5,300 seedlings from 58 crosses made in February 2000 were transplanted to the field in October 2001. Controlled crosses made in February 2001 resulted in more than 30,000 hybrid seeds. An additional 1,546 seeds were collected in Azerbaijan and 1,160 in the Republic of Georgia. Several sources of eastern filbert blight resistance are being used: 'Gasaway', 'Zimmerman', 'Closca Molla', 'Ratoli', and an unknown Georgian cultivar. A description of 'Clark' hazelnut was published in HortScience. Ornamental redleaf selection OSU 349.040 was released as 'Rosita'. Recent germplasm acquisitions include selections from Chile, Argentina, Italy, and Estonia. Each year, about 60 controlled crosses are made, and about 5,000 seedlings are planted in the field. About 30 advanced selections are planted in replicated trials. The progress made with each cycle of selection is quite noticeable. The old pollinizer cultivar 'Gasaway' carries a dominant gene for resistance to eastern filbert blight and has been used extensively in breeding. DNA marker-assisted selection is used, and only seedlings that show the UBC152-800 RAPD marker are planted in the field. We now have a total of 12 RAPD markers for the 'Gasaway' resistance gene. Complete resistance in five additional selections of Corylus avellana, and in representatives of three wild Corylus species, is also being used in breeding. Studies are in progress to determine the genetic control of resistance from these sources. Two cultivars suited to the kernel market were released: 'Lewis' in 1997 and 'Clark' in 1999. Both have quantitative resistance to eastern filbert blight. A comprehensive study of quantitative traits by Qiang Yao was published, as was a series of articles on hazelnut species by Veli Erdogan.

Impacts
'Lewis' is now the most widely planted hazelnut cultivar in Oregon. The quantitative eastern filbert blight resistance of 'Lewis' and 'Clark' allows hazelnuts to be grown in the presence of this disease, and acreage has remained constant at nearly 30,000 acres. The kernel quality of 'Lewis' and 'Clark' will allow Oregon to compete more effectively on the world kernel market. Much has been learned about the genetic control of traits in hazelnut. We now have 12 RAPD markers for the 'Gasaway' gene for resistance to eastern filbert blight, and have implemented marker-assisted selection for resistance. Several new sources of resistance to eastern filbert blight have been identified. Growers are optimistic that completely resistant cultivars will be released in the near future.

Publications

  • McCluskey, R., A.N. Azarenko, S.A. Mehlenbacher, and D.C. Smith. 1997. Performance of hazelnut cultivars and Oregon State University breeding selections. Acta Hort. 445:13-19.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. 1997. Testing compatibility of hazelnut crosses using fluorescence microscopy. Acta Hort. 445:167-171.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. and J. Olsen. 1997. The hazelnut industry in Oregon, USA. Acta Hort. 445:337-345.
  • Erdogan, V. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1997. Preliminary results on interspecific hybridization in Corylus. Acta Hort. 445:65-71.
  • Davis, J.W. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1997. Identification of RAPD markers linked to eastern filbert blight resistance in hazelnut. Acta Hort. 445:553-556.
  • Yao, Q. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1997. Variance components and estimates of broad-sense heritability of nut and kernel traits in hazelnut. HortScience 32:494.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., A.N. Azarenko, D.C. Smith, and R. McCluskey. 2001. 'Clark' hazelnut. HortScience 36:995-996.
  • McCluskey, R., A.N. Azarenko, S.A. Mehlenbacher, and D.C. Smith. 2001. Commercial hazelnut cultivars and advanced selection evaluations at Oregon State University. Acta Hort. 556:89-95.
  • Yao, Q. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2001. Distribution of quantitative traits in hazelnut progenies. Acta Hort. 556:143-161.
  • Erdogan, V. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2001. Incompatibility in wild Corylus species. Acta Hort. 556:163-169.
  • Bassil, N., J. Davis, A.N. Azarenko, and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2001. Nucleic acid extraction from Corylus avellana tissues. Acta Hort. 556:241-246.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. and T.L. Kubisiak. 2001. Additional RAPD markers for eastern filbert blight resistance. HortScience 36:536.
  • Coyne, C.J., S.A. Mehlenbacher, K.B. Johnson, J.N. Pinkerton, and D.C. Smith. 2000. Comparison of two methods to evaluate quantitative resistance to eastern filbert blight in European hazelnut. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125:603-608.
  • Lunde, C.F., S.A. Mehlenbacher, and D.C. Smith. 2000. Survey of hazelnut cultivars for response to eastern filbert blight inoculation. HortScience 35:729-731.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A., A.N. Azarenko, D.C. Smith, and R. McCluskey. 2000. 'Lewis' hazelnut. HortScience 35:314-315.
  • Yao, Q. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2000. Heritability, variance components and correlation of morphological and phenological traits in hazelnut. Plant Breeding 119:369-381.
  • Erdogan, V. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2000. Interspecific hybridization in hazelnut (Corylus) (and figure on cover of issue). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125:489-497.
  • Erdogan, V. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of Corylus species (Betulaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and chloroplast matK gene sequences. Systematic Botany 25:727-737.
  • Erdogan, V. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 2000. Genetic relationships among Corylus species. Proc. Nut Growers Soc. of Oregon, Wash., and B.C. 85:28-38.
  • Lunde, C. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1999. New sources of genetic resistance to eastern filbert blight. Proc. Nut Growers Soc. of Oregon, Wash., and B.C. 84:24.
  • Lunde, C.F., S.A. Mehlenbacher, and D.C. Smith. 1999. Novel sources of genetic resistance to eastern filbert blight in hazelnut. HortScience 34:451.
  • Erdogan, V. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1999. Genetic relationships among Corylus species. HortScience 34:451.
  • Pomper, K.W., A.N. Azarenko, N. Basssil, J.W. Davis, and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1998. Identification of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for self-incompatibility alleles in Corylus avellana L. Theor. Appl. Genet. 97:479-487.
  • Coyne, C.J., S.A. Mehlenbacher, and D.C. Smith. 1998. Sources of resistance to eastern filbert blight in hazelnut. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123:253-257.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. 1998. Hazelnut breeding program update. Proc. Nut Growers Soc. of Oregon, Wash., and B.C. 83:51-63.
  • Yao, Q. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1998. Estimation of correlation coefficients between 17 quantitative traits in hazelnut. HortScience 33:472.
  • Yao, Q. and S.A. Mehlenbacher. 1998. Calculation of genetic correlation coefficients based on offspring-parent relationships using a spreadsheet. HortScience 33:493.
  • Osterbauer, N.K., K.B. Johnson, S.A. Mehlenbacher, and T.L. Sawyer. 1997. Analysis of resistance to eastern filbert blight in Corylus avellana. Plant Disease 81:388-394.
  • Mehlenbacher, S.A. 1997. Revised dominance hierarchy for S-alleles in Corylus avellana L. Theor. Appl. Genet. 94:360-366.


Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

Outputs
ORE00003 Hazelnut. 64 controlled crosses resulted in 13,633 hybrid seeds. About 5,000 seedlings from 1993 crosses and 700 from seeds collected overseas were transplanted in the field in October. Eight promising selections were established in a new replicated yield trial. Selections 243.002, 244.001, and 276.142 are performing very well. 243.002 and 276.142 have a good level of resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) while two tests on 244.001 have given conflicting results. Graduate students Clarice Coyne and Anne Chozinski finished their thesis research on EFB and cold-hardiness, respectively. Resistance to EFB was found in several Corylus species. Five EFB-immune selections were identified for distribution to nurseries. Dr. Mehlenbacher was invited by the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture to visit the Black Sea coast of Turkey and recommend alternative crops for the region's hazelnut growers. Sweet cherry. Cultivars and selections from British Columbia and New York were evaluated. Apple. The new disease-resistant cultivars 'Enterprise' (Coop 30) and 'GoldRush' (Coop 38) continue to perform well, as does red-skinned selection CR8-29. New Jersey 55 has performed very well at OSU and was released as 'Suncrisp'.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • SMITH, D. C. and MEHLENBACHER, S. A. 1994. Use of Tyvek housewrap to make pollination bags in breeding hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). HortScience 29:918.
  • MEHLENBACHER, S. A. 1994. Hazelnut production, processing, and research in Turkey. Proc. Nut Growers Soc.
  • OR, WA & BC 79:49-78.
  • MEHLENBACHER, S. A. 1994. Genetic improvement of the hazelnut. Acta Hort. 351:23-38.
  • AZARENKO, A. N., MCCLUSKEY, R., and MEHLENBACHER, S. A. 1994. Early tree performance of four hazelnut cultivars and advanced selections in Oregon. Acta Hort. 351:111-117.
  • MEHLENBACHER, S. A., PINKERTON, J. N., JOHNSON, K. B., and PSCHEIDT, J. W. 1994.Eastern filbert blight in Oregon. Acta Hort. 351:601-609.
  • POSTMAN, J. D., and MEHLENBACHER, S. A. 1994. Apple mosaic virus in hazelnut germplasm. Acta Hort. 351:601-609.
  • EBRAHEM, K. S., RICHARDSON, D. G., TETLEY, R. M., and MEHLENBACHER, S. A. 1994. Hazelnut oil content, fatty acids, and vitamin E in developing kernels. Acta Hort. 351:685-692.


Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

Outputs
Hazelnut: 86 controlled crosses resulted in 27,775 hybrid seeds. About 4,600 seedlings from 1992 crosses were transplanted to the field in October. 19 promising selections were established in a new replicated yield trial. Selections 243.002, 244.001, 185.017, and Hend 5-30 are performing very well, and the first two show some resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB); both were distributed to nurseries in 1990. An ELISA method was developed to detect the EFB fungus in infected tissue. Segregation ratios indicate that both the cutleaf trait and contorted growth habit are controlled by single recessive genes. Dr. Mehlenbacher visited hazelnut researchers, processors, and production areas in Turkey; two-thirds of the world's hazelnuts are produced along Turkey's Black Sea coast. Turkish cultivars and cultural practices are quite different from those in Oregon. Sweet Cherry. Cool wet weather during bloom combined with severe bird predation made fruit evaluation impossible. The most promising compact mutants of `Bing' and `Royal Ann' were identified based on tree size. Apple. The new disease-resistant cultivars `Enterprise' (Coop 30) and `GoldRush' (Coop 38) continue to perform well.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

    Outputs
    Hazelnut: 81 controlled crosses resulted in 16,178 hybrid seeds. 6,410 seedlingsfrom 1991 crosses were transplanted to the field in October. These included a series of crosses to study combining ability for resistance to eastern filbert blight. Controlled cross- and self-pollinations showed a high level of partial self-compatibility in a selection of C. columa, but was associated with a high frequency of blanks. Segregation ratios indicate that the ornamental cutleaf trait is controlled by a single recessive gene. Heritability estimates were calculated for nut and kernel defects: 51% for blanks, 15% for brown stain, 84% for doubles, 61% for moldy kernels, 60% for black tips, 22% for shrivelled kernels, 2S% for poorly filled nuts, and 42% for good kernels. Souzhan Cheng's Ph.D. thesis research on 8 enzyme systems detected 13 polymorphic loci and a total of 35 alleles. Dr. Mehlenbacher was an invited speaker at the International Hazelnut Congress in Alba, Italy. Sweet Cherry: 38 compact mutants produced by irradiation were topworked on F12/1 rootstocks for further evaluation. Self-fertile selections from British Columbia looked promising for the early (13S-5-22) and late (13S-22-8) leason. The crisp-fleshed Rainier types NY 7679 and NY 7855 looked promising, as did the NY cultivars Ulster and Kristin. Apple: Enterprise (Coop 30) and Goldrush (Coop 38; HE 4-16) are disease-resistant late-maturing types with exceptional storage characteristics, flavor, and texture.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

      Outputs
      Hazelnut: 68 controlled crosses were made in February and 43,705 seeds harvested in August. About 4,500 seedlings from crosses made in 1990 were transplated to the field in October. Exposure of potted trees to eastern filbert blight (Anisogramma anomala) revealed that 'Gem' is immune; 'Tonda di Fiffoni' is resistant; 'Willamette', 'Casina', and 'Hall's Giant' are intermediate; and 'Daviana', 'Ennis', 'Butler', 'Tonda Romana', OSU 167.002, and OSU 166.034 are highly susceptible. 'Barcelona' and many of its offspring carry a recessive chlorophyll deficiency expressed as yellow leaf color. The effect of spacing and sucker removal on precocity of seedlings was studied in four progenies. Large differences were noted among progenies. Sucker removal shortened the juvenile period by 33 months. Wider spacing resulted in larger seedlings but no change in precocity. The annual meeting of the Northern Nut Growers Association was hosted in Corvallis in August. Sweet Cherry: Based on two years' fruit notes, tree height, and trunk cross-sectional area, 15 compact mutants were retained out of 71 in the 1987 planting for further evaluation. Of 8 mutants planted one year later, 3 were retained based on one year's data. A total of 41 mutant will be topworked on F12/1 rootstocks and evaluated further. Apple: Four controlled crosses resulted in hybrid seed which was sent to Geneva, NY and Cream Ridge, NJ. Scab-resistant selections Coop 25, Coop 30, and HE 4-16 continue to show promise for the late season.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

        Outputs
        Hazelnut: Selection OSU 43-58 was released as 'Willamette'. Four selections resistant to eastern filbert blight (VR 4-31, 11-27, 20-11, and 23-18) were released as pollinizers. About 5,500 seedlings from crosses made in 1989 were transplanted to the field in October. A total of 92 lots of C. americana and 13 lots of C. cornuta were received from cooperators and germinated Five outstanding selections were identified and made available to nurseries. A comparison of percent cluster set from self- and cross-pollination revealed useful levels of self-compatibility in 'Tombul' and 'Montebello'. Chilling requirements of 45 genotypes of C. avellana were estimated. Catkins, female flowers, and leaf buds had different chilling requirements, generally in ascending order. For leaf buds, estimates ranged from a low of 423 hours for 'Tombul Ghiaghli' to a high of 1473 hours for 'Casina'. Sweet Cherry: Based on first year's fruit notes, trunk cross-sectional area and tree height, 20 mutants with normal fruit but reduced tree stature were retained (out of 71) for further evaluation. Apple: The cool, wet spring provided an excellent opportunity to rate apple selections for susceptibility to powdery mildew. Based on fruit quality and disease resistance, 16 good selections were recommended for more intense evaluation by Bob Stebbins.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

          Outputs
          Hazelnut Breeding. The objectives of the program are to 1) develop improved cultivars for the kernel market and 2) to incorporate resistance to Eastern Filbert Blight in new cultivars. 5,600 seedlings from controlled crosses made in 1988 were planted in the field at the Vegetable Research Farm. In 1989, 108 controlled crosses were made. Nearly 6,000 seedlings from these crosses will be planted in the field next year. Yields of 'Barcelona' and 'Tombul' were significantly reduced by cold weather. Temperatures dropped to -17C (5F) on February 1. 'Ennis', 'Casina', and most numbered selections from the breeding program were uninjured. Advanced selection OSU 43-58 continues to perform well for the blanched kernel market. Documentation is being prepared for the release of this selection. Ten additional outstanding selections were identified for distribution to nurseries. Eastern Filbert Blight. Additional crosses were made to combine the disease resistance of 'Gasaway' with desirable nut characteristics. Trees of 40 cultivars were propagated for a trial to determine their relative susceptibility to the disease by exposing 9 trees of each cultivar to massive doses of spores in January-April, 1900 and again the following year. Nut samples of the resistant native species Corylus americana and C. cornuta were sent by members of the Northern Nut Growers Association. A total of more than 100 seedlots have been stratified to date.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

            Outputs
            Hazelnut: In 1988, 198 controlled crosses were made and over 29,000 hybrid seedsharvested. Of these, 9,000 will be stratified and planted in the greenhouse. 140 controlled crosses are planned for 1989. Many of these crosses were made to locate sources of pseudo-self-compatibility), in hazelnut. `Flontebello' and `Tombul' set well when self-pollinated. Several crosses were made to transfer the Eastern Filbert Blight resistance of `Gasaway' seedlings to types with acceptable nuts. Four selections (VR4-31, VR11-27, VR20-11, and VR23-18) were identified as blight-resistant pollinizers for `Barcelona' and were increased by grafting and growing trees in the greenhouse. Advanced selection OSU 43-58 continues to perform well. We plan to name and release it in January, 1990. Apple: Evaluation of disease resistant apple selections identified Coop 15 a.s outstanding. It combines good fruit quality with resistance to all major apple diseases. Sweet Cherry: Evaluation of compact mutants of `Bing', `Napoleon', and `Bada' is continuing. No outstanding selections have yet been identified.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

              Outputs
              Hazelnut Breeding. 137 controlled crosses were made and 18,393 hybrid seed wereharvested. 5,000 of these were cracked and placed in stratification. 700 seedlings from 1985 and 1986 crosses were planted in the field. Of the 13 selections in advanced trial plots, OSU 43-58 continues to perform well. Eastern Filbert Blight (Anisogramma anomala) has been discovered in several orchards in the suburbs of Portland and if its spread is unchecked, the entire industry will be lost. The breeding program is using EFB-resistant parents in many crosses. Genetic resistance is the best long-term solution to the EFB problem. Suggested pollinizers (of those currently available) to replace the highly susceptible cultivar, 'Daviana', include 'Hall's Giant', 'Tonda Romana', and 'Casina'. Scions of EFB-resistant pollinizer cultivars will be distributed to nurseries in January, 1989. Apple Evaluation. Evaluation of older scab-immune selections at the Botany Farm resulted in discarding of most and propagation of the remaining 5 selections. Sweet Cherry Mutant Evaluation. A field trial was planted of compact mutants of 'Bing' and 'Royal Ann'. They will be evaluated for bloom date, precocity, productivity, tree stature, fruit quality, and stability of compact growth habit. In vitro methods are being investigated as a means of stabilizing promising mutants.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                Outputs
                Hazelnut breeding. 2200 seedlings from controlled crosses were planted in the field. A few additional seeds were produced from this year's crosses. 13 selections are at various stages of advanced testing: OSU 14-2, 14-19, 17-28, 18-22, 40-119, 41-134, 43-58, 43-94, 43-102, 49-73, 55-77, 55-97, and 55-129. Of these, 43-58 shows very good potential for both the kernel and in-shell market. Eastern Filbert Blight (Anisogramma anomala) as discovered in Clackamas county this fall. The development of resistant varieties appears to be the best long-term control method. Segregation ratios indicate that 'Gasaway' carries a dominant resistance gene in heterozygous condition. Resistant seedlings of 'Gasaway' will be used in this year's crosses. The objectives of the breeding program are: resistance to Eastern Filbert Blight, high yield, early maturity, high kernel percentage, few defects (blanks and mold), high kernel quality, and resistance to big bud mites. Sweet Cherry Mutation Breeding. A total of 75 compact mutants of 'Bing' and 'Royal Ann' have been budded to Mazzard seedling rootstock. Field trials will be planted in spring 1987 and subsequently evaluated for amount and date of bloom, fertility, precocity, productivity, tree stature, stability of compact growth habit, and fruit quality.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                  Outputs
                  1. Filbert breeding. 6,138 hybrid seedlings were planted in the field. Pollinations were made which yielded about 6,000 seed for next year's planting. Strong emphasis is being placed on using parents with good nut blanching ability, as well as having other desirable traits of high production 50-60% kernel, good taste, and desirable growth habit of trees. Nut samples were harvested and evaluated from all bearing trees with round, thin shelled nuts. Four selections have been identified to propagate for advanced trial plots in grower's orchards. These are all characterized by having good blanching traits, over 50% kernel, and 3 of 4 selections are earlier maturing than the existing standard cultivar, Barcelona. Yield trials will determine whether they will be productive enough. Much progress has been made in identifying elite types for use as parents in further breeding. 2. Sweet cherry mutation breeding. About 87 potential mutations for growth reduction and 13 for late leafing and late bloom were identified in irradiated Bing cherry. These were repropagated (15-25 trees each) for further evaluation. Mutants, which had been propagated from the previous year's selections, proved to be stable. About 6 of these appear to be semi-compact (65-75% of normal height) and will be transplanted to trial plots to evaluate growth and fruiting over a several year period. An advanced trial plot consisting of about 400 trees of possible useful mutants of both Royal Ann and Bing is being evaluated.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                    Outputs
                    Filbert breeding. 5,500 one-year hybrid seedlings were planted in the field. Due to lack of space no new hybrid seeds were produced. Nut samples from all bearing trees were evaluated for size, shape, percent kernel, time of maturity, quality of kernels, and blanching ability of kernels. Also, the amount of catkins and resistance to big bud mite were rated. Several selections were repropagated for further evaluation in the advanced trial plot. None appeared good enough for a possible new variety, so no trees were propagated for distribution to growers. Sweet cherry mutation breeding. 5 to 25 trees each of 45 selections of irradiated Royal Ann from previous years irradiation were repropagated. Each selection had some trait that may be of value, e.g., reduced tree size or late blooming. Large numbers of trees of certain clones were propagated to test stability. Evaluations were made of about 5,000 irradiated Bing nursery trees. One very promising compact selection and 25 other possible growth-reduced types were identified and propagated for further evaluation. An advanced trial plot of 350 trees of possible useful mutants, and new selections from Prosser and Utah is now in its third year and fruit will be evaluated in 1985.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                      Outputs
                      Filbert breeding. About 9,500 hybrid seedlings from controlled crosses were field-planted. Another 14,500 seeds were produced from this year's crosses. Emphasis is on selection for high quality kernels with good blanching ability for industrial uses. Six advanced selections have been chosen for replicated trial plots in growers' orchards. Evaluations of nut and tree characteristics and production are made annually on all hybrid seedlings and advanced trial plots. Sweet cherry mutation breeding. Evaluations were made on about 6,000 nursery trees arising from irradicated Royal Ann budwood. Several selections for possible compact growth habit were propagated. A trial plot has been established containing over 75 mutants selected over the past few years. These include mutants for compact growth, late bloom, late fruit maturity, different growth habit, and precocity. One semi-compact selection (1-8) looks particularly promising in that it has remained stable through 3 successive propagations. Long term evaluations will be made. A new cycle of irradiation was started using Bing cultivar. About 6500 budded trees will be evaluated for mutants next summer.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                        Outputs
                        Filbert breeding. 6,200 hybrid seedlings were planted in the field. Three promising selections were propagated for advanced trial plots in grower's orchards. Fifteen thousand hybrid seeds were produced for this year's planting. Emphasis is on selection for high quality kernels with good blanching ability for industrial uses. Vastly improved parental materials are now available, which increases the probability of producing superior cultivars. Sweet cherry mutation breeding. Several mutants were selected and propagated from last years treatments. About 7,000 irradiated buds were established this fall - to be evaluated for mutants next year. The problem of instability of mutants is being studied. Continued studies on incompatibility alleles. To date 20 alleles have been discovered in filberts.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                          Outputs
                          The relative activities of the free base and ribonucleoside forms of cytokinins with Nae isoprenoid side chains have been examined in Phaseolus callus cultures. In P. vulgaris cv. Great Northern, cytokinins bearing saturated side chains were always more active than the corresponding saturated analogs. In P. lunatus cv. Kingston, cytokinins with unsaturated side chains were either more active or equally active as the saturated compounds. The differences in cytokinin structure-activity relationships were correlated with differences in the metabolism of Nae (Ly isopentenyl) adenosine-8PG4C (PG4C-iaeAdo). In Great Northern tissues, this cytokinin was rapidly degraded to adenosine; In Kingston the major metabolite was the corresponding cytokinin nucleotide. The growth responses and the metabolism of PG4CiaeAdo of interspecific hybrid tissues were intermediate between the parental tissues.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                            Outputs
                            Filbert breeding. Two thousand six hundred hybrid seedlings from 1979 crosses were planted in the field. Eight thousand new seedlings were started in the greenhouse, part of which will be planted in growers orchards next fall. Nuts were evaluated from over 2000 4,5, and 6 year old trees and several selections chosen for advanced trial plots. Over 200 trees of 12 selections were propagated last year, many of which are being planted in growers orchards this year. One especially promising selection has been distributed to nurserymen. Data for inheritance studies was accumulated. Sweet cherry mutation breeding. One especially promising compact mutant is being propagated on 4 different rootstocks to compare performance with other compact mutants and with standards. Due to a technical error at the Radiation Center all irradiated scionwood for 1980 trial plot was killed.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                              Outputs
                              1. Sweet cherry mutation breeding. The 3,000 irradiate Royal Ann trees were evaluated in their third year for useful mutations for flowering and fruiting traits. Several mutants were selected for repropagation; these include late blooming, late fruit ripening extremely precocious bearing, red colored fruit and one which bears fruit on one-year wood instead of on older spurs. Compact trees of Lambert, Stella and my selection of compact Royal Ann were propagated on four different rootstocks in anticipation of establishing a replicated trial plot to compare performance of compact mutants with standard trees on different rootstocks. 2. Filbert breeding. About 2,500 hybrid seedling trees from 60 different parent combinations were planted in the field. Also, another 55 crosses were made to generate 3,000 to 4,000 hybrid seeds, which have been planted in the greenhouse for next fall's planting. Observations were made on vegetative traits of all trees and on nut traits of all bearing trees. Several seedlings have been identified which have superior nut characteristics, e.g., many have thin shells, yielding 55 to 60% kernel, compared to "Barcelona, " with about 41%; many have clean, plump, attractive kernels, compared to the fibrous unattractive kernels of "Barcelona" and many are earlier maturing. Amongst this second generation, there are many, much improved selections which should prove to be valuable parents to generate greatly superior third generation seedlings. Several hybrids were selected for advanced trial plots.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                                Outputs
                                1. Sweet cherry mutation breeding. The previously identified compact 'Royal Ann' mutant tree produced many flowering spurs and some normal appearing furit on 2-year wood. Budwood was multiplied to establish a trial plot on 4 rootstocks. Other mutants included delayed bloom, abundant blooming on 1-year wood, wider branch angles of tree, and higher productivity. 2. Filbert breeding. Over 2000 hybrid trees from 1977 crosses were planted in the field. 2400 hybrids from 1978 crosses are now in the greenhouse. Trees from 2nd generation crosses are now bearing. Significant advances have been made in regard to more progeny trees having desirable traits, e.g., many have over 55% kernel ('Barcelona' has 40-42%), in many trees nuts mature 1-3 weeks earlier than 'Barcelona', and many have superior kernels. This year we have begun to evaluate ease of blanching. When kernels held at 250 degrees F for 20 minutes skins adhere to all kernels in some selections; in others, it falls off all kernels. In 'Barcelona', and others, part of the skin comes off and part stays on. Ease of blanching is essential for many commercial uses. 3. Incompatibility in filberts. The genetic study was completed. Specific incompatibility alleles were assigned to many varieties and hybrids.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                  Outputs
                                  Sweet cherry mutation breeding. Out of 3000 irradiated Royal Ann trees 3 compact mutants were identified, 2 of which died of Pseudomonas. The third is being repropagated for further trial. The second year it had many spurs and looks promising for high and precocious bearing. One compact Bada tree with many spurs has also been found and will be repropagated for trials. Filbert breeding. About 2000 hybrid trees from 35 controlled crosses of 1976 were planted in the field. Another 2200 from 1977 crosses are now in the greenhouse. Observations on vegetative and nut characteristics are made on all hybrid trees 3 years and older, as well as on the variety collection. An advanced trial plot of 2 new selections was established at the Smith Farm. Additional trees of these selections are being propagated for trial plots in growers orchards. Incompatibility. The study on the genetics of incompatibility in filberts will be completed this year. Several hundred pollinations were made last year for the purpose of elucidating the specific incompatibility groups of many varieties. This is important for planning breeding programs to avoid cross-incompatible combinations and also for selecting new pollenizer varieties. I have made more progress on techniques of overcoming compatiblilty which will be useful to make crosses or self-pollinations normally incompatible.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/76 to 12/30/76

                                    Outputs
                                    Filbert breeding. Crosses between 42 parental combinations yielded 4007 hybrid seeds which were planted in the greenhouse. 3200 hybrids from the previous year were transplanted from the greenhouse to the field. Evaluations of tree and nuttraits were made on seedlings and on varieties which were 3 years of age and older. Many trees which had borne 2 crops were discarded. Several selections were repropagated for further observation and for use in breeding. Two promising selections were propagated for advanced trial plots; one a potential pollenizer for Barcelona, and one a possible new kernel-type variety. Inheritance data was analyzed. This genetic information will be very useful forimproved choice of parents in further crosses. We now have a greatly expanded genetic base, and several selections having sueperior traits which can be used as parents. Cherry mutation breeding. 3600 nursery trees propagated in 1975 from irradiated scionwood were evaluated for mutations. 5 potential compact mutants were selected for further testing. Other mutations were observed and the location of chimeral sectors were recorded for a study on the ontogeny of the shoot. Information on the dosage, frequency of mutation, and position of mutation on the shoot was obtained. An additional 2500 trees were budded for future observation of

                                    Impacts
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                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/75 to 12/30/75

                                      Outputs
                                      Cross-pollinations were made between 31 parental combinations, using cultivars and promising selections from previous crosses. About 4000 hybrid seedlings aregrowing in the greenhouse. The desired traits, precocity and productivity, highpercent kernel (up to 60%), early maturity (3-4 weeks earlier than Barcelona), high quality kernel, are all present in the population. Appropriate crosses and large enough populations should bring these traits together in superior cultivars. Resistance to Eastern filbert blight has been found in one cultivar,'Gasseway', which will be used in the breeding program in 1976. Data was obtained on all hybrid seedlings, (3-7 years of age) and cultivars for productivity and tree and nut traits in order to study their mode of inheritance. A cross between siblings revealed severe inbreeding depression. One year Royal Ann and Boda cherry trees from irradiated scions were evaluated for mutants for compact growth habit, and also inoculated with Pseudomonas to screen for resistant mutants (to be rated Spring, 1976). Many mutant trees, both total mutants and sectorial chimeras, were observed but none for compact growth. A detailed study of the pattern of sectorial mutants was made in both shoots from irradiated scions (VPG) and 1-year trees from buds of these VPG shoots(Vy generation) in order to trace the course of mutant tissue. This informationwill aid in improved methodology. A new group of irradiated materials were budded in September to be evaluated next summer.

                                      Impacts
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                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                        Outputs
                                        Breeding: Crosses were made between 27 selected parental combinations. Seed washarvested and 2000 seedlings were started in the greenhouse. Seedlings will be planted in the field in February 1975. Most of the crosses were made between selected seedlings that had at least one or more outstanding traits. At presentwe have approximately 4500 seedling trees planted that we are evaluating for possible selections. Data are being taken to determine if correlations exist between seed size and tree growth. Our more interesting selections have been re-propagated and planted under orchard conditions. Due to the high cost of transportation, trees with any value at the Aurora and Wilsonville station were re-propagated and moved to Corvallis and these plantings eliminated.

                                        Impacts
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                                          Progress 01/01/73 to 12/30/73

                                          Outputs
                                          Sixteen different controlled crosses were made and approximately 4000 resultant hybrid seedlings started in the greenhouse. Older hybrid seedlings were evaluated for vegetative, flowering, and fruiting traits. Trees which are over 5 years old were rigidly culled, with only a few individuals maintained for further observation. Seedlings with outstanding traits were chosen for parents in the 1974 breeding program. Big bud mite (Phytoptes avellanae) infestation greatly increased in the breeding plot in 1973 as compared to 1972. Genetic resistance exists in the major cultivar 'Barcelona', in certain other cultivars,and apparently in some hybrid seedlings. All progenies having one susceptible parent have a high frequency of susceptible offspring. The only progeny practically free of it had both parents resistant. All future breeding plans will need to consider this genetic weakness, and a method of infestation for early screening for resistance must be developed. Crosses were made specifically to study the mode of inheritance of resistance. Many cultivars which had been maintained at Wilsonville were repropagated and planted in Corvallis where a new collection is being established. Several years' data on cultivar characteristics were compiled in preparation for a special report.

                                          Impacts
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                                            Progress 01/01/72 to 12/30/72

                                            Outputs
                                            Breeding: Hybrids were made between 4 selected parents and seedlings were started in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings already in the field were evaluatedfor vegetative, flowering, and fruiting traits. An evaluation system was devised for rating seedlings. Forms for field use, as well as lab use, were designed so that information can be transferred easily to computer cards for eventual sorting or analyses of inheritance of traits. A few hundred hybrid seedlings are now setting nuts. We are screening them for potential new improved cultivars, or for outstanding traits which would provide useful parental materials for further breeding. Much attention is directed towards higher potential yield, high percentage kernel, thin shells, early maturity, andhigh quality kernel. A few selections are available with 56% kernel, by weight,which is the highest percent found so far. A few selections mature 3-5 weeks earlier than Barcelona. The great variability in filbert progenies gives promise of significant progress in selecting for desired traits. Variety Evaluation: Photographs of green husks and mature nuts were made of most cultivars in the 12-year old Wilsonville collection, and additional observationswere made on these trees. A special report on filbert cultivars will be prepared. Several reject trees were pulled.

                                            Impacts
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                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                              Outputs
                                              Breeding: Hybrids were made between 4 selected parental combinations. The seedwas harvested and several hundred seedlings were started in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings that were started in the greenhouse in 1970 were planted in thefield in March, 1971. Several of the older hybrid trees are blooming this year so there should be some nuts next fall. These seedlings will be evaluated for such traits as presence of blooms, amount of suckering, degree of big bud mite damage, and trunk caliper. Efforts are directed towards a nut suitable for the kernel trade; a productive, healthy tree having superior kernel characteristics and a high percentage of kernel. The other main objective is for an improved inshell nut; one with a higher quality kernel having a clean pellicle and a shell thin enough to crack by hand. Both types should be earlier maturing than 'Barcelona". Variety Evaluation: Final notes were made on the variety collection at Wilsonville. Varieties which have any potential value will be saved for repropagation in Corvallis. A great number of these trees will be destroyed because they have no obvious value either for direct use or for use inbreeding.

                                              Impacts
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                                                Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                                Outputs
                                                Breeding: About 2500 hybrid seedlings, representing 30 combinations of varieties, were transplanted to the field. Four different combinations of varieties were made, seeds harvested, and seedlings planted in the greenhouse. No hybrids are old enough to bear nuts. Variety Evaluations: Data on many plant and nut characteristics were collected for trees in the Variety Trial Plantings at Wilsonville and at the North Willamette Station as well as on promising trees located in grower's orchards. Traits such as yield, time of maturity, percentage crack-out, shell thickness, nut size, nut quality, and timeand abundance of male and female flowers were recorded. New types are being considered for possible use directly as a pollenizer, or as parental material inbreeding.

                                                Impacts
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                                                Publications