Source: WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY submitted to
SOIL SURVEY WORK IN WEST VIRGINIA
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0032574
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
WVA00008
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 17, 1930
Project End Date
Jan 1, 2019
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Thompson, J. A.
Recipient Organization
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY
PO BOX 6108
MORGANTOWN,WV 26506
Performing Department
PLANT & SOIL SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
Soil survey maps are used in many types of planning for agriculture production to industrial development. Counties in West Virginia are being remapped on a regular schedule. It is important that maps be accurate and up-to-date.
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
1020199203050%
1020199206050%
Goals / Objectives
Conduct soil surveys of each county in State and to publish suitable reports andmaps of data.
Project Methods
Standard procedures in cooperation with Federal Agency will be used.

Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: The target audiences reached during this reporting period include (i) professional soil scientists working in West Virginia and surrounding states, (ii) colleagues at other land grant universities, and students (undergraduate and graduate) at West Virginia University. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Two graduate research assistants and one student employee received training and mentorship through participation in the research efforts related to this project. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Descriptions of ongoing work and selected results have been presented at meetings and workshops at regional, national, and international levels. The specific meetings and professional conferences where the findings from these soil survey projects have been disseminated included (i) the 2013 National Cooperative Soil Survey Conference, Annapolis, MD, June 16-20, 2013; (ii) the GlobalSoilMap Conference 2013, Orleans, France, 7-9 October, 2013; (iii) the 2013 American Society of Agronomy-Crop Science Society of America-Soil Science Society of America International Annual Meetings, Tampa, FL, November 3-6, 2013; and (iv) the NRCS-WV Soil Partnership Meeting, December 13, 2013. The results and implications of these research efforts were communicated directly to interested parties, such as soil scientists with the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDA-Forest Service. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Effort will continue on all project objectives. Current graduate students are expected to progess on their research projects and new students will be recruited to begin new research projects in support of this project. Field work, laboratory analyses, and geospatial modeling will be employed.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The outcomes of this project have been to increase geospatial knowledge regarding the soil resources of the US at local, regional, and continental scales. By advancing our understanding of soil use and management practices at all scales, the new soil data products we are developing will better inform and guide decision making by the research community and the public. With study areas in both West Virginia and Arizona, conventional soil maps were disaggregated to a digital soil series maps with no new field observations. In addition to soil series predictions, we also reported spatial estimates of uncertainty for updated maps. Overall, the results of this project yielded a repeatable methodology for updating and harmonizing conventional soil maps. In a related effort, it was shown that legacy data from the United States that includes low and high property estimates can be used to represent uncertainty in the form of prediction intervals. Coverage based on these methods was shown to be approximately 90% for soil C, clay content, and pH. Consistency of these intervals was demonstrated for six separate soil depth increments and across a variety of soil orders, temperature regimes, and moisture regimes.

Publications

  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Helmick, J.L., T.W. Nauman, and J.A. Thompson. 2013. Developing and assessing prediction intervals for soil property maps derived from legacy databases. Proceedings of the GlobalSoilMap Conference 2013, Orleans, France, 7-9 October, 2013. [CD-ROM]
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2014 Citation: Nauman, T.W., and J.A. Thompson. 2014. Semi-Automated Disaggregation of Conventional Soil Maps using Knowledge Driven Data Mining and Classification Trees. Geoderma, 213:385-399. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.08.024
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Awaiting Publication Year Published: 2014 Citation: Libohova, Z., S. Wills, N.P. Odgers, R. Ferguson, R.F. Nesser, J.A. Thompson, L.T. West, J.W. Hempel. 2014. Converting pH 1:1 H2O and 1:2 CaCl2 to 1:5 H2O to contribute to a harmonized global soil database. Geoderma, 213:544-550. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.08.019
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Accepted Year Published: 2014 Citation: Nauman, T.W., J.A. Thompson, and C. Rasmussen. Semi-Automated Disaggregation of a Conventional Soil Map using Knowledge Driven Data Mining and Random Forests in the Sonoran Desert, USA. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2013 Citation: Roecker, S.M. 2013. Solving for y: digital soil mapping using statistical models and improved models of land surface geometry. M.S. thesis. West Virginia University, Morgantown.


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Descriptions of ongoing work and selected results have been presented at meetings and workshops at regional, national, and international levels. The specific meetings and professional conferences where the findings from these soil survey projects have been disseminated included (i) 5th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping, Sydney, Australia, April 10-13, 2012; (ii) 2012 Northeast Regional Cooperative Soil Survey Conference, Orono, ME, June 18-21, 2012; (iii) 2012 American Society of Agronomy-Crop Science Society of America-Soil Science Society of America International Annual Meetings, Cincinnati, OH, October 21-24, 2012; and (iv) the NRCS-WV Soil Survey Staff Meeting, December 6, 2012. The results and implications of these research efforts were communicated directly to interested parties, such as soil scientists with the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDA-Forest Service. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators on these projects have included numerous soil scientists and specialists with the USDA-NRCS in West Virginia and the USDA-Forest Service. Input and assistance was also received from soil scientists and other specialists with the USDA-NRCS-National Soil Survey Center Geospatial Research Unit in Morgantown, WV. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
In efforts to create more detailed raster soil maps in areas with sparse point data, legacy soil maps are often the main source of soil-landscape information. In the United States, the Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database has been the most detailed and widely available data source for these purposes. SSURGO is published as a vector map product with an associated report and database. Each map unit has one to four soil components present that usually that have soil property data attributed to them. Problems arise because of spatial aggregation of these components, qualitative methods of property estimation, and lack of a description of transitions between soil components. However, descriptions of component soil-landscape relationships are published in SSURGO databases and manuscripts. These descriptions relate component soils to terrain positions, parent materials, vegetation, and other soil forming environmental factors. These descriptions can provide the framework to break apart these map units into raster maps of soil components, which may then be translated into soil property maps. Expert rule sets and fuzzy membership methods were used to model components and transitions spatially to help model properties in a more continuous manner. Results in a 388,000 ha region spanning two counties of West Virginia show that SSURGO disaggregation can helped improve unrealistic hard breaks in property maps and improve estimates of carbon storage at a watershed scale, but lacks the ability to predict soil properties at field scale mapping.

Publications

  • Grunwald, S., J.A. Thompson, B. Minasny, and J.L. Boettinger. 2012. Digital soil mapping in a changing world. In B. Minasny, B.P. Malone, and A.B. McBratney (Eds.), Digital Soil Assessments and Beyond: Proceedings of the 5th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping 2012, Sydney, Australia. CRC Press, New York. p. 301-305.
  • Hempel, J.W., Libohova, N.P. Odgers, J.A. Thompson, S. Smith, and G.W. Lelyk. 2012. Versioning of GlobalSoilMap.net raster property maps for the North American Node. In B. Minasny, B.P. Malone, and A.B. McBratney (Eds.), Digital Soil Assessments and Beyond: Proceedings of the 5th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping 2012, Sydney, Australia. CRC Press, New York. p. 429-433.
  • Libohova, Z., S. Wills, J.W. Hempel, N.P. Odgers, and J.A. Thompson. 2012. Using Pedotransfer functions for estimating soil pH and bulk density at regional scale. In B. Minasny, B.P. Malone, and A.B. McBratney (Eds.), Digital Soil Assessments and Beyond: Proceedings of the 5th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping 2012, Sydney, Australia. CRC Press, New York. p. 313-316.
  • Nauman, T.W., J.A. Thompson, N.P. Odgers, and Z. Libohova. 2012. Fuzzy disaggregation of conventional soil maps using database knowledge extraction to produce soil property maps. In B. Minasny, B.P. Malone, and A.B. McBratney (Eds.), Digital Soil Assessments and Beyond: Proceedings of the 5th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping 2012, Sydney, Australia. CRC Press, New York. p. 203-207.
  • Odgers, N. P., J.A. Thompson, Z. Libohova, and A.B. McBratney. 2012. Uncertainty estimation for weighted-means digital soil maps. In B. Minasny, B.P. Malone, and A.B. McBratney (Eds.), Digital Soil Assessments and Beyond: Proceedings of the 5th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping 2012, Sydney, Australia. CRC Press, New York. p. 179-184.
  • Thompson, J A., T.W. Nauman, N.P. Odgers, Z. Libohova, and J.W. Hempel. 2012. Harmonization of legacy soil maps in North America: Status, trends, and implications for digital soil mapping efforts. In B. Minasny, B.P. Malone, and A.B. McBratney (Eds.), Digital Soil Assessments and Beyond: Proceedings of the 5th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping 2012, Sydney, Australia. CRC Press, New York. p. 97-102.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Descriptions of ongoing work and selected results have been presented at meetings and workshops at regional, national, and international levels. The specific meetings and professional conferences where the findings from these soil survey projects have been disseminated included (i) 2011 American Society of Agronomy-Crop Science Society of America-Soil Science Society of America International Annual Meetings, San Antonio, TX, October 16-19, 2011; (ii) the GlobalSoilMap.net North America Node Meeting, October 24-27, 2011; and (iii) the NRCS-WV Soil Survey Staff Meeting, December 15, 2011. The results and implications of these research efforts were communicated directly to interested parties, such as soil scientists with the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDA-Forest Service. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators on these projects have included numerous soil scientists and specialists with the USDA-NRCS in West Virginia and the USDA-Forest Service. Input and assistance was also received from soil scientists and other specialists with the USDA-NRCS-National Soil Survey Center Geospatial Research Unit in Morgantown, WV. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Digital soil mapping is a rapidly growing area of soil research that has great potential for advancing soil survey activities, and knowledge of soil-landscape relationships. In the United States, the State Soil Geographic Overlay (STATSGO2) database is the only source of spatial soil information that provides continuous coverage for the entire country. This database uses polygon features to represent areas that consist of multiple component soil types. For each soil type, the database stores estimated soil properties for discrete soil horizons. However, it is often it is necessary to estimate the values of soil properties at prescribed depth ranges instead of by natural horizons. We applied the equal-area spline function to the soil components of STATSGO2 map units to obtain estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) content at standard depth increments (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-100, and 100-200 cm). Using these estimates, we calculated the weighted mean of SOC for each STATSGO2 map unit at each depth increment and gridded these weighted means at 100 m resolution for the contiguous United States. The result is a set of maps of SOC content for each depth increment accompanied by an indication of the within-map unit variability. In addition, we show how the use of other "metadata maps" is essential for avoiding misunderstandings about reported values and discuss some of the limitations of the approach.

Publications

  • Grunwald S., J.A. Thompson, and J.L. Boettinger. 2011. Digital soil mapping and modeling at continental scales--finding solutions for global issues. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. (SSSA 75th Anniversary Special Paper) 75(4): 1201-1213.


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Descriptions of ongoing work and selected results have been presented at meetings and workshops at regional, national, and international levels. The specific meetings and professional conferences where the findings from these soil survey projects have been disseminated included (i) 4th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping, Rome, Italy, May 24-26, 2010; (ii) 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Brisbane, Australia, 1-6 August, 2010; and (iii) the NRCS-WV Soil Survey Staff Meeting, December 9, 2010. The results and implications of these research efforts were communicated directly to interested parties, such as soil scientists with the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDA-Forest Service. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators on these projects have included numerous soil scientists and specialists with the USDA-NRCS in West Virginia and the USDA-Forest Service. Input and assistance was also received from soil scientists and other specialists with the USDA-NRCS-National Soil Survey Center Geospatial Research Unit in Morgantown, WV. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Digital soil mapping is a rapidly growing area of soil research that has great potential for advancing soil survey activities, and knowledge of soil-landscape relationships. Major work has been concentrated on two areas: (i) development of preliminary map products derived from gridded versions of the STATSGO and SSURGO databases for the properties as specified by GlobalSoilMap.net project, and (ii) pilot projects for generating raster continuous soil maps based on terrain attributes. Work commenced on the development of the US component of GlobalSoilMap.net utilizing existing STATSGO data and consists of weighted-means maps of the target soil properties for each of the six depth increments of interest. For each STATSGO map unit component, soil properties at the specified depth increments are estimated using the equal-area spline algorithm developed at The University of Sydney. To date weighted-means maps of soil pH and organic carbon percentage have been produced. Work continues on generating maps of percent silt, sand, clay and coarse fragments for the six depth increments (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-100, and 100-200 cm). The resolution of the generated maps is 100 m inherited from gridded STASGO and SSURGO and will be resampled at 90 m according to GlobalSoilMap.net project specifications. Methods of developing maps of error/variance of target soil properties within each map unit, at each depth increment, are being investigated. The work on spatial disaggregation for development of continuous soil property maps has been directed to three pilot projects based on USDA Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA). Major foci of investigation have included (i) methods of partitioning of the landscape into "rulesheds" for soil-landscape rule development and implementation, and (ii) methods of amalgamating multiple soil series into groups of relatively similar soils for the purpose of disaggregation. Several methods have been used to partition the landscape due to the distinct terrain and geomorphology features of pilot areas. The soil class amalgamation is being conducted based on "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches. The "top-down" approach stratifies soils map units and soil components based on soil taxonomy. The Euclidian distance matrix is used to quantify the taxonomic distance between soil map units and soil components resulting in their grouping. The "bottom-up" approach is based on geomorphic position and the Euclidian distance matrix is used to quantify the distance. The process is further refined by using soil map unit descriptions from Soil Survey manuals and Official Series Descriptions to establish the relationships between different components or series in order to group them (correlation process). The completion if this stage will lead to the development of quantitative soil-terrain attributes relationships for the generation of fuzzy class membership maps necessary for the production of continuous raster soil property maps.

Publications

  • Thompson, J.A., T.M. Prescott, A.C. Moore, J.W. Bell, D. Kautz, J. Hempel, S.W. Waltman, and C.H. Perry. Regional Approach to Soil Property Mapping using Legacy Data and Spatial Disaggregation Techniques. Proceedings of the 4th Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping, Rome, Italy, May 24-26, 2010. [CD-ROM]
  • Thompson, J.A., T. Prescott, A.C. Moore, J. Bell, D. Kautz, J. Hempel, S.W. Waltman, and C.H. Perry. 2010. Regional approach to soil property mapping using legacy data and spatial disaggregation techniques. Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Brisbane, Australia, 1-6 August, 2010. [Available at: http://www.iuss.org/19th%20WCSS/symposium/pdf/2024.pdf]


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Descriptions of ongoing work and selected results have been presented at meetings and workshops at regional, national, and international levels. The specific meetings and professional conferences where the findings from these soil survey projects have been disseminated included (i) the American Society of Agronomy-Crop Science Society of America-Soil Science Society of American Annual Meetings in Pittsburgh, PA, November 1-4, 2009; (ii) NRCS MLRA Region 13 Soil Survey Field Week in Fayette County, WV, June 1-5, 2009; (iii) the GlobalSoilMap.net Workshop in Morgantown, WV, May 18, 2009; and (iv) the NRCS-WV Soil Survey Staff Meeting, December 11, 2009. The results and implications of these research efforts were communicated directly to interested parties, such as soil scientists with the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDA-Forest Service. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators on these projects have included numerous soil scientists and specialists with the USDA-NRCS in West Virginia and the USDA-Forest Service. Input and assistance was also received from soil scientists and other specialists with the USDA-NRCS National Geospatial Development Center in Morgantown, WV. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Digital soil mapping is a rapidly growing area of soil research that has great potential for advancing soil survey activities, and knowledge of soil-landscape relationships. Current activities in support of soil survey work in West Virginia emphasize the study of a regional approach to soil property mapping using legacy data and spatial disaggregation techniques. Current regional and national estimates of soil properties for the USA, such as organic carbon (SOC) storage or root zone available water capacity (AWC), are based on analysis of soil maps developed at a small scale and using methods that have considerable uncertainty. Recent improvements in the availability of detailed digital soils data, as well as computing capacity to handle large spatial data sets and statistical approaches to incorporate existing data in various formats, provide an opportunity to develop more detailed and accurate estimates of soil properties. Our objective is to improve the accuracy and precision of regional and national soil property estimates using spatial disaggregation techniques that combine detailed soil class maps with spatial data on environmental covariates such as topography and geology to discern the spatial distribution, variability, and extent of component soils--and the associated soil properties--within soil map units. A regional approach is employed based on recognized major land resource areas (MLRA), which are expected to have relatively consistent soil-landscape relationships. Two map units of large extent in the southern portion of the Eastern Allegheny Plateau and Mountains (MLRA 127) provided an illustration of the disaggregation approach to produce raster-based, landscape-scale maps of SOC. The disaggregated data identifies locations of component soils within soil class map units, depicting the spatial distribution of soils with higher and lower SOC stocks instead of using an average SOC value for the entire extent of a soil map unit. For this example, the disaggregated data predicted 6% higher average SOC content compared to the published soil class map data. The application of this research has great potential for advancing soil survey activities and knowledge of quantitative soil-landscape relationships, primarily through the development of strategies for incorporating quantitative spatial procedures into soil survey methods. In the next generation of soil survey updates for West Virginia, the availability of digital elevation models, particularly those at fine resolutions, provides the base to apply terrain regressions that describe the functional relationships of terrain characteristics (e.g., elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, slope curvature) to soil physical and chemical properties, soil classes, and soil climate characteristics. In particular, the methodologies used are able to successfully identify soil-landscape relationships at the watershed scale using a relatively small number of samples.

Publications

  • Thompson JA, TM Prescott, AC Moore, JW Bell, CH Perry. 2009. A Regional Approach to Soil Organic Carbon Inventory using Legacy Data and Pedometric Techniques. In Abstracts of the ASA-CSSA-SSSA 2009 International Meetings (November 1-5, 2009) Pittsburtgh, PA. ASA, Madison, WI. [CD-ROM]


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Descriptions of ongoing work and selected results have been presented at meetings and workshops at regional, national, and international levels. The specific meetings and professional conferences where the findings from these soil survey projects have been disseminated included (i) the American Society of Agronomy-Crop Science Society of America-Soil Science Society of American Annual Meetings in Houston, TX, October 5-9, 2008; (ii) the 3rd Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping in Logan, UT, September 30-October 3, 2008; (iii) the 1st International Conference on Hydropedology in State College, PA, July 28-31, 2008; (iv) the Northeast Regional Cooperative Soil Survey Conference, Narragansett, RI, June 2-5, 2008; (v) the NRCS MLRA Region 13 Soil Survey Field Week in Fayette County, WV, April 28-May 2, 2008; and (vi) the USDA-NRCS Major Land Resource Area Office Leaders Meeting, Morgantown, WV, August 19, 2008. The results and implications of these research efforts are were communicated directly to interested parties, such as soil scientists with the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDA-Forest Service. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators on these projects have included numerous soil scientists and specialists with the USDA-NRCS in West Virginia and the USDA-Forest Service. Input and assistance was also received from soil scientists and other specialists with the USDA-NRCS National Geospatial Development Center in Morgantown, WV. TARGET AUDIENCES: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Digital soil mapping is a rapidly growing area of soil research that has great potential for advancing soil survey activities, and knowledge of soil-landscape relationships. Current activities in support of soil survey work in West Virginia include (i) soil property mapping using legacy data and pedometric techniques, and (ii) examination of scale effects on terrain attribute calculation and their use as environmental covariates for digital soil mapping. Work is being conducted to create detailed soil property maps across the Northeast and North Central United States by developing generalized models using both point and polygon data sources. Point measures are derived from NRCS Soil Survey Division pedon data and Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program sample data. Polygon data come from the NRCS US General Soil Map (US GSM, or STATSGO2) and the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO). Various pedometric techniques, such as multivariate linear regression and regression trees, are used to develop statistical models from point data and complementary environmental covariate data. Soil property predictions from polygon data are generated using measure-and-multiply approaches and spatial disaggregation techniques using environmental covariates. These two spatial predictions are combined to produce raster soil property maps. Current studies on the effects of scale on terrain attributes include evaluation of systematic effects of varying both grid and neighborhood size on terrain attributes computed from high-resolution DEM, and examination of how the correlations between soil and terrain attributes vary with neighborhood size, so as to provide an empirical measure of what neighborhood size may be most appropriate. Results suggest that the overall representation of the land surface by terrain attributes is specific to the land surface, but also that the terrain attributes vary independently in response to spatial extent over which they are computed. Results also indicate that finer grid sizes are more sensitive to the scale of terrain attribute calculation than larger grid sizes. The application of this research has great potential for advancing soil survey activities and knowledge of quantitative soil-landscape relationships, primarily through the development of strategies for incorporating quantitative spatial procedures into soil survey methods. In the next generation of soil survey updates for West Virginia, the availability of digital elevation models, particularly those at fine resolutions, provides the base to apply terrain regressions that describe the functional relationships of terrain characteristics (e.g., elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, slope curvature) to soil physical and chemical properties, soil classes, and soil climate characteristics. In particular, the methodologies used are able to successfully identify soil-landscape relationships at the watershed scale using a relatively small number of samples.

Publications

  • Hempel, J.W, R.D. Hammer, A.C. Moore, J.C. Bell, J.A. Thompson, and M.L. Golden. 2008. Challenges to digital soil mapping. In A.E. Hartemink, A.B. McBratney, and M.L. Mendonca-Santos (eds.), Digital soil mapping with limited data. Developments in Soil Science series. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 81-90.
  • Prescott, T.M., J.A. Thompson, W.J. Waltman, and T.A. Craul. 2008. Thinking Inside the (Tool) Box: Geomorphometric Analysis for the Soil Survey Update of Potter County, Pennsylvania. Soil Survey Horizons, 49:68-74.
  • Roecker, S.M. and J.A. Thompson. 2008. Scale Effects on Terrain Attribute Calculation and their Use as Environmental Covariates for Digital Soil Mapping. Proceedings of the 3rd Global Workshop on Digital Soil Mapping in Logan, UT, September 30-October 3, 2008.
  • Thompson, J.A., C. Perry, S. DeGloria, T. Prescott, and A. Moore. 2008. Soil Property Mapping using Legacy Data and Pedometric Techniques: A Case Study Approach. In Abstracts of the ASA-CSSA-SSSA 2008 International Meetings (October 5-9, 2008) Houston, TX. ASA, Madison, WI. [CD-ROM]


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
Digital soil mapping is a rapidly growing area of soil research that has great potential for advancing soil survey activities, and knowledge of soil-landscape relationships. An ongoing study in the Upper Gauley watershed of the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia uses emerging digital soil mapping techniques to represent soil-forming factors for the purpose of quantitatively modeling the distribution of soil properties. Throughout the watershed of study, which is approximately 82,500 acres, 97 sites were sampled using a stratified-random design. At each site a soil pit was excavated and described to 140 cm or bedrock, with grab samples collected from each horizon. To generate the spatial models, generalized linear models were used, with terrain parameters, Landsat TM+ band ratios, National Land Cover Dataset, and geology as the soil covariates. Results of this study indicate that the distribution of surface and subsurface rock fragments can be successfully modeled, while other physical and morphological properties were unsuccessful. For example, soil particle size, carbon content, depth to depletion, extractable Al and Fe showed no relationship to the environmental covariates. Among the various environmental covariates, surface curvatures show stronger environmental correlations when calculated over larger spatial extents. Meaningful soil-landscape relationships can be spatially predicted at the meso-scale , although the strength of these relationships may be constrained by the landscapes' inherent heterogeneity and inadequate environmental covariates. The modeled spatial distribution of rock fragments indicates a greater range of variation across the mountain hillslopes than the published soil survey, and may be used as a knowledge base to infer other soil-landscape relationships. The use of geomorphometric analysis to investigate and define complex soil-landscape-climate relationships is being examined as part of a soil survey update. Geospatial tools, databases, and expert knowledge are being used to build geomorphometric rule structures for that will guide investigation and mapping of two soil series--Nolo and Germania, in the process of updating an older soil survey in Potter County, PA. The goal of this research is to develop and apply a set of geomorphometric rules that facilitate the update process. The results of this research are leading to the identification of mapping inconsistencies in soil-climate-landscape relationships in the original soil survey of Potter County. The resulting geomorphometric rules may be transportable such that they can be used to guide the amendment of the mapping inconsistencies in adjoining soil survey areas. Research is continuing to determine the optimal ranges of values for geomorphometric parameters and their combinations.

Impacts
The application of this research has great potential for advancing soil survey activities and knowledge of quantitative soil-landscape relationships, primarily through the development of strategies for incorporating quantitative spatial procedures into soil survey methods. In the next generation of soil survey updates for West Virginia, the availability of digital elevation models, particularly those at fine resolutions, provides the base to apply terrain regressions that describe the functional relationships of terrain characteristics (e.g., elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, slope curvature) to soil physical and chemical properties, soil classes, and soil climate characteristics. In particular, the methodologies used are able to successfully identify soil-landscape relationships at the watershed scale using a relatively small number of samples. However, when developing multivariate statistical soil-landscape models, our results indicate that including terrain attributes calculated at different scales can improve the quality of statistical models.

Publications

  • Hempel, J. and J.A. Thompson. 2007. Globalsoilmap.net Producing Soil Property Information for the World. In Abstracts of the ASA-CSSA-SSSA 2007 International Meetings (November 4-8, 2007) New Orleans, LA. ASA, Madison, WI. [CD-ROM]
  • Moore, A., D. Kautz, J. Hempel, J.A. Thompson, J. Burt, C. Rasmussen, and A. Zhu. 2007. The Natural Resources Conservation Service's Digital Soil Mapping Challenge. In Abstracts of the ASA-CSSA-SSSA 2007 International Meetings (November 4-8, 2007) New Orleans, LA. ASA, Madison, WI. [CD-ROM]
  • Moore, A., B. Slater, J.A. Thompson, J. Galbraith, and D. Howell. 2007. Announcing the Formation of a Digital Soil Mapping Working Group in the United States. In Abstracts of the ASA-CSSA-SSSA 2007 International Meetings (November 4-8, 2007) New Orleans, LA. ASA, Madison, WI. [CD-ROM]
  • Roecker, S.M., and J.A. Thompson. 2007. Soil Spatial Prediction using Multi-scale Terrain Analysis in the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia. In Abstracts of the ASA-CSSA-SSSA 2007 International Meetings (November 4-8, 2007) New Orleans, LA. ASA, Madison, WI. [CD-ROM]


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Work has continued on three projects in support of soil survey activities. The first ("Digital Soil Mapping in the Upper Gauley Watershed on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia") uses emerging digital soil mapping techniques to represent soil-forming factors for the purpose of quantitatively modeling the distribution of soil properties and classes. The spatial distribution of soil properties (soil depth, drainage class, presence/absence of fragipans) and soil series is being modeled across an 82,500 acre watershed using multivariate statistical analyses. The most successfully predicted soil physical properties are percent rock fragments on the surface and in the profile. The digital soil maps generated by these methods suggest a greater range in variation across these mountain hillslopes than is depicted by published soil survey maps. This research also examines the effects of the scale of analysis influences terrain attributes calculated from digital elevation models and resulting soil-landscape relationships. Results indicate that as lag distance increases, calculated slope gradients decrease (become less steep) and curvatures approach zero (become flatter), with statistically significant differences in terrain attribute distributions in all cases. Correlation coefficients between terrain attributes and selected soil properties are also sensitive to the scale of calculation. Slope gradient is most correlated with selected soil properties at shorter lag distances. Slope curvature is always most correlated with selected soil properties at lag distances greater than 10 m. A second project ("Soil Climate Regimes of West Virginia") is being conducted to better understand the complex mosaic of soil moisture and temperature conditions in West Virginia. A terrain regression modeling approach was coupled with the Newhall Simulation Model to generate surfaces of soil temperature and moisture regimes, soil biological windows, and agroclimatic parameters (growing degree-days, frost-free period, and temperature minima). Results indicate that cryic temperature regimes and perudic moisture regimes are present in West Virginia, particularly at the highest elevations in the state. More extensive areas of frigid temperatures are also present. A third project ("Geomorphometric Analysis for the Soil Survey Update of Potter County, Pennsylvania") examines the roles of geospatial technology to investigate and define complex soil-landscape-climate relationships as part of soil survey updates. Geospatial tools, databases, and expert knowledge are being used to build geomorphometric rule structures for that will guide investigation and mapping of two soil series--Nolo and Germania, in the process of updating an older soil survey in Potter County, PA.

Impacts
The application of this research has great potential for advancing soil survey activities and knowledge of quantitative soil-landscape relationships, primarily through the development of strategies for incorporating quantitative spatial procedures into soil survey methods. In the next generation of soil survey updates for West Virginia, the availability of digital elevation models, particularly those at fine resolutions, provides the base to apply terrain regressions that describe the functional relationships of terrain characteristics (e.g., elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, slope curvature) to soil physical and chemical properties, soil classes, and soil climate characteristics. In particular, the methodologies used are able to successfully identify soil-landscape relationships at the watershed scale using a relatively small number of samples. However, when developing multivariate statistical soil-landscape models, our results indicate that including terrain attributes calculated at different scales can improve the quality of statistical models.

Publications

  • Prescott, T.M., J.A. Thompson, J.C. Sencindiver, W.J. Waltman, D.A. Miller, S.G.Carpenter, and S.W. Waltman. 2006. Soil Climate Regimes of West Virginia. In Abstracts of the 2006 World Congress of Soil Science (July 9-15, 2006) Philadelphia, PA. [CD-ROM]
  • Roecker, S.M., and J.A. Thompson. 2006. Digital Soil Mapping in the Upper Gauley Watershed on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia. In Abstracts of the ASA-CSSA-SSSA 2006 International Meetings (November 12-16, 2006) Indianapolis, IN. ASA, Madison, WI. [CD-ROM]
  • Thompson, J.A., A.C. Moore, R.E. Austin, and E.M. Pena-Yewtukhiw. 2006. Multiscale Terrain Analysis to Improve Landscape Characterization and Soil Mapping. In Abstracts of the 2006 World Congress of Soil Science (July 9-15, 2006) Philadelphia, PA. [CD-ROM]


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
This project included two studies. The first study was conducted in the Cherry River watershed on the Monongahela National Forest in eastern West Virginia. The objectives of this study were to determine physical and chemical properties of the soils, to classify the soils, and to assess the acid risk to the forests. Sixty-seven pedons were sampled by horizon across six landscape positions in an eastern and in a western area of the watershed. All soils in the watershed were acid and classified either as Inceptisols or Ultisols. The eastern area soils were more acid than the western area soils because of geological differences. Soils on shoulder positions had the highest risk and soils on floodplains had the lowest risk of forest productivity decline. While both areas showed high acidification and forest productivity risk, the eastern area soils will have higher risk for forest productivity decline in the future. While a few forest regeneration failures are known to have occurred after harvesting in this area, further acidification potentially will reduce the regeneration of a marketable timber stand. The second study included mapping soil phosphorus adsorption capacity (PAC) in West Virginia. Extensive pedon data for PAC have been collected for several years. However, we must be able to extrapolate the intensive field and laboratory data to broader landscapes to facilitate land use and management decisions. The objective of this study was to use previously collected data on West Virginia soils to develop county-wide and state-wide maps of PAC. Characterization data were collected on 85 pedons from 31 soil series (including 57 pedons from 17 benchmark soils) throughout the agriculturally important regions of WV. From these samples, PAC (mg P/kg soil) for each genetic horizon was determined by incubating 0.5 g soil for 18 hours with 30 mL of 0.01M CaCl2 solution containing a series of P concentrations. PAC (mg P/m2 soil) of each horizon was calculated using PAC of each sample, bulk density (BD), horizon thickness (T), and a rock fragment correction factor (RFCF = 1 - percent rock fragments), as well as a unit conversion factor (UCF): PAC (kg P/m2) = PAC (mg P/kg soil) x BD x T x RFCF x UCF. PAC for a given pedon was determined for the upper 20 cm by adding the PAC values for all or part of any horizon within the upper 20 cm of the soil. We used available Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) data to generate county-wide and state-wide maps of estimated PAC by assigning the PAC value of the dominant soil map unit component series to each map unit. The next step for this project will be to use land use information for each sampled pedon to map PAC using SSURGO data as conditioned by land use. To increase the areal extent of the mapping we intend to link measured PAC data to SSURGO map units at higher taxonomic levels (e.g., family or subgroup). Also, we will examine spatial trends in mapped PAC data.

Impacts
Data from this project will assist land-use planners in West Virginia and the region. The Cherry River study will facilitate planning in the national forest for logging operations and other soils-related activities. The P adsorption study will be used in areas where poultry litter and other high-P wastes will be land-applied by providing critical data for the calculation of maximum and optimum application rates.

Publications

  • Sponaugle, C.L. 2005. Properties and acid risk assessment of soils in two parts of the Cherry River watershed, West Virginia. M.S. Thesis. West Virginia University. Morgantown, WV. 169 p.
  • Thompson, J., S. Waltman, J. Sencindiver, D. Bhumbla and S. Carpenter. 2005. Mapping soil phosphorus adsorption capacity in West Virginia. Abstract. In Abstracts 2005 International Annual Meeting - ASA-CSSA-SSSA. 6-10 Nov 2005. Salt Lake City, UT [CD-ROM].


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
A study was initiated to evaluate the properties and genesis of minesoils in a watershed scheduled to be disturbed by the construction of Corridor H in Tucker County, WV. Six minesoil sampling points were located on sites mined for Bakerstown coal, and six were located on sites mined for Upper Freeport coal. In addition, six sampling points were located on contiguous native soils. Soil profiles were described and sampled for laboratory physical and chemical analyses. The native soils were well drained to very poorly drained Inceptisols or Ultisols developed in alluvium or colluvium. Three of the six sampling points had fragipans. Minesoils developing on the Bakerstown sites had A horizons ranging from 3 to 16 cm thick and sola (A + B + transition horizons) of 15 to 49 cm thick. Minesoils on the Upper Freeport sites had A horizons that were 4 to 11 cm thick. Five of the six sampling points had sola ranging from 9 to 35 cm thick. One point had an uncommonly thick solum with Bw horizons described to 99 cm. Minesoils on both sites were classified as Entisols or Inceptisols. Although the depth of minesoil sola forming on the Upper Freeport and the Bakerstown sites was similar, fewer horizons were described per profile in Bakerstown minesoils. We attributed this horizonation difference to differences in parent materials. The rock fragments in Bakerstown minesoils were predominantly sandstones, whereas rock fragments in the Upper Freeport minesoils were a mixture of shale and sandstone. In a separate study, soils developing on disturbed sites along major four-lane highways in West Virginia were evaluated. Due to the mountainous topography of the Central Appalachian region, the construction of four-lane highways requires large, expansive cut and fill areas that may contain acid or alkaline producing materials. The long-term goal of this research is to improve selective soil handling of earth excavated during highway construction similar to that of mine overburden materials. Cut, fill and on-grade areas within sections of Interstates 68, 79, and 81 and Corridor H (U.S. Route 33 and State Route 55) have been randomly selected as sampling sites. Soil pits located at 10-m increments along transects perpendicular to these four-lane highways have been sampled at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths and described according to USDA methods. Surface samples also were taken near the edge of the highway. Field pH values of all sites ranged from 5 to 8. Preliminary analysis of the data suggests that thin A horizons develop within 1 to 2 years in rapidly weathering surface materials. In these young soils, little development is observed beneath a weakly developed A horizon, commonly creating an A-C1-C2 or A-AC-C horizon sequence. Soils of intermediate ages (9-12 yrs) were similar to the younger soils, although at some sites a more developed soil profile was occasionally observed (A-Bw-C1-C2). The most developed soil profiles were observed on sites where soils had been constructed 25 to 43 years ago. At these locations, multiple B horizon sequences were common creating A-Bw1-Bw2-C or A-Bw-BC-C horizons.

Impacts
Data generated by these studies will assist national and international committees and agencies to develop anthropogenic soil classification systems, methods of soil mapping, and land-use interpretations. A long-term goal of the highway research is to improve selective soil handling of earth excavated during highway construction similar to that of mine overburden materials.

Publications

  • Skousen, J. and J. Sencindiver. 2004. Soil properties important to stream development on mined lands. p. 1750-1768. In R.I. Barnhisel (ed.) Proc. Joint Conf. Amer. Soc. of Mining and Reclam. and West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force. [CD-ROM] ASMR. 3134 Montavesta Rd. Lexington, KY.
  • Jones, J.R. and J.C. Sencindiver. 2004. Properties and genesis of minesoils on sites mined for Bakerstown and Upper Freeport coals. p. 980-994. In R.I. Barnhisel (ed.) Proc. Joint Conf. Amer. Soc. of Mining and Reclam. and West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force. [CD-ROM] ASMR. 3134 Montavesta Rd. Lexington, KY.
  • Miller, R.L. and J.C. Sencindiver. 2004. Properties of constructed soils along four-lane highways in West Virginia. p. 1315-1337. In R.I. Barnhisel (ed.) Proc. Joint Conf. Amer. Soc. of Mining and Reclam. and West Virginia Surface Mine Drainage Task Force. [CD-ROM] ASMR. 3134 Montavesta Rd. Lexington, KY.
  • Sencindiver, J.C. (contributor). 2004. Detailed soil map units. p. 17-36. Soil series and their morphology. p. 53-62. In R.N. Pate. Soil Survey of Gilmer County, WV. USDA-NRCS in coop. with WV Agric. and For. Exper. Station.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
An evaluation of soils in the Otter Creek Wilderness of the Monongahela National Forest was completed. Thirteen sites were sampled and analyzed according to landscape position: three terrace soils (T), four ridgetop soils (R), three sideslope soils with argillic horizons (SSA), and three sideslope soils with cambic horizons (SSC). At each site, one pedon was described and sampled, and biomass data were collected. Standard chemical and physical properties, clay mineralogy, extractable sulfate and sulfate adsorption capacity were analyzed. The SSA soils had the highest pH, the most diverse vegetation, and the highest base saturation. These soils had a low risk for acid toxicity to fine roots and mychorrizal fungi. Also, these soils had the highest Ca:Al ratio. In addition, SSA soils had the greatest capacity to adsorb additional sulfate. The most adverse soil conditions were found on the SSC and T sites, with R soils exhibiting moderate conditions. A study of minesoils adjacent to the future Appalachian Corridor H in the Beaver Creek watershed of Tucker County, West Virginia is continuing. This is a sensitive area because numerous wetlands and reclaimed mined lands are located in the vicinity of the proposed highway. The two major coal beds in the watershed were Bakerstown in the Conemaugh Formation and Upper Freeport in the Allegheny Formation. Bakerstown was mined and reclaimed in the 1970s, and Upper Freeport was mined and reclaimed in the 1960s. The predominant vegetation on the Bakerstown sites was grasses and legumes with scattered trees, while Upper Freeport sites were uniformly covered with red pine (Pinus resinosa). Six minesoil sampling points were located on Bakerstown sites and six were located on Upper Freeport sites. In addition, six sampling points were located on contiguous native soils. Soil profiles were described and horizons were sampled for laboratory physical and chemical analyses. The native soils were well drained to very poorly drained Inceptisols or Ultisols developed in alluvium or colluvium. Three of the six sampling points had fragipans. Minesoils developing on the Bakerstown sites had A horizons ranging from 3 to 16 cm thick. Sola of these soils ranged in thickness from 15 to 49 cm. Five of the six points had sola ranging from 15 to 33 cm thick. Minesoils on the Upper Freeport sites had A horizons that were 4 to 11 cm thick. Five of the six sampling points had sola ranging from 9 to 35 cm thick. One point had an uncommonly thick solum with Bw horizons described to 99 cm. Minesoils on both sites were classified as Entisols and Inceptisols. Although minesoils forming on the Upper Freeport sites were older than minesoils on the Bakerstown sites, the depth of soil development was similar. It appears that minesoils on the Bakerstown site developed faster because of the grass-legume vegetation.

Impacts
Data generated by the study in the Otter Creek Wilderness will be used by the U.S. Forest Service in air quality models (MAGIC and NuCM) to evaluate the sensitivity of soils to acidification by air pollution. The Natural Resources Conservation Service will use the data to update the soil survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness. Data from the study in the Beaver Creek watershed will be used by the West Virginia Division of Highways when evaluating options for locating the exact path of the new Corridor H.

Publications

  • Jones, J.R., J.C. Sencindiver, J.G. Skousen. 2003. Using minesoil and overburden analyses to locate a highway in West Virginia. p. 533-548. In R.I. Barnhisel (ed.) Proc. [CD-ROM], Joint Conf. of the 9th Billings Land Reclamation Symp. and the 20th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Soc. of Mining and Reclam. 3-6 June 2003. Billings, MT. ASMR. 3134 Montavesta Rd., Lexington, KY.
  • Schnably, J. 2003. Soil characterization, classification, and biomass accumulation in the Otter Creek Wilderness. M.S. Thesis. West Virginia University. Morgantown, WV. Available: http://etd.wvu.edu/templates/showETD.cfm?recnum=3215.
  • Schnably, J., J. Sencindiver, and T.Jenkins. 2003. Productivity and health of soils in the Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia. Abstract. p. 65. In 2003 Annual Conf. Abstracts. Soil and Water Conservation Society. 26-30 July 2003. Spokane, WA.
  • Sekhon, B.S., D.K. Bhumbla, J. C. Sencindiver, and S. Carpenter. 2003. Modeling phosphorus retention capacity of some West Virginia benchmark soils. Abstract. p. 66. In 2003 Annual Conf. Abstracts. Soil and Water Conservation Society. 26-30 July 2003. Spokane, WA.
  • Stephens, K. 2003. Characterization of wetland soils in the Beaver Creek Watershed. M.S. Thesis. West Virginia University. Morgantown, WV. Available: http://etd.wvu.edu/templates/showETD.cfm?recnum=2864.
  • Stephens, K.M., J.C. Sencindiver, J.G. Skousen. 2003. Characterization of natural wetland soils receiving acid mine drainage. p. 1240-1265. In R.I. Barnhisel (ed.) Proc. [CD-ROM], Joint Conf. of the 9th Billings Land Reclamation Symp. and the 20th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Soc. of Mining and Reclam. 3-6 June 2003. Billings, MT. ASMR. 3134 Montavesta Rd., Lexington, KY.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
A study in the Otter Creek Wilderness of the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia evaluated soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties and related these properties to biomass production at thirteen sampling sites. Three Ultisols were sampled on terraces. Three Inceptisols and one Ultisol were sampled on ridgetops. Six sites were sampled on sideslopes. Three of these sites were Inceptisols, two were Ultisols, and one was an Alfisol. For analyses, the sideslope soils were subdivided into soils with cambic horizons (Inceptisols) and soils with argillic horizons (Alfisols and Ultisols). Sideslope soils with argillic horizons were the healthiest soils in the study with the highest pH, highest concentration of basic cations, highest percent base saturation, and the most diverse vegetation. These were the only soils to have Ca:Al ratios >1. An analysis of sulfate adsorption capacity indicated that these soils were capable of adsorbing additional sulfate. The most adverse soil conditions were found on the terrace sites and the sideslope sites with cambic horizons. These soils had the lowest pH and the lowest base saturation. Also, the sideslope soils with cambic horizons were sulfate saturated. Site geology and parent material of the soils have heavily influenced the differences observed at the various sites. Biomass and productivity of these soils are continuing to be evaluated.

Impacts
The data generated by this project will be used by the U.S. Forest Service in air quality models (MAGIC and NuCM) to evaluate the sensitivity of soils to acidification by air pollution. The Natural Resources Conservation Service will use the data to update the soil survey of Otter Creek Wilderness.

Publications

  • Sekhon, B.S., Bhumbla, D.K., Sencindiver, J.C. and Carpenter, S.G. 2002. Modeling Phosphorus Sorption in West Virginia Benchmark Soils (Abstr.). p. 5. In Invited Papers and Abstracts of Contributed Papers. Northeast Branch American Society of Agronomy. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. Madison, WI.
  • Sencindiver, J.C. 2002. The Dirt on Canaan: Soils of Canaan Valley (Abstr.). p. 15. In Program Schedule and Abstracts of Canaan Valley & Its Environs Conference. Canaan Valley Institute. Thomas, WV.
  • Thomas, K.A., Sencindiver, J.C, Skousen, J.G. and Gorman, J.M. 2002. Soil Development on a Mountaintop Removal Coal Mine (Abstr.). p. 3. In Invited Papers and Abstracts of Contributed Papers. Northeast Branch American Society of Agronomy. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. Madison, WI.
  • Jenkins, A.B. 2002. Organic Carbon and Fertility of Forest Soils on the Allegheny Plateau of West Virginia. M.S. Thesis. West Virginia University. Morgantown, WV.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
One project in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and two additional projects in cooperation with NRCS are continuing. For the USFS project, thirteen pedons have been described and sampled in the Otter Creek Wildnerness. These pedons represent various established soil series and other soils that have not been classified. The purpose of the study is to characterize and classify each pedon to assist in updating the soil survey of the wilderness area. Characterization of all described soil horizons is continuing. These soils are generally acid with pH values ranging from 3.0 to 5.0. Diagnostic horizons include ochric epipedons with cambic, argillic and fragipan subsurface horizons. Base saturation is low, so most of the soils will be classified as Inceptisols or Ultisols. In another study, clayey soils forming on limestone in the Valley and Ridge Province of West Virginia are being evlauated for shrink-swell capacity. Laboratory analyses of these soils are continuing. The third study involves the evlauation of the P retention capacity of major soils of West Virginia. Soils have been sampled and analyzed from various locations in the state. Results indicate that there is a wide variation among soil series in their capacity to retain P. Subsoil horizons in upland soils appear to have a higher P fixation capacity than similar horizons of soils on floodplains. This difference is being evaluated, but it may simply be related to differences in pH. The alluvial soils have higher pH values than the residual soils. For a given soil series, there is a positive relationship between iron oxide content and P fixation capacity. However, this relationship does not exist when the data from all soils (three or four repititions of seven series) are combined. Published data indicate that 50% of the P that could be theoretically held by iron is actually fixed. Data for our soils indicate that only 20% to 30% of the theoretical P is being held.

Impacts
Information generated in the Otter Creek Wildnerness and the clayey soil studies will assist the NRCS in updating soil surveys in those areas. Laboratory data will be used to more accurately classify the soils, so that better evaluations of land use potentials can be made. Data from the P retention study will assist in making more accurate decisions on land applications of high P wastes, such as poultry litter, thus reducing environmental hazards.

Publications

  • Bhumbla, D.K., J.C. Sencindiver, B.S. Sekhon, and S. G. Carpenter. 2001. Phosphorus retention capacity of some West Virginia benchmark soils. Abstract. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 56(4): available in 2002.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
Two projects in cooperation with the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) continued during the past year. In the first continuation project, shrink-swell capacity of clayey Alfisols developed over limestone in Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia is being evaluated. Initial field observations indicate these soils have high shrink-swell capacities that are not currently identified in their taxonomic names. Laboratory characterization of these soils to confirm or reject these observations is progressing. Phosphorus retention capacity of soils at several West Virginia locations is being evaluated in the second continuation project. Laboratory analyses of single point P adsorption and P loading rates have been completed or are continuing on soils in Tucker and Randolph Counties; soils along the South Branch of the Potomac River, primarily in Hardy County; major upland and colluvial soils in Cabell, Doddridge, and Mason Counties; major alluvial soils along the Ohio River in Cabell, Jackson, and Mason Counties; and major soils of Berkeley, Jefferson, and Morgan Counties. A new project initiated in 2000 in cooperation with both the U.S. Forest Service and the NRCS will evaluate the morphology, genesis and classification of major soils of the Otter Creek Wilderness Area. These data will be used by the Forest Service to develop air quality models for the wilderness areas.

Impacts
The clayey soil study will result in improved classification and land-use interpretation of soils forming on limestone. Results of the phosphorus retention study will assist in making accurate calculations of environmentally safe loading rates of poultry wastes and other high-P wastes on soils. Data from the wilderness area study will assist the Forest Service in developing models to determine effects of pollution on the Otter Creek Wildnerness ecology.

Publications

  • Jenkins, A.B., D.K. Bhumbla, S.G. Carpenter, and J.C. Sencindiver. 2000. Extractable and total phosphorus in some West Virginia forest soils. p. 347. In Annual Meetings Abstracts. ASA-CSSA-SSSA.
  • Sencindiver, J.C. 2000. Wetland soils in West Virginia. Proc. West Virginia Academy of Science. Abstracts of the 75th Annual Session. 72(1):3.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Two cooperative projects with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) were started during 1999. Clayey Alfisols developed on limestone in Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia were sampled to document shrink-swell characteristics. Field observations have indicated the presence of "vertic" properties, such as cracks and slickensides, in these soils, but actual shrink-swell potential has not been documented. No Vertisols or vertic subgroups of Alfisols have been recognized in West Virginia. Shrink-swell potential of these soils will be analyzed and compared to other soil properties to determine if classification of these soils should be changed. In a second study, major soils along the South Branch of the Potomac River, primarily in Hardy County, West Virginia, were sampled to determine their phosphorus retention capacity. Samples are currently being analyzed. Phosphorus pollution is a concern because of poultry litter application to land in this area. The purpose of the study is to determine maximum phosphorus loading rates.

Impacts
The clayey soil study will result in improved classification and interpretation of soils forming on limestone. Results of the phosphorus retention study will assist in making accurate calculations of safe loading rates of poultry waste on soils.

Publications

  • Bhumbla, D.K. and J.C. Sencindiver. 1999. Phosphorus sorption capacity in some West Virginia soils. p. 318. In Annual Meeting Abstracts. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Jenkins, A.B., S.G. Carpenter, R.B. Grossman, and J.C. Sencindiver. 1999. Soil organic carbon stocks of major forest soils in the Allegheny plateau of West Virginia. p. 244. In Annual Meeting Abstracts. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. Madison, Wisconsin.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
Research was conducted on two cooperative projects with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Soil organic carbon was determined for frigid and mesic soil series on adjacent forested landforms of the Allegheny plateau in West Virgnia. On a soil profile basis, organic carbon ranged from 11.3 to 18.8 kg/m2 for the frigid series, and from 8.9 to 11.7 kg/m2 for the mesic series. Bulk density used to calculate these values was determined by a relative-elevation frame excavation method for surface and thin near-surface horizons and by the saran-coated clod method for thicker subsurface horizons. Bulk density determined by the two methods was compared for those surface and near-surface horizons where clods could be sampled. Clod bulk density was higher than the frame bulk density resulting in 24% higher organic carbon values when clod bulk density was used in the calculations. Since clods cannot be sampled from each soil surface horizon and because clod sampling is a much more biased approach than frame sampling, we recommend that the frame method be used for all thin surface or near-surface soil horizons. The organic carbon values determined in this study were reasonably close to values based on taxonomic factors and world soil maps for this region. However, our values were much higher than those based on a national soil interpretation record database, primarily because the surface and near-surface organic horizons were generally not included in the national database. A second study continues the cooperative efforts of the Experiment Station and NRCS to characterize soils within the boundaries of Major Land Resource Area Soil Survey Region 13 headquartered in Morgantown, WV. Total or partial characterization of soils from 23 locations was completed in 1998. One or more sites of the following soil series were included in the sampling program: Summers, Gilpin, Clarksburg, Westmoreland, Dormont, Library, Lily, Burkittsville, Matewan, unnamed minesoil, and unnamed floodplain soil.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Jenkins, A., Carpenter, S. and Sencindiver, J. 1998. Soil organic carbon stocks of major forest soils on the Allegheny plateau of West Virginia, USA. Abstract. p. 633. In Summaries of Symposiums. Vol. I. 16th World Congress of Soil Science. August 20-26, 1998. Montpellier, France.


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
Two cooperative projects between the Experiment Station and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) have been established to characterize soils within the boundaries of Major Land Resource Area Soil Survey Region 13 (MLRA-13) headquartered in Morgantown, WV. The objective of the first study was to evaluate the amount of carbon sequestered in frigid compared to mesic soils in West Virginia. Data were collected from 35 pedons (sampling units) representing 6 forested soil series. Results show that frigid soils have significantly higher levels of carbon on a total profile basis than the mesic soils. In the second study, four soil series in West Virginia, four in New York, and five in Maryland were sampled and are currently being analyzed. The data generated from these analyses will be used to assist NRCS field soil scientists in MLRA-13 to properly classify and map soils. Also, the data will be kept in a data-base for future access by anyone needing soils information.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No Publications, 1997


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
A cooperative study of frigid soils in West Virginia has been initiated by USDA (NRCS & USFS) and the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. The objective of the study is to evaluate soil organic carbon in relation to soil drainage class, aspect, parent material and vegetation. Eighteen pedons (sampling units) in three counties were completely described and sampled. Personnel from the National Soil Survey Laboratory in Lincoln, Nebraska spent one week in the field demonstrating special techniques used to sample organic horizons, to estimate rock cover and to estimate total biomass. Soil samples were sent to the laboratory in Lincoln for complete characterization. Those analyses have been completed, and data are currently being evaluated and will become part of a graduate student's thesis. Another study has been initiated in cooperation with Salem-Teikyo University to compare the ecology of three constructed wetlands to three nearby natural wetlands. The specific objectives of this study are to compare the properties of soils in the mitigated and natural wetlands and to evaluate field indicators of hydric soils. Data will establish a baseline to which future comparisons can be made for evaluating development and function of mitigated wetlands. Soils have been described and sampled in each of the wetlands, and samples are currently being analyzed for chemical and physical properties.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • KARCZEWSKI, B. 1996. Physical and hydraulic properties of five soil series as related to on-site wastewater disposal potential. M.S. Thesis. West Virginia University.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
A cooperative project to study organic carbon distribution in frigid soils of West Virginia was initiated by the Experiment Station, the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the U.S. Forest Service. Approximately 4000 hectares of land above 1036 meters elevation were surveyed in Tucker and Randolph counties, and 18 sites were selected for pedon description and sample collection. The 18 sites represented five different soil series classified as Spodosols or Inceptisols. Total above ground biomass was estimated for each site, and root mass within each sampled soil horizon will be determined. All field work has been completed and all samples have been sent to the National Soil Survey Laboratory in Lincoln, Nebraska for analyses.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

    Outputs
    Three pedons of Monongahela soils, one from each of three counties, were described, sampled, and characterized. The data were used to confirm the classification for the cooperative soil survey program in West Virginia and to collect data for proposing Monongahela as an official state soil. One pedon was classified as fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Fragiudalfs. The other two pedons were fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Fragiudults. The series is classified as Fragiudults.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

      Outputs
      Soils on the Elbrook geologic formation in Berkeley County, West Virginia were sampled and analyzed to determine their classification in support of the active soil survey of the county. The Elbrook Formation is of Cambrian age and consists of interbedded layers of argillaceous limestone and shale. Sixteen soil pedons were excavated, described and sampled for laboratory analyses. Standard soil survey laboratory methods were used to determine pH; ammonium acetate extractable bases, barium chloride - TEA extractable acidity, base saturation, and particle size analyses. Data resulted in placement of nine pedons in Ultic Hapludalfs, five pedons in Typic Hapludalfs, and two pedons in Typic Hapludults. The following soils will be mapped on the Elbrook Formation: two established series, Duffield and Ryder (both fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Ultic Hapludalfs) and a proposed series, Nollville (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs).

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

        Outputs
        To assist in evaluating soils for wastewater disposal potential, field and laboratory data for five soil series were compared to correlate soil color to depth to high water table and to determine the relationship of field and laboratory measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). When soils are dry, estimates of depths to periodic high water tables are usually based on depths to mottles with color chromas of 2 or less. In this study the depth to high water tables in wells commonly correlated to the depth to mottles with chromas of 3 or less. Laboratory Ksat was consistently faster than field Ksat, but the field Ksat was more strongly correlated to the soil physical properties. Although all data analyses have not been completed, the results of this study appear to indicate a need to reexamine the methods of evaluating soils for wastewater disposal potential.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

          Outputs
          Saturated hydraulic conductivity (K sat) was measured by the Guelph permeameter in the field and by soil cores in the laboratory for five soil series in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia. The soils were Hagerstown and Chilhowie (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludalfs) developed in limestone residuum, Berks (loamy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrepts) and Blairton (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludults) developed in shale residuum and Monongahela (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Fragiudults) developed in alluvium on stream terraces. K sat was also estimated from soil properties and compared to the field and laboratory data. Laboratory data were more variable than field data for all soils except Hagerstown. Also, laboratory K sat values were consistently higher than the field values. Estimates of K sat for the Berks, Monongahela and Chilhowie soils agreed with laboratory data. Estimates of K sat for Hagerstown and Blairton soils were generally between the field and laboratory values.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

            Outputs
            Profiles of five soil series in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle have been described and sampled for laboratory analyses. Field and laboratory hydraulic conductivity readings were completed. Although all data have not been evaluated, it is apparent that variability of hydraulic conductivity by the laboratory method was greater than the variability of the field method for each soil series. Water table levels at all sites have been monitored throughout the year and will continue to be monitored through summer 1991. No perched water tables were observed in well drained limestone soils at any time during the year. However, after a rainfall of one inch or more, water did pond above the shale layer (R horizon) of the well drained Berks soils. The perched water table remained for a period of a few days but normally less than a week. Absence of low chroma mottling except just above the R horizon substantiated these observations. In the somewhat poorly drained Blairton soils, the water table typically remained near the top of the gleyed zone during the summer months. In the fall the water table reached the top of the mottled zone and has remained there since November.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

              Outputs
              Three pedons of Briery (loamy-skeletal, mixed, nonacid, frigid Typic Udorthents)minesoil have been characterized. Texture of control section horizons was loam or silt loam. Rock fragment content varied from 60 to 80%. Base saturation ranged from 20 to 90%, and pH was 4.5 to 6.5. Physical and hydraulic characteristics of five soil series in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle are being evaluated since these soils are being intensively used by private homeowners and industry. Saturated hydraulic conductivity by laboratory core methods and the Guelph permeameter (field method), depth to and duration of a perched water table, bulk density, soil texture, and detailed descriptions of soil mottling patterns are being emphasized. Data collection is incomplete so conclusions have not been developed.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

                Outputs
                Three pedons of the Briery (loamy-skeletal, mixed, nonacid, frigid Typic Udorthents) minesoil were described in Pocahontas County. Bulk samples of all described horizons were collected for chemical, physical, and mineralogical analyses. Clods were collected from selected horizons for bulk density determinations.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                  Outputs
                  Characterization of a proposed mineosil series was completed. In cooperation with the Soil Conservation Service, Janelew was proposed and accepted as a tentative series by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It will become an established series when the soil survey of Lewis County, West Virginia is completed and published. Janelew is classified as loamy-skeletal, mixed (calcareous), mesic Typic Udorthents according to Soil Taxonomy and as loamy-skeletal, mixed, neutral, mesic Schlickig Udispolents by the WVU minesoil classification system. Janelew soils occur on mined land with slope gradients ranging from nearly level to very steep. Because of the scale of mapping (1:20,000) these slope phases cannot be separated. Therefore, only one mapping unit encompassing the total slope range was developed for Janelew minesoils in Lewis County. Also included in mapping are non-skeletal and fragmental pedons. Non-skeletal minesoils have <35% rock fragments in the 25 to 100-cm depth control section, and fragmental minesoils have very high percentages of rock fragments in the control section with no fine material (<2mm) in some of the interstices.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                    Outputs
                    Twenty-four minesoil pedons in Lewis County, West Virginia, were characterized for chemical and physical properties as part of the Experiment Station's cooperative effort in the soil survey of Lewis County. The minesoils were derived from the surface mining of the Redstone and Pittsburgh coal seams in the Monongahela geologic series. Textures of the minesoil control sections were predominantly silty clay loam with greater than 35% rock fragments of mudstone, shale, limestone and sandstone. Soil pH ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 and base saturation was nearly 100%. Colors of the minesoils were predominantly 5 YR to 10 YR, but other hues were described in some pedons. These characterization data were used to propose a new minesoil series classified as loamy-skeletal, mixed (calcareous), mesic Typic Udorthents. Both extension and experiment station staff have participated in field reviews and public awareness programs as part of the cooperative soil survey effort.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                      Outputs
                      Six minesoil pedons representing Cedarcreek, Fiveblock, Itmann, Kaymine, and Sewell series were characterized. Each of the pedons had a loamy-skeletal particle size class with clay percentages ranging from 4 through 24. Textures were silt loam, loam, sandy loam or loamy sand. Values for pH, extractable Al and acidity and exchangeable bases separated the soils into acid and nonacid reaction classes. These minesoils were well to somewhat excessively drained and had moderate to moderately rapid permeability. All minesoils were classified at Typic Udorthents. Both extension and experiment station staff have participated in field reviews and in public awareness programs as part of the cooperative soil survey effort.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                        Outputs
                        Five soil series on mined lands have been established. These series are Cedarcreek, Fiveblock, Itmann, Kaymine, and Sewell. Six pedons representing these five series were sampled in Wyoming and Boone counties for characterization. Thirteen minesoil samples from RAMP projects were characterized, and Experiment Station staff assisted SCS personnel in the planning of the reclamation projects. Both Extension and research staff have participated in field reviews and in public awareness programs as part of the cooperative soil survey effort.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                          Outputs
                          Minesoils in Wyoming County were studied and characterized for classification purposes. Established minesoil series were considered but it was decided that none of the series descriptions adequately accommodated minesoils in this county. Therefore, the minesoils were classified by the proposed WVU system. Extension and Experiment Station representatives carried on an active public awareness program concerning soil surveys in Randolph, Kanawha, Marion and Monongalia Counties. For the latter two, the representatives participated in special one-day conferences to present the soil surveys to the people of the county. Special efforts were made to digest selected sections of the reports for homebuilders and sanitarians. Some of these reports are now used as models for predicting floodplain levels for the purpose of emergency planning and for flood insurance calculations.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                            Outputs
                            No research was done on soil survey per se on this project, but the Station participated in this cooperative project with the SCS in the West Virginia Soil Survey Work Planning Conference and in the National Soil Survey Conference. Also, our Station representative to SCS participated in several othe SCS sponsored activites in West Virginia, and plans are being made to do limited soil characterization studies with SCS.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                              Outputs
                              Extension and Experiment Station representatives participated in the annual WestVirginia Soil Survey Work Planning Conference, the West Virginia Soil Survey Workshop and the Northeast Cooperative Soil Survey Conference. Reports were presented at each of these meetings. Staff also participated in the Putnam County field review. Various reports of field reviews were evaluated. Responses to these were made both verbally and in writing. Soil texture was determined on selected samples sent to the experiment station by field soil scientists.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                Outputs
                                Extension and experiment station personnel participated with other agencies in the annual West Virginia Soil Survey Work Planning Conference under the leadership of the Soil Conservation Service. Staff also participated in the Pendleton, Grant-Hardy, Ritchie and Upshur Counties field reviews, the last acre ceremony in Mercer County and the special soil sampling of Nicholas County. Numerous reports and preliminary drafts of sections of the National Soils Handbook have been sent to the experiment station for review. The responses to these reports were made both verbally and in writing. Various soil samples were analyzed for specific properties, particularly texture. Plans have been made to develop a soil characterization laboratory in conjunction with the WVU Soil Testing Lab. Samples from SCS and other sources have been accepted. Several extension publications are in the developmental stage. These include, (1) a soil association map of WV, (2) a bulletin on soil potentials for wastewater disposal and (3) detailed soils information on WV Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station lands.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                                  Outputs
                                  Extension and Experiment Station representatives participated with other agencies in the annual West Virginia Soil Survey Work Planning Conference under the leadership of the Soil Conservation Service. Staff also associated in developed a detailed soil sampling plan for 1979. Field reviews in which staff participated include Grant-Hardy, Mercer-Summers, Putnam and Pendleton. Other meetings include the Northeastern Cooperative Soil Survey Conference in Connecticut and a soil scientist workshop at Jackson's Mill State Camp. A wide variety of technical memoranda and preliminary drafts of Sections of the National Soil Handbook passed through our office for review. We have responded to these both verbally and in writing. A limited number of soil samples were analyzed for specific properties.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                    Outputs
                                    Participated with other agency representatives in the annual West Virginia Soil Survey Work Planning conference under leadership of the Soil Conservation Service, and in a Special Evaluation of the Soil Survey in West Virginia involving representation from the Washington office of the Soil Conservation Service. Participated with the State Soil Scientist in a special workshop at the Regional Technical Service Center, Broomall, PA, and updated approaches to the improvement of soil surveys, with emphasis on better field notes for prepararion of more precise mapping unit descriptions, greater precision and sharing of base maps with other agencies, speeding up the completion and publication of soil survey reports, and establishing a firm base for application of the concepts of potentials for various land uses rather than accepting the less flexibel approach of merely emphasizing limitations. Participation in soil survey field reviews included Monongalia/Marion, Mercer/Summers, Randolph, Putnam, Grant/Hardy/Pendleton survey areas, as well as certain work planning sessions. A wide variety of technical memoranda and preliminary drafts of sections of the National Soil Handbook and the Soil Survey Manual passed through our office for review and returned to the State Office, Soil Conservation Service. We have responded to a number of these items both verbally and in writing.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/76 to 12/30/76

                                      Outputs
                                      Project activity consisted of participation in the Annual Work Planning Conference in Morgantown; the Northeast Regional Cooperative Work Planning Conference in New York; and the National Cooperative Soil Survey Planning Conference, where West Virginia representative was charged to report for the Northeast Conference. Cooperatively with the State Soil Scientist (SCS) a proposed major Amendment to Soil Taxonomy was developed and submitted through channels for consideration by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. This Amendment provides a means for classification and mapping of highly disturbed orman-made soils within the framework of Modern Soil Taxonomy.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/75 to 12/30/75

                                        Outputs
                                        We participated in the Annual Soil Survey Work Planning Conference in a Field Review of the Monongalia-Marion Soil Survey. We have reviewed a number of Soil Survey documents circulated by the Soil Conservation Service. A graduate study by Keith Schmude, State Soil Scientist, entitled "Modern Soil Surveys and Land Use Planning" is in progress under Smith. The projected completion date is August 1977. A major proposed revision to Soil Taxonomy has been submitted jointly with Schmude through USDA channels. This follows from a Workshop held here during October with participants from 7 states and the N.E. Regional Office. Dr. van Eck has participated in the following: Critical review of draftactions of National soil survey handbook; Critical review of soil series drafts or revisions; Final field review of Kanawha County soil survey project; Preparedcolor-coded agricultural prime land maps (1:20,000) for Ohio, Marshall, Mason, Raleigh, and Jefferson Counties; Prepared color coded urban land use potential maps (1:20,000) for Hancock, Brooke, Ohio, Marshall, Mason, Raleigh, Fayette, Barbour and Jefferson Counties; Issued revised up-date of W. Va. soil classification memo, as first of a soil survey information series; Coordinated soil survey presentations for the Brooke-Hancock-Ohio report (at Wheeling and Weirton) and for Fayette-Raleigh report (at Fayetteville and Beckley); Initiatedcounty soil survey participation in Tyler, Pleasants, Wyoming and McDowell Counties.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                          Outputs
                                          R.M. Smith served as Chairman of the N.E. Regional Soil Survey Committee on Highly Disturbed Soils, including participation in the week-long meetings in NewYork in January 1974; currently, he is serving as Co-Chairman of the National Committee on Classification of Soils. Resulting from Mining Operations and Interpretations. This involves National consideration of the schema developed by John Sencindiver for full classification, naming and mapping of minesoils andrelated soils at the family level, under the newly named Suf-order of Spolents. A research paper, "Properties, Processes, and Energetics of Minesoils" was presented at the International Soil Science Society in Moscow during August. The paper has been published in the International Soil Science Proceedings.

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/73 to 12/30/73

                                            Outputs
                                            Staff participated in the soil survey review of Monongalia-Marion Counties and Hardy-Pendleton-Grant Survey area and took part in an interagency interstate field trip studying soils properties and classification on surface mined lands. Staff had personal visits with county officials in Mercer, Putnam, Kanawha, Tyler, Tucker, Hardy, Jefferson, and Berkeley Counties in conjunction with use and application of soil survey data. The WVU Soils Lab assisted in providing some key analyses in support of field operations. Staff prepared several circulars to explain soil surveys to experiment station colleagues and the public. Progress was made towards the completion of a general soils bulletin for West Virginia. Soil mineralogy in relation to forms of magnesium in severalselected soils were determined. Also, percent base saturation of subsoils in relation to soil morphological features and mapping in the Monongalia Company survey, were determined.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/72 to 12/30/72

                                              Outputs
                                              On request, by field personnel, a limited number of mechanical analyses were completed in support of on-going soil surveys. Approximately 25 representative soil profile horizons were sampled, impregnated, thin sectioned, and studied with petrographic microscope to aid correct classification and description of important soils. This was done cooperatively with the State Soil Scientist and Beltsville Laboratory of the Soil Conservation Service.

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                                Outputs
                                                Maintained up-to-date file of soil series descriptions received from the Soil Conservation Service and reviewed several tentative descriptions or proposed revisions. Participated in the State Soil Survey Work Planning Conference. Described and sampled in detail several upland soil profiles in northern West Virginia and continued laboratory study to explain genesis and uses of soils. W. E. Grube, Jr. and R. M. Smith participated in the International Soil Science Society Meeting of Commissions V and VI and associated tours in West Germany during August and early September, including presentation of research paper.

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications


                                                  Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                                  Outputs
                                                  Participated with the Soil Conservation Service and cooperating agencies in the Annual Soil Survey Work Planning Conference in Morgantown. Participated in the semi-annual NE Regional Soil Survey Planning Conference in New York, serving as a member of the committee on developing improved soil family criteria. Cooperated with Soil Conservation Service personnel in an annual review of soil survey progress in Hampshire, Mineral, and Morgan counties. Supervised student determinations of soil textures of several soil series to provide data needed for field classification.

                                                  Impacts
                                                  (N/A)

                                                  Publications


                                                    Progress 01/01/69 to 12/30/69

                                                    Outputs
                                                    Participated with the Soil Conservation Service and Cooperating Agencies in the Annual Soil Survey Work Planning Conference at Morgantown and in the progress review of survey in Hampshire, Mineral and Morgan Counties. Assembled additional data and interpretations for decision on recognizing the proposed newsoil, Schaffenaker, and for its proper classification, as well as selected particle size and mineralogy for several other soils in the State.

                                                    Impacts
                                                    (N/A)

                                                    Publications