Source: PURDUE UNIVERSITY submitted to
CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT,ENHANCEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0055150
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
IND011814R
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
NC-007
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2007
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2012
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Janick, J.
Recipient Organization
PURDUE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
WEST LAFAYETTE,IN 47907
Performing Department
HORTICULTURE
Non Technical Summary
The conservation, management and utilization of plant genetic resources, also known as germplasm, form the basis for harnessing genetic diversity to create and sustain agricultural production systems and a stable, nutritious national food supply. Germplasm, both the genetic material (genes, groups of genes, chromosomes) that controls heredity and the tissues, organs and organisms that express the variation contained in that genetic material, provides the essential building blocks to ensure future improvements in food, fiber and biofuel production and quality. Diverse germplasm is crucial to our ability to continually refine cultivars, inputs, production systems, markets and end-use processes to respond to production challenges and to changing societal needs, including support of a rapidly emerging bioenergy industry.
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
90%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2022299108015%
2022499108015%
2022299303035%
2022499303035%
Goals / Objectives
Within the NCR, throughout the U.S., and internationally, encourage the use of a broad diversity of germplasm to reduce crop genetic vulnerability. Provide resources, information and expertise that foster the development of new crops and new uses for existing crops, and facilitate cultivar improvement of established crops, thus contributing to a sustainable, biobased economy.
Project Methods
Under objective 3, the NC-7 Project, through NCRPIS staff and participants, will encourage use of genetic diversity to reduce crop genetic vulnerability. Significant improvements achieved in our information-management infrastructure over the past decade, coupled with improved capabilities of the GRIN database, enable linkage of information from many sources to the collections in novel ways, such as through the genomics databases. We will: 1) invest in training to enable staff to utilize information effectively and efficiently, and deliver quality, useful data and recommendations in a concise and useable format to requesting researchers, 2) expand efforts to acquire evaluation and descriptive information from our own and collaborative investigations will expand, 3) integrate information capture with our ongoing regeneration processes, and 4) partner with SAES and other researchers to address challenges associated with genetic characterization of heterogeneous PGR while limiting assignment of scarce NCRPIS-assigned resources, based on our RTAC's counsel. Faculty and staff in the College of Agriculture at Purdue University will contribute to this objective.

Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: All apples at Lafayette, Indiana bloomed fully 4 weeks early in 2012 due to a mild winter and unseasonably warm temperatures in February but a hard frost on April 17 resulted in a complete crop wipeout. However, a visit to the Piedmont area of Italy and central and southern France indicated high performance of CrimsonCrisp, Pixie Crunch, GoldRush, and Lafayette, releases of the Purdue apple breeding program formerly cooperative with Rutgers and the University of Illinois. Twenty elite apple selections are now under evaluation in test locations in Indiana, Pennsylvania, and New York. CropMAP. a site specific retrieval system that provides crop information for the 3033 counties in the United States has been updated by inclusion of data from the 2007 Agricultural Census. PARTICIPANTS: David Dierig, USDA ARS Dennis Ray, University of Arizona are to be involved in the conference to be held in 2013. TARGET AUDIENCES: Horticulturalists, especially apple breeders and producers PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Data from the 2007 agricultural census added to CropMAP

Impacts
New apple cultivars and selections with resistance to apple scab contribute to fruit growers and home gardeners in Indiana, the United States, and throughout the world in their search for disease resistant apples with high quality. The update of CropMAP a component of the NewCROP website by incorporation of data from the 2007 agricultural census, will provide useful information on crops in the United States to researchers and industry.

Publications

  • Jules Janick. 2011. New World Crops: Iconography and history. Acta Horticulturae 916:93-104.
  • Jules Janick, Harry Paris, Marie-Christine Daunay. 2012. The cucurbits and nightshades of Renaissance England: John Gerard and William Shakespeare. Horticultural Reviews 40:215-257.
  • Jules Janick, 2012. Revelations from Histoire Naturelle des Indes known as The Drake Manuscript: Horticulture and History. Chronica Horticulturae 52(1):14-22.
  • Jules Janick and John Stolarczyk. 2012. Ancient Greek Illustrated Dioscoridean Herbals: Origins and Impact of the Juliana Anicia Codex and the Codex Neopolitanus" Athens: ATINER'S Conference Paper Series, No. 8. Jules Janick. 2012. Book Review. Transgenic: Crops: Challenges and Opportunities [Beiquan Mou and Ralph Scorza (eds.)]; Top 100 Exotic Food Plants. [Ernest Small]. Chronica Horticutlurae 52(1):29-31
  • Jules Janick y Claudia Silviana Mureşan. 2011. Demonizacion de la Ciencia, Santificacion de la Probreza. Colegio de Ingenieros Agronomos de Chile. Revista del Ingeiero Agronomo. p. 30-34.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/12

Outputs
Target Audience: Nothing Reported Changes/Problems: The project director continued participation in NC-7 and will do a project initiation for the current project with dates of 10/1/2012-9/30/17. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Nothing Reported How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Nothing Reported What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? None

Publications


    Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Continued selection of apple selections are underway. Selections are under test at Adams County Nurseries, in Aspers, Pennsylvania, Pepinieres et Vergers Escande Earl in Saint-Vite, France and IFO International in New Zealand and France. One selection (FN3505-526) sent to DLO has been released and named Lafayette in Europe. A Plant Variety Patent (200400143) has been obtained for Adagio arugula in 2011. The apple releases Pixie Crunch, CrimsonCrisp, and GoldRush continue to receive attention throughout the world. GoldRush was made the state fruit of Illinois and in 2011 received the Cultivar award medal of the Fruit Working Group American Society of Horticultural Science. Historical studies have been completed on the medieval history of the cucumber PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    New apple cultivars and selections contribute to fruit growers and home gardeners in Indiana, the United States, and throughout the world in their search for disease resistant apples with high quality. The late blooming Adagio arugula that has now been granted a PVP will provide options for vegetable growers and home gardeners. The NewCROP website continues to have high appeal with over 25 million hits providing information on crop plants. Historical work on horticultural crops provides information on crop evolution and domestication.

    Publications

    • Jules Janick. 2011. The sociology of authorship sequence. Chronica Horticulturae 51(3):5-6. Judith M. Taylor, Roberto G. Lopez, Christopher J. Currey and Jules Janick. 2011. The poinsettia: History and transformation. Chronica Horticulturae 51(3):23-28.
    • Jules Janick and Kim Hummer. 2010. Healing, Health, and Horticulture: Introduction to the Workshop. HortScience 45(11):1584-1586.
    • Jules Janick, Marie Christine Daunay, and Harry Paris. 2010. Horticulture and Health in the Middle Ages: Images from the Tacuinum Sanitatis. HortScience 45(11):1592-1596.
    • Marie-Christine Daunay, Jules Janick, and Harry S. Paris. 2011. Tacuinum Sanitatis: otofrutticoltura e salute nel tardo Medioevo. Revista di Frutticoltura e di Ortofloricoltura. LXXIII(1-2):48-55.
    • Harry S. Paris, Jules Janick and Marie-Christine Daunay. 2011. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300-1458. Annals of Botany 108:471-484.
    • Harry S.Paris, Marie-Christine Daunay, and Jules Janick. 2011. Occidental diffusion of cucumber, Cucumis sativus, 500 to 1300 CE. Two Routes to Europe. Annals of Botany. (in press)
    • Jules Janick, Marie-Christine Daunay, and Harry S. Paris. 2011. Plant iconography - A source of information for archaeogenetics. p. 143-159. In: Gabor Gyulai (ed.), Plant Archaeogenetics. Nova Science Publ. Inc. New York.
    • Jules Janick. 2011. Foreword. p.xxvii-xxviii.. In: Elhadi M. Yahia (ed.), Posthavest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits. Volume 2: Acai to citrus. Wood head Publishing. Cambridge,UK.Jules Janick. 2011.
    • Jules Janick. History of fruit breeding. 2011 p. 1-7. In: H. Flachowsky and V.-M. Hanke. Methods in temperate fruit breeding. Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science and Biotechnology 5 (Special Issued 1).
    • Jules Janick (ed.). 2011. Horticultural Reviews. Volume 38 Wiley, Hoboken NJ. (429p)
    • Jules Janick (ed.). 2011 Plant Breeding Reviews. Volume 34 Wiley, Hoboken NJ. (378p)
    • Jules Janick and Aytekin Polat (eds.), 2010. III International Symposium on Loquat. Acta Horticulturae 887 (372p)
    • Jules Janick. 2010. Predictions for loquat improvement in the next decade. p.25-29. In: Jules Janick and Aytekin Polat (eds.), Proceedings of the III International Symposium on Loquat. Acta Horictulturae 887.
    • R. J. Bogers, J. Janick, N.E. Looney, J.-M. Lee, A. A. Monteiro, and I.J. Warrington. 2011. Farewell from the Outgoing Board, Welcome to the New. Chronica Horticultura 50(3):3.
    • Jules Janick and Claudia Silvana Mureşan. 2010. Demonization of science, sanctification of poverty. Chronica Horticulturae. 50(4):24-26.
    • Jules Janick. 2010. Caravaggios fruit. A mirror on baroque horticulture. p.97-113. In: A. H. De. Groft, (Ed.). Caravaggio: Still Life with Fruit on a Stone Ledge. Papers of the Muscarelle Museum of Art. Vol. 1. Muscarelle Museum of Art, Yorktown, Virginia.
    • Jules Janick (ed.). 2011. Origin and dissemination of Prunus crops: Peach, cherry, apricot, plum and almond. Scripta Horticulturae 11. 241p.
    • Jules Janick, G.R. Dixon , L. Rallo (Eds.). 2011. Proceedings of the XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People: Colloquia and Overview. Acta Horticulturae 916.
    • Harry S. Paris and Jules Janick. 2010-2011. The cucurbits of antiquity: A case of mistaken identity. Cucurbit Genet. Coop. Rep 33-34:1-7.
    • Don Longevin and Jules Janick. 2011. New world record for giant pumpkin, 2010. Chronica Horticulturae 51(1):25.
    • Harry S. Paris and Jules Janick. 2010-2011. The Cucumis of antiquity: A Case of Mistaken Identity. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 33-334.
    • John Stolarczyk and Jules Janick. 2011. Carrot: History and iconography. Chronica Horticutlurae 51(2)13-18.
    • Jules Janick y Ana Luisa Gonzales Reimers. 2011, Juan Sanchez Cotan: El pintor mistico de la horticultura. Horticultura 191:88-91.


    Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Continued selection of second test orchards have continued in 2010 and four additional elite selections have been made that will be finalized in storage test this winter. The scab resistant material continues to gain world attention and a cooperative program with Chile is under negotiation. Open pollinated seed of the best selections will be sent to them this season. Historical works on germplams have been continued including studies of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, a medieval manuscript on crops and health, and the plant material embedded in inlays and bas reliefs in the Taj Mahal. Final negotiations are underway to receive a PVP for Adagio arugula. Plant patent has been received for WineCrisp apple released from the cooperative breeding program between Purdue, the University of Illinois, and Rutgers University. PARTICIPANTS: Anna L. Whipkey, Administrative professional, assists me in the breeding program. TARGET AUDIENCES: New apple selections will improve efficiency of fruit growing for commercial growers and home gardeners, nationally and internationally. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    Good reports from GoldRush and CrimsonCrisp scab resistant apple in the United States and Europe are indicated by increasing robust sales of trees. Adagio, a late blooming arugula, continues to expand. The Newcrop website of web information on all crops continues to have high impact with 26 million hits at the end of 2009.

    Publications

    • Jules Janick (editor). 2010. Plant Breeding Reviews, Volume 33 (386 p.)
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2010. Horticultural Reviews, Volume 36 (371p.)
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2010. Horticultural Reviews, Volume 37 (2010p.)
    • Jules Janick. 2009. Pear history and future (in Japanese). Proc. 10th Annual Pear Forum. p.3-20
    • Jules Janick, Marie-Christine Daunay, and Harry S. Paris. 2009. Horticulture and health: Ancient and Medieval views. International Conference on Horticulture. Nov. 9-12. Bangalore India.Souvenir. p.23-34.
    • Jules Janick, Marie-Christine Daunay, and Harry S. Paris. 2010. Horticulture and health: Ancient and medieval views. p. 39-52. In: Pren Nath and P.B. Gaddagimath (Eds), Horticulture and Livelihood Security, Scientific Publishers Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.
    • Jules Janick. 2010. Plant iconography and art: Source of information on horticultural technology. Bulletin USAVM Horticulture. 67(1):11-23.
    • Jules Janick, Rina Kamenetsky, and Sumangala H. Puttaswamy. 2010. Horticulture of the Taj Mahal: Gardens of the imagination. Chronica Horticulturae 50(3):31-33.


    Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: During reporting year ten elite apple seedlings have been identified from crosses including GoldRush with Pristine, Enterprise, and CQR10T17(PRI 3217-3). In particular, seedlings of GoldRush with Pristine have proven to be outstanding with predominantly smooth yellow skin, crisp flesh, a range of maturity, and good flavor. Most of these selections are scab immune based on the presence of the Vf gene. One elite selections has performed well in France and licensing arrangements are forthcoming. Historical work with the medieval manuscripts known as the Tacinum sanitatis (Tables of Health) indicates that current interest in health giving properties of fruits and vegetables is an extension of ancient and medieval concerns. PARTICIPANTS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    The continued sales of apples from our program indicates that our cultivars are being well received by the public. Excellent reports have been received from scab resistant Pixie Crunch and CrimsonCrisp in the United States. These two apples are now being licensed around the world. WineCrisp, a new release from the cooperative program between Purdue University, Rutgers, and the University of Illinois is being licensed by US nurseryman. Adagio, late blooming arugula, is now found in a number of vegetable companies. The Newcrop website continues to have wide appeal with over 29 million hits in 2008 The interest in Europe of GoldRush and CrimsonCrisp. The Newcrop website continues to have high impact (29. 5 million hits, 11.4 million pages downloaded).

    Publications

    • Jules Janick (editor). 2009. Horticultural Reviews. Vol. 35 (529 p.)
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2009. Plant Breeding Reviews. Vol. 31 (420 p.)
    • Jules Janick (editor) 2009. Plant Breeding Reviews. Vol. 32 (382p.) Raspberry Breeding and Genetics
    • Ken Mudge, Jules Janick, Steven Scofield, and Eliezer E. Goldschmidt. 2009. A history of grafting. Horticultural Reviews 35:437-493.
    • Kim Hummer and Jules Janick, 2009. Rosaceae: Taxonomy, economic impact, importance, genomics. In: K.M. Folta and S.E. Gardiner (eds.), Genetics and Genomics of Rosaceae. Springer Scinces + Business Media.
    • Jules Janick. 2009. How a lack of research affects us all. (Viewpoint). Garden (February) p.122-123.
    • Marie-Christine Daunay, Jules Janick, and Harry S. Paris. 2009. Tacuinum Sanitatis: Horticulture and health in the late middle ages. Chronica Horticulturae 49(3):22-29.


    Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: Coop 41, an apple selection originally made at the University of Illinois, and evaluated from the cooperative breeding program of Purdue University, Rutgers University, and the University of Illinois was patented and will be released as Wine Crisp. Three apple cultivar releases from this program, GoldRush, Pixie Crunch, and CrimsonCrisp, continue to perform well at Purdue University with excellent appearance and quality and have achieved national success based on sales at the licensed nurseries. Juliet apple continues to have success in France. Seed of a late blooming wild arugula (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) was released for test and seed increase at a commercial seed company. The New Crops website was enriched by including papers at the Sixth National Symposium New Crops Symposium held in San Diego, in 2007. The PlantIMAGE website featuring Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae was increased to include over 1000 images from antiquity to the present. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Apple and arugula breeders and new crop workers. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

    Impacts
    Releases of apple and arugula continue to have market acceptances in the United States and abroad. The NewCROP website continues to be the most widely used resource of its type. Analysis of crop diversity and evolution continues to be advanced by studies of crop images from antiquity to the present.

    Publications

    • Kim E. Hummer and Jules Janick. 2007. Rubus iconography: Antiquity to the Renaissance. p. 89-105. In: Global Horticulture: Diversity And Harmony. Acta Horticulturae 759.
    • M.C. Daunay, E. Jullian, A, Whipkey., J. Janick , 2007: Eggplant and capsicum peppers: historical texts and images. p. 13-21. In: K. Niemirowicz-Szczytt (ed.), Progress in Research on Capsicum & Eggplant. Warsaw University of Life Sciences Press, Warsaw, Poland,. (13th Eucarpia meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant, Warsaw, 5-7th Sept. 2007).
    • Marie-Christine Daunay, Henri Laterrot, and Jules Janick. 2008. Iconography and history of Solanaceae: Antiquity to the 17th century. Horticultural Reviews 34:1-111+ 31 colored plates
    • H.S. Paris and J. Janick. 2008. What the Roman emperor Tiberius grew in his greenhouse.p. 33-41. In: M. Pitrat (ed.), Cucurbitaceae 2008. IXth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbiaceae, France.
    • Jules Janick, Harry Paris, David Parish. 2007. The cucurbits of Mediterranean antiquity: Identification of taxa from ancient images and descriptions. Annals of Botany 100:1441-1457.
    • Donald N.Maynard, Xingping Zhang and Jules Janick. 2007. Watermelons: New Choices, new trends. Chronica Horticulturae 47(4): 26-29.
    • Antonio A. Monteir, Roberto Lopez, and Jules Janick. 2008. Guilding the Lilies: Rainbow Roses and Confetti Poinsettias. Chronica Horticulturae 47(1):16.
    • Jules Janick. 2008. The founding and founders of the Royal Horticultural Society. Chronica Horticulturae 47(1):17-19.
    • Jules Janick 2008. The tyranny of the impact factor. Chronica Horticulturae 4(2):3-4.
    • Jules Janick 2008. Giant pumpkins: Genetics and cultural breakthroughs. Chronica Horticulturae: 48(3):16-17.
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2008. Horticultural Reviews Vol. 34. 522 p.
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2008. Plant Breeding Reviews. Vol. 30. 479 p.
    • Jules Janick and Robert E. Paull. 2008. Encylopedia of fruits & nuts. CAB Int., Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 954 p.
    • Jules Janick. 2007. .Art as a source of information on horticultural technology. p. 69-88. In: global horticulture: diversity and harmony. Acta Horticulturae 759.
    • H.S. Paris and J. Janick. 2008. Reflections on linguistics as an aid to taxonomical identification of ancient Mediterranean cucurbits: the Piqqus of the Faqqous. p. 43-51. In: M. Pitrat (ed.), Cucurbitaceae 2008. IXth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbiaceae, France.
    • S.S. Renner, J. Scarborough, H. Schaefer, H.S. Paris, and J. Janick. 2008. Dioscoridess bruonia melaina is Bryonia alba, not Tamus communis, and an illustration labelled bruonia melaina in the Codex Viondobonensis is Humuls lupulus not Bryonia dioica. p. 273-280. . In: M. Pitrat (ed.), Cucurbitaceae 2008. IXth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbiaceae, France.
    • Jules Janick. 2007. Fruits of the bibles. HortScience 42:1072-1076


    Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

    Outputs
    OUTPUTS: During 2006 and 2007 freeze damage provided an opportunity to evaluate apple frost tolerance. Pixie Crunch (Coop 33), CrisonCrisp (Coop 39), and GoldRush (Coop 38) all had reasonable crops suggesting tolerance to frost. PixieCrunch was shown to have considerable consumer appeal because of its very crisp and juicy texture and its medium size appears attractive to the market, especially for children and those who find large apples difficult to consume. Continuous selection for late blooming was made in "wild" arugula (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) in greenhouse screening trials. A method was developed to obtain flowering in the field for Aremisia annua the source of artemisinin, a drug for malaria, by use of opaque plastic bags over individual plants to reduce daylength to 12 hours, and the technique has proven efficient for inducing flowering in late flowering accessions. The New Crop website has increased in popularity and received over 31 million hits in 2006. In 2006 the website was enriched with a database on plant images of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae emphasizing ancient images. Scholarly studies were completed on analysis of ancient images and texts of Solanaceae and Cucurbtiaceae. TARGET AUDIENCES: Apple breaders

    Impacts
    Purdue releases of apple continue to have market acceptance in the United States and abroad. The pear and arugula release have been well accepted. The development of the NewCROP website continues to be the most widely used resource of its type and is used by both professionals and amateurs throughout the world. Studies of crop images in ancient, Medieval, and Resaissance art has opened up a new field for the analysis of crop dispersal and history.

    Publications

    • Marie-Christine Daunay , Henri Latterot, Jules Janick. 2007. Iconography of the Solanacee from antiquity to the XVIIth century: A rich source of information on genetic diversity and uses. p.59-88. In: E.M. Spooner, L. Bohs, J. Giovannoni R.G. Olmsted, D. Shibata. (eds.). SOLANACEA VI: GENOMICS MEETS BIODIVERSIT OF THE SIXTH INTERNATIONAL SOLANACEAE CONFERENCE. Acta Horticulturae 745.
    • Jules Janick, Anna Whipkey, Marie-Christine Daunay, E. Julian, Harry S. Paris. 2007. Development of an image data bse of Solanaceae. p.507-510, In: E.M. Spooner, L. Bohs, J. Giovannoni R.G. Olmsted, D. Shibata. (eds.). SOLANACEA VI: GENOMICS MEETS BIODIVERSITY. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH INTERNATIONAL SOLANACEAE CONFERENCE. Acta Horticulturae 745.
    • Jules Janick. 2007. Genetic Alterations associated with fruit domestication. p. 27-35. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM IN LOQUAT. Acta Horticulturae 750.
    • Jules Janick. 2006. Gli Erbari, tra medicina e botanica. Italus Hortus 13(4)3-16.
    • Jules Janick, 2007. Plant exploration from Queen Hatshepsut to Sir Joseph Banks. HortScience 42(2):192-196.
    • Jules Janick 2006. Cupid and Psyche: Fables and Festoons. Seminari dei Dottorandi 2003-1006, Alma Mater Studiorum - Universita di Bologna, Departimento di Colture Arboree. p.250-257
    • Jules Janick and Harry S. Paris. 2006. Old world cucubits in plant iconography of the Renaissance. Proc. Cucurbitaceae 2006, Universal Press, Raleigh, North Carolina. p. 341-348.
    • Jules Janick and Harry S. Paris. 2006. Jonah and the "gourd" at Nineveh: Consequences of a classic mistranslation. Proc. Cucurbitaceae 2006, Universal Press, Raleigh, North Carolina p 349-357.
    • Jules Janick, Anna Whipkey, Harry S. Paris, Marie-Christine Daunay, and E. Julian. 2006. Development of an image database of Cucurbitaceae. Proc. Cucurbitaceae 2006. Universal Press, Raleigh, North Carolina. p. 358-362.
    • Harry, S. Paris, Jules Janick, and Marie-Christine Daunay. 2006. First images of Cucurbita in Europe. Proc. Cucurbitaceae 2006, Universal Press, Raleigh, North Carolina. p. . 363-371.
    • Jules Janick. 2006. Cupid y Psyche; fabulas y festones. Horticultura 197 (Diciembre):28-31.
    • Jules Janick and Marie-Christine Daunay. 2007. History and iconography of the Solanaceae: 1. Mandrake, a plant at the intersection of reason and irrationality. SOL Newsletter 14 (May): 3-4.
    • Shunquan Lin, Xuming Huang, Julian Ceuvas and Jules Janick, 2007. Loquat: An ancient fruit crop with a promising future. Chronica Horticulturae 47(2):12-15.
    • Jules Janick. 2007. Horticulture at the Crossroads. (reprint). Rivista Brasiliera de Horticultura Ornamental. 13(1):1-2. CD.
    • Marie Christine Daunay and Jules Janick 2007. History and iconography of eggplant. Chronica Horticulturae 47(3):16-22.
    • Janick, J. (editor) 2007. PROTEACEOUS ORNAMENTAL: BANKSIA LEUCADENDRON LEUCOPSERUMUM, AND PROTEA Scripta Horticulturae Number 5, ISHS, Leuven, Belgium.
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2007. Horticultural Reviews Vol. 33. 450 p.
    • Jules Janick (editor) 2007. Plant Breeding Reviews. Vol.28, 337 p.
    • Jules Janick (editor) 2007. Plant Breeding Reviews Vol. 29. 446 p.
    • Jung-Mung Lee, Geun-Won Choi, Jules Janick (chief editors) 2007. HORTICULTUR IN KOREA. Korean Society for Horticutlural Science. 391 p.
    • Xuming Huang and J. Janick (editors). 2007. PROCREEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON LOQUAT. Acta Horticulturae 750 486 p.
    • Jules Janick. 2007.Genetic alterations associated with fruit domestication, 17-35. In: Xuming Huang and J. Janick (editors). 2007. PROCREEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON LOQUAT. Acta Horticulturae 750 486 p.


    Progress 10/01/05 to 09/30/06

    Outputs
    Breeding: During 2005-2006 3 new cultivars were released and licensed: a scab-resistant apple from the Cooperative Purdue-Rutgers-Illinois (PRI) program [Co-op 39=CrimsonCrispTM (2006) ; a blight tolerant pears from the Purdue pear breeding program (H2-168=AmbrosiaTM ), and a late-bolting arugula from the Purdue arugula program (AdagioTM ). All apples contain the Vf gene which confers field immunity to apple scab incited by Venturia inaequalis which was derived from Malus floribunda 821. Selections continue to be made from GoldRush crosses with 42 selections under test including many selections from GoldRush x Pristine, GoldRush x CLR10T17 and GoldRush x Enterprise. Patents have been issued for the fruit cultivars and plant variety protection has been applied for the new arugula release. The new high quality and disease resistant fruit cultivars provide new options for fruit growers and home gardeners in the Midwest, the Nation, and the World. The release of a late blooming selection of arugula (Eruca sativa) is a practical improvement of an ancient crop that has great potential as a new crop for the US; progress is being made with selection for late blooming in wild arugula (Diplotaxus tenuifolia) which is now in the third generation of selection carried out in the greenhouse. New Crop Website:The NewCrop website for the Purdue Center for New Crops and Plant Products (www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop) has been enriched with information on crops. This website is now the most widely used crop website worldwide with over 20 million pages expected to be downloaded at the end of 2006. The website has been enriched with searchable information on the PRI apple breeding program, a course on the History of Horticulture that contains streaming video of lectures, and numerous databases, powerpoints, and papers on genetic diversity and fruit breeding. Crop Image: A new field has been developed to use Art as a source of information on genetic diversity. Sources investigated include ancient mosaics, sculpture, herbal illustrations from antiquity, the medieval period, and the renaissance paintings. An image data base entitled Crop Image is under development starting with information on the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae,

    Impacts
    The release of disease-resistant apple and pear is having a positive impact for commercial fruit growers and home gardeners, especially in the fruit areas of the East and Midwest where apple scab and fireblight are a serious problem. The new selections will be extremely useful for growers interested in organic or integrated production. We expect the greatest impact may be on small growers who deal in local markets although CrimsonCrisp in particular has great promise in the commercial market. Efforts are underway to market these cultivars worldwide and this apple is now been widely appreciated in Western Italy. Ambrosia pear, a large early pear with extremely high quality is being extensively marketed by the licensee. The development of Adagio as a late blooming arugula (rocket) could have an impact in expanding this crop to Eastern and Midwestern growers; progress in selection of late-blooming wild arugulas, (Diplotzus tenuifolia) could aid in introducing this species to the Untied States as a completely new crop that is now widely appreciated in Italy. The NewCrop website, which may be the most widely used source of information on crops worldwide, continues to be popular as a source of information on crops throughout the United States is widely used as a resource by professional and amateur horticulturists as well as a lay audience. Studies of crop images in Ancient, Medieval, and Renaissance art has been valuable to students and scholars interested in art history, and horticulture and is a way to promote horticulture to a much wider audience.

    Publications

    • Schuyler S. Korban, Joseph C. Goffreda, and Jules Janick. 2003. Coop 43 (JulietTM) apple. HortScience 38:144-145.
    • J. Janick. 2004, Evoluzione storica della scienza e della technical ortoflorofrutticole negle Stati Uniti d American Accademia Nazionale di Agricoltura Annali CXXXIV:77-107 (Anno Accademico 197 - V Serie)
    • J. Janick. 2005. Horticultural plant breeding: Past accomplishments and future directions. Acta Hort. 694:61-65.
    • Jules Janick and Harry S. Paris. 2006. The cucurbit images (1515-1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome. Ann. Botany 97:165-176.
    • Harry S. Parris, Marie-Christine Daunay, Michel Pitrat, and Jules Janick. 2006. First known images of Cucurbita in Europe, 1503-1508. Ann. Botany 98:41-47.
    • Jules Janick. 2005. The origins of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Reviews 25:255-320.
    • Harry S. Paris and Jules Janick. 2005. Early evidence for the culinary use of squash flowers in Italy.Chronica Horticulturae 45(2):20-22.
    • Jules Janick. 2005. Cupido e Psique: fabulas e ginaldas. Revista da APH (Associacao Portugeusa de Horticultura) 38 (October-November):11-17.
    • Jules Janick, Joseph C. Goffreda, and Schuyler S. Korban. 2006. Co-op 39 (CrimsonCrisp) apple. HortScience 41:465-466.
    • Jules Janick. 2006. H2-169 (AmbrosiaTM) pear. HortScience 41:467.
    • Jules Janick. 2006. Origins of fruit culture and fruit breeding. p. 269-282. In: Kendall R. Lamkey and Michael Lee (eds.), PLANT BREEDING: THE ARNEL R. HALLAUER INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa.
    • Jules Janick. 2006. The PRI apple breeding program. HortScience 41:8-10.
    • Mario R. Morales, Elizabeth Maynard, and Jules Janick. 2006. Adagio: A slow bolting arugula. HortScience 41(6):1506-1507.
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2006. Horticultural Reviews. Vol. 32. 478 p.
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2006. Pl.ant Breeding Reviews Vol. 26. 383p
    • Jules Janick (editor), 2006. Plant Breeding Reviews Vol 27. 374p.


    Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

    Outputs
    The new apple release 'CrimsonCrisp', a red mid-September scab immune apple was licensed exclusively to Adams County Nurseries for US sales and US patent has been applied for. In 2005 the apple continued to perform well in Lafayette, Indiana, Ithaca, New York, and Cuneo, Italy. Releases are being negotiated with European nursery consortium. Future selections are being considered for advanced testing. The new pear, 'Ambrosia', large fruited, excellent quality and tolerant to fireblight has been licensed to Gardens Alive! Nursery, and patent protection is being sought. Performance was excellent in 2005 with large size and excellent quality. 'Adagio' new late-bolting arugula (Eruca sativa) is under test in Washington and Maine and PVP is being sought. Selection for late bolting in Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild arugula) was carried out in the greenhouse. An analysis of Renaissance art with special efforts on the ceiling of the Loggia of Cupid and Psyche in the Villa Farnesina in Rome has revealed information on genetic diversity and the diffusion of New World plants into Europe.

    Impacts
    The release of new disease resistant apple and pear could have an impact on fruit industry in the East and Midwest and need to be tested in the Pacific coast. The late blooming arugula (Eruca sativa) should promote this promising green which is so popular in Italy. Late blooming wild arugula (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) might make this new crop popular in the United States. The NewCROP website continues to be popular; requests were 16,490.584 with 7,307,875 pages downloaded as compared to 11,026,076 and 5,380,719 for 2003.

    Publications

    • Jules Janick (editor). 2005. Horticultural Reviews. Vol. 31. Wiley Press, New York.
    • Jules Janick (editor) 2005. Plant Breeding Reviews Vol. 25 Wiley Press, New York.
    • David Shupert, Aaron P. Smith, Jules Janick, Peter B. Goldsbrough, and Peter M. Hirst. 2004. Segregation of scab resistance in three apple populations: Molecular marker and phenotypic analyses. HortScience 39:1183-1184.
    • J.R.S. Ferreira and J. Janick. 2004. Allelopathic plants. XVI. Artemisia species. Allelopathy J. 14(2):167-176.
    • J. Janick. 2004. Genetic alterations associated with the origins of fruit culture. Acta Hort. 662 (2): 683-691.
    • Jules Janick. 2005. Cupid and Psyche: Fables and Festoons. Actas Portuguesas de Horticultura. V Congresso Iberico de Ciencias Horticolas. Vol 1. p. 3-13.
    • Jules Janick and G. Caneva. 2005. The first images of maize in Europe. Maydica 50(1):71-80.


    Progress 10/01/03 to 09/29/04

    Outputs
    An apple and a pear are being released and patent application is underway. The apple CrimsonCrisp is a red, very crisp, apple with very high quality that ripens in the middle of September. It has performed well in our experimental farm in Lafayette, and shows excellent performance in Ithaca, New York, Western Italy, and in France. It contains genetic resistance to scab, a serious disease of apple. CrimsonCrisp will be licensed to Adams County nursery. The new pear to be named Ambrosia is a very large pear with excellent quality, ripening in the middle of August with tolerance to fire blight. Ambrosia pear is being licensed to Gardens Alive Nursery. A germplasm exchange trip was completed in Italy for Eruca sativa (cultivated arugula) and Diplotaxix tenuifolia (wild arugula); a total of 83 accessions were obtained for the National Plant Germplasm System of the United States.

    Impacts
    An apple and a pear are being released and patent application is underway. The apple CrimsonCrisp is a red, very crisp, apple with very high quality that ripens in the middle of September. It has performed well in our experimental farm in Lafayette, and shows excellent performance in Ithaca, New York, Western Italy, and in France. It contains genetic resistance to scab, a serious disease of apple. The new pear to be named Ambrosia is a very large pear with excellent quality, ripening in the middle of August with tolerance to fire blight. The NewCROP Website continues to be popular and has received 11, 026, 076 requests for files and a total of 5,380, 719 pages for the year 2003.

    Publications

    • Publications Janick, Jules, and Irwin L. Goldman. 2003. Horticulture, horticultural science, and 100 years of ASHS. Centennial Issue. HortScience 38:883-900.
    • Jules Janick, Joseph C. Goffreda, and Schuyler S. Korban. 2004. Co-op 29 (Sundancetm) apple. HortScience 39:450-451
    • Jules Janick, Joseph C. Goffreda, Schuyler S. Korban. 2004. Co-op 33 (Pixie Crunchtm. Apple. HortScience 39:452-453.
    • Jules Janick. 2004. P448-2 (Green Jadetm) pear. HortScience 39:454-455.
    • Jules Janick. 2003. ISHS Communication: A Two Way Street. Chronica Horticulturae 43(2):3.
    • Jules Janick. 2003. History of Asian Horticultural Technology in Asia. p. 19-32. In: Jung-Myung Lee and Douglin Zhang (eds.), Asian Plants With Unique Horticultural Potential: Genetic Resources, Cultural Practices, And Utilization. XXVI International Horticultural Congresss. Acta Horticulturae 620.
    • Jules Janick. 2003. Foreword. p. 5-6. In: Jules Janick (ed.), Genetics and Breeding Of Tree Fruits And Nuts. A Proceedings of the XXVI International Horticultural Congress. Acta Horticulturae 622.
    • Jules Janick. 2004. Foreword. p. 10-11.In: James Curran. The Great American Apple Wizard; The Life And Times of Peter M. Gideon. Endeavor Pubolishinbg, Salisbury, MD.
    • Jules Janick (editor). 2004. Horticultual Reviews. Vol. 30. Wiley Press, New York
    • Jules Janick (editor) 2004. Plant Breeding Reviews Vol 24 Part I and Part II. Wiley Press, New York.


    Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

    Outputs
    Fruit Breeding: Two apples and one pear were released in 2003. Sundance (Co-op 29) is a late-season blushed yellow apple ripening 2-1/2 weeks after (Delicious). The fruit is large in size, attractive in appearance, and has outstanding spicy flavor and crisp texture. It contains the Vf gene for resistance to apple scab derived from Malus floribunda 821 and exhibits resistance to cedar apple rust and fireblight with moderate resistance to powdery mildew. Pixie Crunch (Co-op 33) is a midseason, high-quality, scab-immune (Vf) , red apple that has excellent appearance ripening a week before (Delicious). The fruit is small to medium in size and has a crisp texture with outstanding flavor that will appeal to children and adults alike. Green Jade (P448) is an early, productive large green/rusted pear with some tolerance to fireblight that ripens in August. The fruit is pleasant to eat either when firm or when soft when ripened and should be suitable for home gardens and farm markets. Specialty crops. Selection in arugula (Eruca sativa), has results in a number of lines that are very slow bolting. These lines have been tested in Indiana as well as Washington and have performed very well compared to commercial lines. One line to be named (Adagio) is under commercial trials. NewCrop Website. Our new crop website (www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop_ has been enriched with new information on crops and site specific information for 3,148 counties of the United States. Traffic is ever increasing and it is the most widely used crop website worldwide.

    Impacts
    Our new apples and pear are being commercialized by Gardens Alive! and will provide new fruits for Indiana and the Midwest. They should meet the demand for home owners and commercial fruit growers to produce high quality disease resistant cultivars. Slow bolting arugula will provide new opportunities for Indiana and Midwestern specialty crop growers. Our website is the premier website for obtaining information of crops with emphasis on new and specialty crops worldwide. At the end of 2003 the site received 10,538.565 requests (hits) and downloads of 5,340,101 pages. Our projections are that by the end of of 2003 we could achiever over 15 million hits and 7 million pages.

    Publications

    • Jules Janick and Anna Whipkey (Eds.). 2002. Trends in New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
    • A. Bergamini, J. Janick, A. White, A. Zeppa, L. Giongo (Eds.) 2002. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Apple Breeding for Scab Resisstance. Acta Horticulturae 595. L.Corelli-Grapadelli, J. Janick, S. Sansavini, M. Tagliavini, D. Sugar, A.D. Webster (Eds.). 2002 Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium in Pear. 2 vol. Acta Horticulturae 596
    • Jules Janick, (Ed.). 2003. Horticultural Reviews. volume 28 and 29.Wiley Press, New York
    • Jules Janick, (Ed,). 2003. Plant Breeding Reviews. volume 23, Wiley Press, New York
    • Jules Janick 2002. History of the PRI Apple Breeding Program. p. 55-59. In: A. Bergamini, J. Janick, A. White, A. Zeppa, L. Giongo (eds.), 2002. Proceedings of the International symposium on Apple Breeding for Scab Resistance. Acta Horticulturae 595.
    • Janick, Jules, 2003. Herbals: The connection between horticulture and medicine. HortTechnology 13:229-238,
    • Jules Janick, (Ed,). 2003. Genetics and Breeding of Tree Fruits and Nuts. Proceedings of the XXVI International Horticultural Congress. Acta Horticulturae 622. Jules Janick. 2002. The pear in history, literature, popular culture, and art. p. 41-42. In: L.Corelli-Grapadelli, J. Janick, S. Sansavini, M. Tagliavini, D. Sugar, A.D. Webster. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium in Pear. vol. 1. Acta Horticulturae 596
    • Mario Morales and Jules Janick 2002. Arugula: A promising specialty leaf vegetable. p.418-423. In; Jules Janick and Anna Whipkey (eds.), Trends in New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
    • Jules Janick 2002. Le nuove colture per il ventunesimo secolo. Annali Accademia Nazionale di Agricolturas. Italy.


    Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

    Outputs
    The Purdue Center for New Crops and Plant Products has developed an internet website called NewCROP (New Crops Resource Online Program) that can be accessed at http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop . NewCROP is a virtual encyclopedia of information and resources pertaining to crops composed of computer files and databases. This year the 94 papers presented at the New Crop Symposium held in Atlanta, Georgia on Nov 10-13, 2001, have organized into a book entitled Trends in New Crops and Plant Products and all of the papers will be available on this website under their respective crop. We have added information for Virginia on CropMAP, a system for providing site specific crop information. Two scab-resistant apples (`Pixie Crunch' and `Sundance') and a summer pear with fireblight tolerance (`Green Jade') have been released and licensed to Garden's Alive, a mail order nursery headquartered in Indiana.

    Impacts
    NewCROP is not the premier website source in the world for information on corps. In the past year it has served over 6 million requests (hits) and the graph of site traffic shows a continuous upward trend. The new releases (`Pixie Crunch' apple, Sundance' apple, and `Green Jade pear) will provide new options for homeowners and fruit growers in Indiana.

    Publications

    • Jules Janick (ed.) 2002. Horticultural Reviews. vol. 27, 381 p.
    • Jules Janick (ed,) 2002. Plant Breeding Reviews Vol. 21, 326 p.
    • S. Sansavini and J. Janick (eds.) 2002. Proc. Intl. Symp. Mediterranian Horticulture: Issues and Prospects. Acta Hort. 582.
    • Jules Janick. 2002. Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture. Acta Hort. 582
    • J.F.S. Ferreria and Jules Janick 2002. Production of artemisinin from in vitro cultures of Artemisia annua. p. 1-12. In: T. Nogata and Y. Ehizuka (eds.). Biotechnology in Horticulture and Forestry vol. 51. Medicinal and Aromatic plants XII. Springer-Verlag, Berlin


    Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

    Outputs
    The Purdue Center for New Crops and Plant Products has developed an internet website called NewCROP (New Crops Resource Online Program) that can be accessed at the URL [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop]. NewCROP is a virtual library of information and resources pertaining to crops. It is composed of computer files and databases accessible on the world wide web. In the past year we have enriched the website by additional fact sheets, greatly expanded links, and created a system for adding marketing information using the state of Indiana as a prototype. We have added Nebraska on CropMAP, a system for providing site specific crop information.

    Impacts
    NewCROP has become the previer website source in the world for information on crops. In the past year it has served over 4 million requests and the graph of site traffic shows a continuous upward trend.

    Publications

    • Janick, J. (editor) 2001. Horticultural Reviews Volume 25. Wiley, New York (287p).
    • Janick, J. (editor) 2001. Horticultural Reviews Volume 26. Wiley, New York (348p) .
    • Janick, J. (editor ) 2001. Plant Breeding Reviews Volume 19. Wiley, New York (306p).
    • Janick, J. (editor) 2001. Plant Breeding Reviews Volume 20 Wiley, New York (338p).
    • Janick, J. 2001. La peral nella storia, nella literatura, nella cultura popolare e nell'arte. Riv. Fruitticolturea e di Ortofloricoltura LXIII (2):63-70.
    • Janick, J. 2001. Pears in history, literature, popular culture, and art. Pome Fruit, Australia. May 16-17, June-July 19.


    Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

    Outputs
    The Purdue Center for New Crops and Plant Products has developed an internet website called NewCROP (New Crops Resource Online Program) that can be accessed at the URL [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop]. NewCROP is a virtual library of information and resources pertaining to crops. It is composed of computer files and databases accessible on the world wide web. In the past year we have created a site specific resource for new crops in each state of the United States that includes a county maps, extension links , and crop census information. A CropSELECT portion ( lists of traditional and recommended crops linked to local and general information for each crop) has been constructed for three states (Indiana, Oregon, and Missouri) and will be expanded to other states in 2001.

    Impacts
    NewCROP has become the premier website source in the world for information on crops. In the past year it has served over 2.4 million requests and the graph of site traffic shows a continuous upward trend.

    Publications

    • Janick, J. (editor) 2000. Horticultural Reviews. Volume 24. Wiley, New York (460p).
    • Janick, J. (editor) 2000. Plant Breeding Reviews Volume17 Wiley, New York (338p).
    • Janick, J. (editor) 2000. Plant Breeding Reviews Volume 18 Wiley, New York (323p).
    • Janick, J. C. Goffreda, and S. S. Korban 2000. `Co-op'15' (Scarlett O'Hara
    • Heiser, C. and J. Janick. 2000. Authorities for binomials: Necessary or pedantic? (Viewpoint) . HortScience 35:547. Janick, J. 1999, The search for new food resources. Plant Biotechnology 16(1)27-32.
    • Jules Janick 1999. New Crops and the Search for New Food Resources Korean J. Hort. Scie & Technology 17 (2)174-177.


    Progress 10/01/98 to 09/30/99

    Outputs
    Plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments in the School of Agriculture at Purdue University. Indiana hosted the technical committee meeting on the campus of Purdue University on June 28 and 29, 1999.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

    Outputs
    Indiana has no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 but plant introduction material is evaluated in various epartments on campus. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting of NC7 held on July 20-22, 1998 at Ames, Iowa. Purdue University will host the 1999 meeting. The 4th National New Crops Symposium will be held on November 8-11, 1998 in Phoenix, Arizona in combination with Purdue's Center for New Crops and Plant Products, the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops, and the New Uses Council.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • Granger, R.L. , S. Khanizadeh. Y. Graoleau, C.N. Fortin, J. Janick, J.C. Gofredda, and S.S. Korban. 1997. 'Primevere' apple. HortScience 32:331-332.
    • Jules Janick and James N. Moore (eds). 1996. Fruit Breeding (3 vol.). Wiley, New York
    • Jules Janick, James N. Cummins, Susan K. Brown, and Manou Hemmat 1996. Apples p. 1-77, In: J. Janick and J. N. Morre (eds.), Fruit Breeding. vol. 1. Tree and Tropical Fruits Wiley, New York.
    • J. F.S. Ferreira, James E. Simon, and Jules Janick 1996. Artemisia annua: Botany, Horticulture, Pharmacology. Horticultural Reviews 19: 314-371.
    • Jules Janick (ed.). 1996. Progress in new crops. ASHS Press, Alexandria VA.


    Progress 10/01/96 to 09/30/97

    Outputs
    Indiana has no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments on campus. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting of NC 7 held on June 23-24, 1997 held at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, Chanhassen, MN. A new crops symposium is being planned for November 8-10 to be held in Phoenix, Arizona in combination with Purdue's Center for New Crops and Plant Products, The Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops, the The New Uses Council.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications

    • No publications reported this period


    Progress 10/01/95 to 09/30/96

    Outputs
    There is no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 in Indiana but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments of the School of Agriculture at Purdue University.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/94 to 09/30/95

      Outputs
      There is no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 in Indiana but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments of the School of Agriculture at Purdue University. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting at the North Central Regional Plant Station at Ames, Iowa, on June 26 and 27, 1995.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 10/01/93 to 09/30/94

        Outputs
        There is no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 in Indiana but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments of the School of Agriculture at Purdue University. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting on June 22-23, 1994 at Peoria, Illinois at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research. Jules Janick, Purdue University, chaired the meeting.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 10/01/92 to 09/30/93

          Outputs
          There is no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 in Indiana but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments of the School of Agriculture at Purdue University. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting at the National Seed Storage Laboratory, Fort Collins, Colorado, on June 28 and 29, 1993 which was part of a joint meeting of the NC-7, NE-9, S-9, and W-6 Regional Technical Advisory Committees on Germplasm. Jules Janick was elected chairman for the 1994 annual meeting to be held at the USDA/ARS National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, Illinois at the end of June, 1994.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

            Outputs
            There is no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 in Indiana but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments on campus. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting at Ames, Iowa, July 23-24, 1992 and the Indiana representative was elected secretary.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 10/01/90 to 09/30/91

              Outputs
              There is no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 in Indiana but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments on campus. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting at Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin on August 22-23. Indiana organized the second national symposium entitled New Crops: Exploration, Research, Commercialization that was held in Indianapolis, Indiana on October 6-9, 1991.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 10/01/89 to 09/30/90

                Outputs
                There is no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 in Indiana but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments on campus. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting at The University of Nebraska in Lincoln on August 16-17, 1990.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 10/01/88 to 09/30/89

                  Outputs
                  There is no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 in Indiana but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments on campus. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa on August 17-18, 1989. The Proceedings of the First National Symposium on New Crops: Research, Development, Economics held on October 24-25, 1988 in Indianapolis will be published in 1990 by Timber Press entitled Advances in New Crops.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 10/01/87 to 09/30/88

                    Outputs
                    Indiana has no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments on campus. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting at Fort Collins, Colorado June 22-24, 1988. Indiana planned and hosted the First National Symposium on New Crops: Research, Development, Economics on October 24-25, 1988 in Indianapolis. The 3-day meeting highlighted research and development needs of new crops including germplasm resources with some 52 invited papers and 87 contributed poster presentations. The Proceedings will be published in 1989 by Timber Press.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                      Outputs
                      Indiana has no formal subproject contributing to the work of NC-7 but plant introduction material is evaluated in various departments on campus. Indiana participated in the technical committee meeting on July 27-29, Fairbanks and Palmer, Alaska. A fruit subcommittee meeting is planned for November at Orlando, Florida in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science. A new crops symposium is being planned for October 26-28, 1988 to be held in Indianapolis, Indiana.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                        Outputs
                        A total of 9 selections of apple (Malus sp.) with field immunity to apple scab were made in 1986. A clone of borage (Borago officinalis) was selected which continues to proliferate somatic embryos on semi-solid medium. Somatic embryos contain higher levels of gamma linolenic acid than embryogenic callus. The developmental sequence of embryogenesis and lipid biosynthesis was characterized in zygotic embryos. In vitro shoot proliferation of plum-yew (Cephalotaxus harringtonia) was optimized on basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/liter 2,4-D plus 10% coconut water on full strength Murashige and Skoog salts but there was no response to cytokinin (benzyladenine). In vitro propagated shoots of Artemisia annua were established ex vitro in soil. Somatic embryos were induced in immature zygotic embryos of cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflora) in response to 2,4-D plus coconut water.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                          Outputs
                          Thirty-two selections of pear (Pyrus spp) were made in 1984 and 21 additional clones were held for further evaluation. Two selections 448-2 (US 386 x N.J.#3) and 046-77 (N.J.#1 x Okusankichi) are considered promising from 2nd-test plantings and will be propagated for grower testing. Axillary branching of the cotyledonary node of cacao (Theobroma cacao) was induced by 6-benzylamino purine in vitro but these proliferated shoots did not grow or further proliferate when detached from cotyledons under a wide range of media or hormonal treatments. The induction of a sexual embryogeneis form embryogenically-competent callus was clone specific and increased as compared to basal medium by auxin, gibberellic acid, proline, nitrogen source, adenine sulfate, carbon source and concentration. Embryogenically-competent callus of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) has been selected from immature zygotic embryos. Proliferation via asexual embryogenesis is sustained with exposure to 2,4-D; embryos development proceeds when transferred to auxin-free medium. Development of asexual embryos is maximal on agar-gelled medium with sucrose increased to 9% with in vitro wax production averaging 19 mg per embryo at 12 weeks (18% gram dry weight) with some embryos reaching 214 mg (30% gram dry weight). In vitro propagation techniques have been established for Cuphea wrightii and Borage officinalis.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                            Outputs
                            A low percentage of asexual embryos of carrot (Daucuscarota) survived desiccation if encapsulated with Polyox, a synthetic, water-soluble resin. Hardening pretreatments applied to embryo suspensions before encapsulation (one-millionth M abscisic acid, high inoculum density, 12% sucrose, or chilling at 4 deg. C) increased survival but no synergism was found with ABA plus other hardening pretreatments. Polyox-coated embryo pretreated with ABA plus chilling and stored in darkness survived 16 days at 4 deg. C and 4 days at 26 deg. C. Asexual embryogenesis in cacao (Theobromacacao) from a pale yellow, friable callus occurred spontaneously from asexual embryos proliferated by hypocotylary budding. High concentrations of 2,4-D plus coconut water stimulated callus production and suppressed embryo initiation with maximum embryogenesis at one-thousandth to one-hundreth mg/liter 2,4-D. High concentrations of sucrose stimulated accumulation of storage lipids but not glucose, fructose, or glucose plus fructose. Asexual embryos of jojoba (Simmondsiachinensis) produced liquid wax in culture with maximum production at 9% sucrose. Tissue-cultured plantlets of vanilla (Vanillaplanifolia) were acclimatized in a medium of 3 parts milled redwood bark:1 part vermiculite with maintenance of high humidity. Shoot proliferation from axillary branching and leaf disc callus in cuphea (Cupheawrightii) were induced with Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/liter benzylamino purine.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                              Outputs
                              Four selections of pear (Pyrus sp.) were made in 1982. An analysis of fruiting seedlings derived from open pollination of the isolated original tree of 'Honeysweet' pear confirmed the occurrence of apomixis; of 50 seedlings now fruiting, only 5 showed clear evidence of genetic segretation. Apomixis in pear could be a valuable character for producing uniform rootstocks, for developing virus-free clones, or even for propagation providing juvenility is not a problem. In Vitro cultures of immature zygotic embryos of almond (Prunus amygdalus) produced globular structures but asexual embryogenesis could not be confirmed. Asexual embryogenesis was induced In Vitro from immature zygotic embryos of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and developing asexual embryos were confirmed by histological analysis, and in one case by germination; proliferating clones are under increase. In Vitro propagation of vanilla (Vanilla planifoliar) through axillary branching was achieved using a modified Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine at 0.5 mg./liter. Coating asexual embryos of carrot (Daucus carota) with a synthetic resin (Polyox at 2.5%) provided protection from desiccation. The successful development of artificial seedcoats for asexual embryos would make feasible In Vitro seed production.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                                Outputs
                                Fifteen selections of pear were made in 1981. Many selections resembling 'Honeysweet' were derived from seed set from isolated original tree suggesting possible apomixis. One selection of 'Bartlett' from previous X-ray treatment was selected that appears to have increased resistance to fireblight in repeated nursery inoculations and will be field tested. Immature developing embryos of pear (Pyrus communis), almond (Prunus amygdalus), jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) were cultured; asexual embryogenesis was obtained in jojoba and cacao. It was demonstrated that asexual embryos in cacao could be initiated from embryogenic callus in addition to hypocotylary budding and cotyledonary internal development. Flowering of dwarf pommegranate (Punica granatum) was induced under photoperiods of 8-24 hours of light but flowering was greatest under short days indicating that it is a quantitative (non-obligate) short day plant. A system was developed to produce consistent flowering in potted grape plants (Vitis virifera) by overwintering softwood cuttings. 'Aurora' grape sets fruit well under greenhouse conditions.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                                  Outputs
                                  Eighteen pear selections were made in 1980; a high-quality, attractive, crisp-flesh type was found that may have commercial potential. Induction of asexual embryos were attempted through tissue culture methods in pear (Pyrus communis), almond (Prunus amygdalus), cacao (Theobroma cacao), black pepper (Piper nigrum), and jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). One asexual embryo from 'Old Home' was obtained from either the nucellus or endosperm from 522 pear ovules cultured; however, the asexual embryo did not complete development. Bodies resembling asexual embryos were obtained from immature embryos of 'Nonpareil' almond but the frequency was low and an active proliferation stage was not obtained. Asexual embryos were obtained from zygotic embryos of cacao as previously observed but no evidence of asexual embryogenesis was obtained from callus derived from either zygotic embryos, leaf, or proliferating embryos (budding centers). No asexual embryogenesis was observed from cultured immature zygotic embryos in black pepper or jojoba. Immature asexual embryos of cacao precociously germinated (developed roots) only after soaking. The leachate from asexual non-germinating embryos inhibited lettuce seed germination. Alkaloid levels were determinative for a representative sample of cacao clones. Variation within and between clones for theobromine and caffeine was higher than variation for total alkaloids.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                    Outputs
                                    Three pear selections were made in 1979. An UV-irradiated clone of 'Bartlett' was selected which appears to possess increased resistance to fireblight infection caused by Erwinia amylvora. This clone will be retested in 1980. A computer program was written that allows fast tracing of pedigrees from a file of parentage records and which lists pedigrees either as: 1) a listing adapted to integration with another program which calculates inbreeding coefficients and coefficients of co-ancestry, or 2) a family "tree". No relationship was found between leaf pubescence of apple, Malus domestica Bork., and resistance to European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), evaluated from numbers of overwintering eggs in field-grown trees or from populations of mites on artificially infested leaves of "grower-made" dwarfed apple trees indicated that a satisfactory procedure is to graft dormant scions onto dwarfing rootstocks (2-part tree) with direct field planting in the spring. Small fruiting plants of various cultivars of grape were produced by rooting softwood cuttings under mist after fruit set in the field. Reflowering and subsequent fruit set was also observed when growth of cuttings resumed. A preliminary marketing study suggested fruiting grapes have potential as an ornamental pot or basket plant.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                                      Outputs
                                      Genetic and breeding analyses were made from the pear breeding records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A consistent negative association was observed between stem diameter, used as a measure of seedling vigor, and degree of inbreeding. However the mean level of inbreeding measure in the program was low. Estimates of heritabilities of fruit quality variables indicate h squared (additive genetic variance) to be 0.54 for grit, 0.52 for russet, 0.30 for texture, 0.21 for flavor, 0.18 for appearance, and 0.16 for total weighted quality score. Significant general and specific combining ability effects were observed for all traits. A system was developed for in vitro propagation in apple using a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with the cytokinin benzyladenine (BA) to achieve shoot proliferation. In vitro-proliferated shoots could be grafted to in vitro-grown seedlings or to proliferated shoots of dwarfing rootstocks when the proliferating media of 5 ppm BA was reduced to 1 ppm and supplemented without loss of proliferation capacity. In vitro flowering of Passiflora suberosa L. was shown to depend on cytokinin level, tissue locus, and light. Maximum in vitro flowering was obtained with stem tissue from the apex of the plant above the fifth node, with BA at 0.1 ppm in light. No evidence was found to support a relationship between European red mite and pubescence in apple clones or seedling progeny.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                        Outputs
                                        A method to graft seedlings grown under aseptic conditions has been developed and will be used to graft shoots increased by micropropagation techniquestonto seedling roots. The stunted growth of proliferated shoots grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing benzyladenine (BA) may be reversed by replacing BA with the cytokinin 2 isopentanyladenine. Flowering from Passiflora suberosa leaf discs under in vitro culture occurs in 40 days using M&S media supplemented with 2 ppm BA. The ability of leaf discs to produce flowers is highest in new leaves and rapidly decreases with leaf age with no flowering occurring beyond the fourth leaf. A pear selection 046-77 (NJ #1 x Okasankichi) with 'Kieffer' resistance to fireblight, crisp flesh, and early maturity is being propagated for advanced testing and possible release under the name 'Mikado.' Fourteen selections of 'Bartlett' with apparent resistance to fireblight have been selected from X irradiation. These selections have been propagated and will be retested for fireblight resistance in 1978 and 1979. A computer program that compiles pedigrees and calculated inbreeding coefficient has been prepared for the U.S. Department of Agriculture pear breeding program. A relationship between mite susceptibility and leaf pubescence has been verified in apple.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/76 to 12/30/76

                                          Outputs
                                          The growth and multiplication of excised shoots of apple and pear have been achieved using a modification Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine. The in vitro culture of apple and pear would have wide horticultural applications including rapid propagation, isolation of virus-free plants, germplasm preservation, and aids to plant improvement and physiological studies. We estimate that shoots can be double every 15 or 20 days. Callus production from leaf discs has been achieved with various Passiflora species (passion fruit) by tissue culture techniques and one species P. suberosa, readily flowers in culture after 40 days. A new system of somatic chromosome doubling and reduction in scented geranium (perlargonium spp.) was discovered. This system is operative from both callus by either in vitro or in vivo methods.Somatic doubling and reduction results in genetics segregation and represents analternative to sexual reproduction in plants. This technique should have broad implications especially as a means of obtaining segregation from sterile plants.Estimates of phenotypic values for resistance to fire blight in pear as well as combining ability (the ability to transmit fire blight resistance) were determined for 82 pear cultivars or selections from analysis of the breeding records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A pear selection Pr 117-1 (Th 7-230) having high quality and fireblight resistance was released under the name'Honeysweet' and will be distributed through

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/75 to 12/30/75

                                            Outputs
                                            The pear selection Pr 117-1 (Th 7-230) has been named 'Honeysweet' & is slated for release in 1976. 'Honeysweet' is a golden-russet, very high quality, Seckel-type pear with considerable blight resistance. Size is small (2-1/4 inches diameter) and it is being released for home garden and local sales. Analysis of USDA pear breeding records has indicated no genetic correlation between resistance to fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora and fruit quality.Heritability estimates of fire blight resistance was 0.52. Analysis of data from various species crosses suggest that sufficient resistance is available in Pyrus communis for considerable progress in pear improvement. The lack of genetic correlation between resistance and fruit quality and the resistance sources located within P. communis should greatly facilitate breeding progress. A study of tissue-culture variation in scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens)has produced a fertile polyploid clone derived from internal tissue of the sterile, chimeral, 'Rober's Lemon Rose.' The fertile "calliclone" has been released under the name 'Velvet Rose' and is the first varietal release from a tissue-culture program.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                              Outputs
                                              A method of chromosome reduction in strawberry has been established involving pollinations of octoploid strawberry (2n=56) by Potentilla anserina (2n=28). Surviving progeny are either vigorous octoploids (presumably doubled haploids) or tetrahaploids which are weak and slow growing. All tetrahaploids have been pollen and pistils sterile but can be propagated from runners. Intergeneric hybrids (2n=42) are sublethal when grown in soil and die before producing true leaves but such types remain viable in tissue culture using Nitsch and Nitsch medium. Variability of callus-derived clones (called calliclones) from geraniumwere found to be due to a combination of segregation for chimeral tissue in the parental clones, chromosome doubling in culture, and other causes, presumably mutation. Such results suggest that calliclones may a useful source of variation in asexually propagated crops particularly from old clones. A procedure has been developed to determine the additive contribution of pear cultivars in the transmission of blight resistance from random breeding records.This procedure will be used to analyze breeding records of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/73 to 12/30/73

                                                Outputs
                                                Polyhaploid strawberries (2n = 28, 4x) were obtained from crosses of octoploid strawberry (2n = 56, 8x) as the seed parent with pollen from Potentilla fruticosa cv. Goldrop (2n = 14, 2x) and P. anserina (2n = 28, 4x). In both cases, achene set is high but germination and seedling viability are low. Survivors are generally weak but appear superficially to be strawberry. Chromosome counts indicate that survivors from 8x strawberry x 4x P. anserina are haploids or octoploids, no intergeneric hybrids (2n = 42, 6x) have been found. Most of the survivors of 8x strawberry x 2x P. fruticosa are intergeneric hybrids (2n = 35, 5x) but at least one haploid and a few octoploidswere found. Octoploids are always vigorous and are presumably contaminants or doubled haploids. Strawberry polyhaploids should be useful for breeding and genetic studies. Higher fruit set and consequently a higher production of crossed seed was obtained from pollination of triploid apple (Coop 5, a high-quality selection) with pollen from diploid apples when a number of pollenswere mixed than when they were used separately. The effect was not observed with a diploid seed parent ("Priscilla"). This technique could increase the useof triploids in breeding. A high degree of variation was obtained in plants derived from aseptic culture of callus tissue of scented geranium (Pelargonium spp). This suggests that somatic cell culture might be a useful breeding methodfor asexually propagated plants, especially in old established cultivars where somatic variability is expected to be

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications


                                                  Progress 01/01/72 to 12/30/72

                                                  Outputs
                                                  Strawberry: Of ten Purdue selections tested for 2 years, Purdue 11-44 will be increased for naming in 1973. Forty-nine selections were made from 1971 seedlings populations. New USDA selections that seem promising from yield trials include Md. US 3364, SI US 169 and Md US 3816. Marlate is a promising late cultivar that will be recommended for Indiana. A method was developed for estimating berry size distribution from average berry weight of harvest samples;intercultivar variation is small. Analysis of callus from strawberry anthers from premeiotic stages to mature pollen stages were all sporophytic as in previous studies. Pear: A total of 5344 seed was obtained from controlled crosses and 2170 from open pollinated selections; 2176 seedlings were planted from crosses made in 1971 in a "fruiting" nursery. "Dawn" has been found to be a high quality, blight tolerant cultivar for Indiana but productivity is low.

                                                  Impacts
                                                  (N/A)

                                                  Publications


                                                    Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                                    Outputs
                                                    A technique has been developed for the production and maintenance of strawberry callus tissue in vitro. Seedlings derived from a series of intergeneric pollinations were shown to be contaminants; pollination studies with hermaphroditic and pistillate clones indicates that green cotyledon were isolated for use in detecting parthengenetic hyploids. In field trials, two selections, Md US 3364 and Stoplight, exhibited unusually high yields; Md US 3364 appears promising for single harvest. A method was developed to predict sequential total yield from a single harvest in strawberry. Six pear selectionswere made in 1970; the selection TH 7-230 continues promising and will be released for grower testing.

                                                    Impacts
                                                    (N/A)

                                                    Publications


                                                      Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                                      Outputs
                                                      Strawberry: Callus production from strawberry anthers was shown to be sporophytic in origin. A technique was developed to induce root formation from strawberry callus in vitro. Two yield trials fruited in 1970 with 2 entries, Guardian and Md US 3364, very promising for Indiana. Two new selections were made; 10 advanced selections will be sent out for wide testing in 1971. The selection Purdue #3 slated for release was withdrawn because of poor performancein 1970. Pear: A total of 3331 seed from crosses and open pollinations were stratified; 4400 seedlings from 1969 crosses were field planted for fireblight screening. Fireblight screening in fruiting nursery was continued by needle inoculation for seedlings field planted in 1967, 1968 and 1969. Sixteen selections were made on the basis of fruit evaluation. The 1967 selection TH 7-230 (Seckel x US 220) continues promising.

                                                      Impacts
                                                      (N/A)

                                                      Publications


                                                        Progress 01/01/69 to 12/30/69

                                                        Outputs
                                                        STRAWBERRY: Tissue culture of pollen produced callus; organ differentiation from this callus would make it possible to produce haploids, a valuable breedingtool. A study of an apparent nonbranching inflorescence demonstrated it to be acompressed, vasal-branching, inflorescence with normal sequential development. Two yield trials fruited in 1969 indicating high yield capacity of Midway and Redcoat and good performance of US 3184. Ten new selections were made in 1969; 8 of 89 1968 selections were transferred to 1970 yield trials; one 1965 selection has been increased for wide grower test as Purdue #3. PEAR: Crosses made in 1969 in Indiana and New Jersey produced 10,007 seed. A total of 4517 seedlings from 1968 crosses were field planted for fireblight screening. Screening of seedlings and selection were continued; an imputed fireblight resistant strain of Bartlett (Spain Bartlett) was shown to be susceptible. Twelve selections were made in 1969. One 1967 selection (TH 7-230 = Seckel x US220) continued promising in fireblight and quality evaluation and will be released for grower testing.

                                                        Impacts
                                                        (N/A)

                                                        Publications