Source: UNIV OF HAWAII submitted to
CULTURAL STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE PRODUCTION OF CUT FLOWER AND POTTED FLOWERING ANTHURIUMS
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0030583
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
HAW00851-H
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2002
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2006
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Lichty, J. S.
Recipient Organization
UNIV OF HAWAII
3190 MAILE WAY
HONOLULU,HI 96822
Performing Department
TROPICAL PLANT & SOIL SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
Control of nematodes and obtaining suitable and affordable media are major obstacles of the anthurium cut flower industry in Hawaii. A. andraeanum cultivars need to be evaluated for use as potted plants. This project will evaluate alternate cultural practices to improve efficiency of cut and potted anthurium production and determine suitable potted A. andraeanum cultivars.
Animal Health Component
70%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
15%
Applied
70%
Developmental
15%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2042121106070%
2042122106030%
Goals / Objectives
Cut Flower Production: a) Evaluate alternative media for use in field production of cut flower anthuriums. b) Evaluate cultural modifications for efficacy in management of Radopholus similus. Potted Flowering Anthurium: a) Continue evaluation of locally available andraeanum cultivars for suitability as containerized plants. b) Determine shade, media and fertilization requirements for efficient production. c) Evaluate the use of plant growth regulators, different shading regimen or use of light filtering plastics to enhance growth or attractiveness of A. andraeanum cultivars as potted plants.
Project Methods
Cut Flower Production: To evaluate alternative media, anthuriums will be grown in ground beds of various organic media, charcoal and cinder under 80% saran shade. Data on plant growth, and flower production, and quality will be taken. To evaluate the use of VAM in cut flower production, juvenile anthurium plants will be grown in an inoculated medium consisting of 3:1 screened cinder:coir and fertilized with a low-P nutrient solution. Roots will be sampled to check for successful colonization. Once colonization has been established, plants will be used either to test for effects under field conditions or effects on R. similis infection. To test inoculated plants under field conditions in a saran house, plants will be established in cinder beds and fertilized with a low-P nutrient solution. Roots will be routinely checked for VAM colonization. Non-inoculated juvenile comparison plants will be fertilized at established fertilizer rates. Plant growth, and flower production and quality will be monitored. To test for effects on the burrowing nematode, VAM inoculated and non-inoculated plants will be planted in contained, fumigated cinder microplots and inoculated with an aliquot of mixed life stages of R. similis. VAM plants will be fertilized with a low-P nutrient solution to maintain VAM colonization. Non-VAM plants will be fertilized with nutrient solution with a higher P rate. Observations on plant height and leaf number will be taken periodically. At the termination of the study, plant shoot and root weights will be taken and media samples assayed for nematodes. To evaluate modified plastic lined beds, various prototypes will be built and tested, incorporating different irrigation, fertilization and media and planting strategies. The most promising models will be further challenged in a nematode-infested environment and plants and media assayed for nematodes. Potted Flowering Anthuriums: A. andraeanum cultivars will continue to be evaluated as single potted plants in 4-in pots with those found unsuitable in 4-in pots to be transplanted as multiples into 8-in pots for evaluation. Plants will be subjected to application of either 0 or 250 ppm BA and grown in 80% shade or 65% shade for 3-5 months, then transferred to 80% shade. Promising cultivars will also be evaluated under simulated shipping conditions using growth chambers. Different media, including mixes of cinder, coir, commercial potting mixes and charcoal will be compared and evaluated under several fertilizer regimes. Trials on finishing plants under higher shade levels to improve foliage color will also be done. Cultivars deemed unattractive because of excessive height will be treated with either uniconazal or paclobutrazol and evaluated. Greenhouse plastic coverings which may affect plant growth by filtering different wavelengths of light will also be tested for effect on A. andraeanum plant height.

Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/06

Outputs
Cut Flower Production: Anthurium plants grown under 75% OLS aluminum shading produced more flowers of larger size and longer stems than th 65% OLS shade or the control 80% saran shade. Plants under 60% Aluminet shade had lower yield and poorer quality flowers than control. Yields of cvs Marian Seefurth and Kalapana grown under plastic cover and 80% shade were not affected by use of a cover layer of composted green waste mulch. Stem lengths of both cutivars were longer on plants grown with the mulch layer; flower size of Marian Seefurth was also greater with mulch than without. Marian Seefurth plants with no rain cover under 80% shade and with the mulch layer had greater yield and larger flowers with longer stems than plants without mulch. No differences were observed with Kalapana plants. Anthurium andraeanum cv Kalapana and hybrid cv Tropic Fire plants established in beds of green (fresh) organic mulch, composted organic mulch or combinations of cinder:green mulch 1:1, cinder:green mulch 3:1, cinder:green mulch 1:3, cinder:composted mulch 1:1, cinder:composted mulch 3:1, or cinder:composted mulch 1:3 produced larger flowers with longer stems than did plants in control beds of cinder. Kalapana cut flower yield was lowest in cinder beds but increased with increasing ratio of green or composted mulch to cinder in combination beds. Potted juvenile anthuriums were successfully inoculated with VAM. Plants were successfully established in cinder beds but inadequate P rate may have caused a decrease in flower yield and quality of VAM inoculated plants. Potted Flowering Anthuriums: Cultivars Hawaiian Butterfly, Red Butterfly and Tropic Ice plants were unsuitable as single potted plants in 10.2-cm pots at 14 months from transplant due to slow growth, lack of flowers and unattractive foliage. Exposure to 65% shade and/or application of 250 ppm BA did not improve plant quality. Uniconazole sprays of 30 and 50 ppm were effective in decreasing petiole and flower stem heights of potted Anthurium andraeanum cv New Pahoa Red with no effect on leaf or flower size when plants were grown under 80% saran shade. Paclobutrazol effect on New Pahoa Red plant height was compared to Uniconazol under greenhouse conditions with 80% saran shade. Paclobutrazol sprays at 50 and 100 ppm were not effective in decreasing New Pahoa Red plant height. Uniconazol at 30 and 50 ppm decreased petiole (26% and 36%) and flower stem heights (29% and 54%). However up to 20% of flowers treated with uniconazole were deformed. Anthurium cv Lola plants in 10.8 cm pots were shorter when grown for 6 months under red phototselective shadecloth compared to black, gray or blue shadecloth . At 9 months, the number of flowers per pot were greatest under the red shadecloth but there were no differences in plant height, canopy width, or area of newest mature leaf with the red, gray or blue compared to the control black shadecloth.

Impacts
Composted green waste can be used as cover mulch to improve cut flower quality and yield of some Anthurium andraeanum cultivars. Beds of composted and uncomposted chipped green waste can be used to produce anthurium cut flowers with improved flower quality over that of plants grown in cinder beds. Use of composted and uncomposted green waste can decrease dependence upon traditional cinder medium which is becoming more difficult and costly to obtain and would also decrease pressure on the local landfill. Anthurium plants can be successfully inoculated with VAM. Effects of mycorrhyzae can now be studied on field grown anthurium. Uniconazol sprays of 30 and 50 ppm can effectively suppress height of potted Anthurium andraeanum cultivars. Bonzi sprays at 50 and 100 ppm were not effective. Photoselective shadcloth may be used to non-chemically manipulate the growth and flowering of anthuriums to minimize environmental concerns in production.

Publications

  • Kobayashi, K.D., A.F. Kawabata and J.S. Lichty. 2006. Effects of photoselective shadecloths on potted dracaena and anthurium plants. 103rd Annual International Conference of the ASHS. HortScience, 41(4):1053-1054.


Progress 10/01/04 to 09/30/05

Outputs
Evaluate cultural modifications for management of Radopholus similis: A modified hydroponic system was set up in a field plot to deliver nutrients directly to functional roots of nematode infested plants. Treated plants produced more leaves (4.9 vs 3.7 per plant) and more flowers (4.2 vs 3.2 per plant) than control plants. Flowers from treated plants were 12% larger and leaves were 13% larger than controls. At 9 months roots immersed in the nutrient solution were infested with nematodes and the quality of the 2 most recent mature flowers was not better than controls. Determine cultural requirements for efficient production: Anthurium cv. Kalapana tissue cultured plants were successfully inoculated with VAM. Plants were transplanted into field plots and fertilized with a low-P fertilizer to maintain mycorrhyzae colonization. Non-VAM inoculated plants established for comparison were fertilized at recommended rates. Control plants produced more flowers (7.4 vs 6.9 per plant per year) with longer stems (61.0 cm vs. 56.0 cm) than VAM inoculated plants. Inadequate P rate may have been the main cause of the decrease in flower yield and quality of VAM inoculated plants.

Impacts
Direct supply of nutrients to healthy plant roots can improve growth of plants infected with the burrowing nematode, but infection of these feeder roots must be prevented or continual tapping of new feeder roots is necessary to maintain plants. Higher P rates may be necessary to maintain producing VAM-inoculated plants in the field.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/03 to 09/30/04

Outputs
Evaluate alternative media: Athurium andraeanum cv. Kalapana and A. andraeanum hybrid cv Tropic Fire plants were established in beds of cinder, green (fresh) organic mulch, composted organic mulch or combinations of cinder:green mulch 1:1, cinder:green mulch 3:1, cinder:green mulch 1:3, cinder:composted mulch 1:1, cinder:composted mulch 3:1, or cinder:composted mulch 1:3. The organic mulch was chipped green waste from a tree trimming business. The study was conducted in a polyethylene covered greenhouse with 80% shade and data taken for 18 months. Plants of both cultivars grown in cinder beds produced smaller flowers with shorter stems than did plants grown in beds of fresh or composted mulch or cinder:mulch mixes. Kalapana cut flower yield was lowest in cinder beds but increased with increasing ratio of green or composted mulch to cinder in combination beds.

Impacts
Composted and uncomposted green waste can be used as a mulch to improve cut flower quality and yield of some Anthurium cultivars. Use of this mulch can decrease dependence upon traditional cinder media which are becoming more difficult and costly to obtain. Anthurium plants can be successfully inoculated with VAM. Effects of mycorrhyzae can now be studied on field grown anthurium. Uniconazol sprays of 30 and 50 ppm can effectively suppress height of potted Anthurium andraeanum cultivars. Bonzi sprays at 50 and 100 ppm were not effective.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/02 to 09/30/03

Outputs
Cut Flower Production: Anthurium andraeanum cultivars were grown for two years in cinder beds with and without a cover layer of composted green waste mulch in a polyethylene covered greenhouse with 80% saran shade. 'Marian Seefurth' and 'Kalapana' plant yields were not affected by the mulch. Stem lengths of both cultivars were longer on plants grown with the mulch layer; flower size of 'Marian Seefurth' was also greater with mulch than without. The study was repeated in an 80% shade saran house with no protection from rainfall. After one year 'Marian Seefurth' plants with the mulch layer had greater yield and larger flowers with longer stems than plants without mulch. No differences were observed with 'Kalapana' plants. Potted juvenile anthuriums were successfully inoculated with VAM. Plants were sucessfully established in cinder beds. Potted Flowering Anthuriums: 'Hawaiian Butterfly', 'Red Butterfly' and 'Tropic Ice' plants were unsuitable as single potted plants in 4-in pots at 14 months from transplant due to slow growth, lack of flowers and unattractive foliage. Exposure to 65% shade and/or application of 250 ppm BA did not improve plant quality. Uniconazole sprays of 30 and 50 ppm were effective in decreasing petiole and flower stem heights of potted Anthurium andraeanum 'New Pahoa Red' with no effect on leaf or flower size when plants were grown under 80% saran shade. Paclobutrazol effect on 'New Pahoa Red' plant height was compared to Uniconazol under greenhouse conditions with 80% saran shade. Paclobutrazol sprays at 50 and 100 ppm were not effective in decreasing 'New Pahoa Red' plant height. Uniconazol at 30 and 50 ppm decreased petiole (26% and 36%) and flower stem heights (29% and 54%). However up to 20% of flowers treated with uniconazole were deformed.

Impacts
Composted green waste can be used as a mulch to improve cut flower quality and yield of some Anthurium andraeanum cultivars. Use of this mulch can decrease dependence upon traditional cinder media which are becoming more difficult and costly to obtain. Anthurium plants can be successfully inoculated with VAM. Effects of mycorrhyzae can now be studied on field grown anthurium. Uniconazol sprays of 30 and 50 ppm can effectively suppress height of potted Anthurium andraeanum cultivars. Bonzi sprays at 50 and 100 ppm were not effective.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/01 to 09/30/02

Outputs
Anthurium flower production under conventional saran was compared to production under two types of aluminum shading. Cultivar 'Anuenue' plants grown under 60% Aluminet shading had lower yield and poorer quality flowers than 80% saran shade controls. Plants grown under 65% OLS aluminum shading were slightly shorter but with similar yield and flower size as controls. Plants grown under 75% OLS aluminum shading produced more flowers of larger size and longer stems than controls. Data of three other cultivars are being analyzed. Anthurium andraeanum cv 'Marian Seefurth' plants were covered up to the growing point with composted mulch to increase ambient temperature around the cane during winter months. No difference in yield was observed between mulched and unmulched plants. Studies using mulch as an alternative media are ongoing.

Impacts
Growers can improve production and quality of anthurium cut flowers with the use of appropriate aluminum shading. Mulching of mature anthurium plants cannot be used as an effective method of increasing winter flower production.

Publications

  • Sipes, B.S. and Lichty, J.S. 2002. Radopholus similis damage to Anthurium andraeanum. Nematropica. 32:77-81.


Progress 10/01/00 to 09/30/01

Outputs
'Tropic Mist' plants were grown in 3 containers (7.6 or 15.1 L black plastic pots or 15.1 L sewn black plastic fabric bags), 2 media (unscreened black cinder or cinder screened through a 0.6 cm screen to remove fine particles) and 4 fertilizer treatments (224 or 448 kg N/ha/year controlled release fertilizer (CRF) or 10 ppm or 20 ppm water soluble fertilizer (WSF) for 2 years. Plants in plastic pots had greater yields than plants in bags (9.5 vs 9.1 flowers/plant). Plants fertilized with 20 ppm WSF had the lowest yields of fertilizer treatments. Plants grown in screened cinder with WSF and plants in 15.1 L containers in unscreened cinder with WSF produced medium grade sized flowers while all other pot/media/fertilizer treatments produced large grade flowers. Average stem length of flowers from all treatments met preferred market stem length of 55-60 cm. Dry root weight was greater with 15.1 L containers (13.3 g) than 2-gal (9.8 g) and also greater with 10 ppm N (14.0 g) versus 20 ppm N WSF(10.8 g). Juvenile 'Kalapana' plants were inoculated with mycorrhyzae and grown with 2 types of media (cinder:coir or cinder:peat mix) and 2 fertilizer treatments (low P slow release or low P WSF). After several weeks inoculated roots were sampled and found to be mycorrhizal. At 13 weeks tallest plants with largest leaves were obtained with mychorrhyzae-inoculated plants fertilized with water soluble low-P fertilizer.

Impacts
Best production and quality of anthurium flowers were obtained when plants were grown in 7.6 L pots in screened or unscreened cinder or in 15.1 L pots in screened cinder, with the lower rate of controlled release fertilizer (224 kg/ha/yr). Plants grown in plastic bags had lower yields but performed better when plants were grown in screened cinder with 224 kg/ha/yr CRF. The lower 10 ppm rate of water soluble fertilizer was better for flower production and quality than 20 ppm WSF in all pot and media treatments but not as effective as CRF. Anthurium plants were successfully inoculated with mycorrhizae. Use of mycorrhizal anthuriums may be a way to improve anthurium culture and production by decreasing the need for phosphorus fertilizer and possibly increasing plant tolerance to nematodes.

Publications

  • Lichty, J.S. and Kratky, B. 2000. Non-circulating hydroponic culture of anthuriums. Proc. 4th Hawaii Floriculture Industry Conf. University of Hawaii, CTAHR.


Progress 10/01/99 to 09/30/00

Outputs
'Marian Seefurth' plants grown for one year under 65% and 73% OLS (aluminum) and 63% saran shading produced larger flowers than 80% saran shade. Marketable yields (yield - rejects due to fading, sunburn or crooked stems) were lowest for 63% saran and 60% aluminet shade. 'Tropic Fire' plants produced flowers with shortest stems under 63% saran, 75% OLS and 60% aluminet shade with no differences in yield between types of shading. Plastic cover to increase minimum night temperatures during November to December, 1999 had no effect on yield or flower quality of 'Marian Seefurth' or Tropic Fire plants. 'Marian Seefurth plants with organic mulch added as a possible source of CO-2 enrichment, produced more flowers and flowers with longer stem lengths than plants grown without mulch. 'Tropic Fire' plants grown with mulch produced larger flowers with longer stems than plants without mulch.

Impacts
Plastic cover to increase night temperature did not affect anthurium flower production or quality in November to December, 1999. A layer of organic mulch over the cinder medium did improve flower yield and quality.

Publications

  • Imamura-Lichty, J. and Nishijima, W.T. 1999. Fertilizer and Media Affect Anthurium Cut Flower Production and Quality. J. Hawaiian Pacific Agric. 10:53-57.


Progress 10/01/98 to 09/30/99

Outputs
Plastic cover to increase minimum night temperatures of anthurium plots had no effect on anthurium flower production during the months of April to May, 1999. A layer of organic mulch added as a possible source of CO2 enrichment over the screened cinder medium also had no effect on yield. Juvenile anthurium plants transplanted from plugs and grown in a noncirculating hydroponic system for 9 months had greater plant height (13.5 cm vs 5.8 cm), dry weight of tops (3.6 g vs.3 g), dry root weight (.76g vs .15 g) and number of flowers (1.6 vs 0) than plants in cinder beds. A disadvantage for cut flower production was the greater number of side shoots produced in the noncirculating hyrdoponics system than in cinder medium (11.2 vs 0).

Impacts
The plastic cover to increase miminum night temperature did not increase anthurium flower production during the first 5 months of the study. Juvenile anthurium plants showed increased growth in noncirculating hydroponics compared to the traditional cinder medium, however this method may be unsuitable for cut flower production because of the excessive number of side shoots produced.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/97 to 09/30/98

Outputs
Aluminum shade houses with 60%, 65% and 75% shade and saran shade houses with 63%, 73% and 80% shade were built and planted with four cultivars of anthurium to determine the effect of aluminum shade on anthurium. Data are being taken on anthuriums grown in noncirculataing hydroponic tanks. Ambient night temepratures under simple low plastic hoop houses were slightly higher than temperatures not under the structures. `Kalapana' and `Marian Seefurth' plants have been established in beds to determine the effect of the increased minimum night temperatures on flower production during winter months.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/96 to 09/30/97

Outputs
The fertilizer and media study utilizing different types of pots is continuing. Plants have been growing well in the non-circulating hydroponic systems set up under saran with and without plastic cover. The initial nutrient solution has been amended due to occurrence of boron (chlorosis of edges of older leaves) and zinc (interveinal necrotic spots on leaves) toxicity symptoms observed on plants. Sucker production is enhanced on plants grown in this hydroponic system as compared to plants grown in the field. Shade houses have been built to test the effect of aluminum shading on production and quality of anthurium cut flowers. Data on flower and leaf bud emergence and maturity, to be used to develop a crop model for cut anthurium, has been collected for a year.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/94 to 09/30/95

Outputs
Yields of medium to large flowers of some anthurium cultivars grown in a 1.2 x 4.6 m noncirculating hydroponics container were comparable to that of field grown plants. A few cultivars did not do well and there was evidence of root rot and poor root growth. In a hydroponic micronutrient study, symptoms of boron toxicity were observed after 5 months of treatment. Early symptoms included yellowing of margins of older leaves followed by tip and lobe necrosis. Advanced symptoms consisted of generalized necrotic spots and die back of older leaves. After 10 months of treatment, necrotic spots and leaf margins were observed on Cu deficient plants. Data collection was initiated to compare effects of screened vs unscreened cinder and slow release vs liquid fertilizer on anthurium plants in beds and in various pots. BA, TDZ and diuron, at various rates, were applied as drenches and preplant dips to juvenile anthuriums to determine effects on lateral shoot production. The effect of rates of potassium fertilizer on postharvest life of 'Kalapana' and 'Arcs' flowers is being studied.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 10/01/93 to 09/30/94

    Outputs
    Effect of two types of spray irrigation and two drip on post harvest life of anthuriums were compared. There was more wilting and loss of spathe gloss for flowers irrigated by lateral drip lines than longitudinal, possibly due to better coverage with the lateral lines. Vase life was not affected by irrigation type. Four anthurium cultivars were planted under 63%, 73%, 80%, 85% and 91% shade and data on flower yield and quality taken for three years. Flower yield and size were greatest at 63% and 73% shade for all cultivars, with percent crooked stems increasing with increased shade for all except 'Ozaki'. Optimum shade level for 'Nitta' and 'Kozohara' was 73% because of short stem lengths at 63%. Best shade level for 'Ozaki' was 85% because of short stem lengths and high percentage of sunburn of the spadix at lower levels. Optimum shade level for 'Marian Seefurth' was 80- 85% because of decreased flower quality at both shading extremes. 'Kozohara' and 'Ozaki' vase life did not change with shade level. 'Nitta' vase life increased with shade levels over 80% while 'Marian Seefurth' vase life declined 20% with greater than 85% shade. At higher shade levels spathe blueing was the major reason for termination of vase life. Seven cultivars were established in a 1.2 x 4.6 m noncirculating hydroponics box and flower production data is being taken. Juvenile plants were established in noncirculating hydroponics containers and treatment for the micronutrient study is being initiated.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 10/01/92 to 09/30/93

      Outputs
      Effects of two types of spray irrigation (overhead spray and midlevel spitters) and two drip (1.3 cm t-tape, horizontal laterals and lontitudinal laterals were compared on mature anthurium 'Marian Seefurth' plants grown in cinder beds under 85% saran shade. All plots were irrigated at 0.5 cm water/day. After 2.5 years, all plots were covered with clear polyethylene hard cover and data taken for an additional 1.5 years. Greatest yields were obtained with overhead spray and spitter irrigated plants under hard cover and lowest with drip irrigated plants under hard cover. There was no treatment effect on flower size or percent crooked stems. Thrips damage was less on plants under hard cover than plants under saran, and less on drip versus spray irrigated plants, possible due to increased pesticide effectiveness on treatments with less leaf wetting. Post-harvest data is being analyzed. The flower production and quality data collection for the study comparing six shade levels on four anthurium cultivars was terminated and data is being analyzed. Thidiazuron applied at 0, 1, 5 and 10 ppm had no effect on side shoot production of topped and untopped juvenile plants. Ten plants each of seven cultivars are being established in a noncirculating hydroponics box (1.2 x 4.6 m) and plants and roots appear healthy.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 10/01/91 to 09/30/92

        Outputs
        A weed control test on four anthurium cultivars showed no treatment effect on yield. Treatments were diuron (1.1 kg ai/ha every three months), granular oxyfluorfen (2%) and oryzalin (1%) (3.4 kg ai/ha) in an alternating three month cycle with diuron (1.1 kg ai/ha) and black polypropylene mulch. An interaction between cultivar and treatment was observed for flower stem length and flower size. kazaki' stem length was unaffected by treatments, with effects varying on other cultivars. Herbicide treatments reduced flower size of arian Seefurth' and itta' but not ozohara' and zaki'. Weed control ranking was plastic mulch=oxyfluorfen/oryzalin>diuron. The drip vs. overhead irrigation study under plastic cover was terminated and data is being analyzed. The four cultivar, six shade level study is continuing. The rooting media (screened black cinder, peat moss, macadamia shell, cinder:peat (4:1), cinder:macadamia nut shell (2:1)) study on mature arian Seefurth' plants was terminated after four months. Media treatments had no effect on foliage or rooting rating, wet root weights or dry root weights. Effects of application of thidiazuron (0, 1, 5 and 10 ppm) on shoot production of topped and untopped anthuriums is being studied. Anthuriums grew well in a small noncirculating hydroponics system. The hydroponics system proved to be more practical and productive than an aeroponics system tested earlier.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 10/01/90 to 09/30/91

          Outputs
          The combination herbicide test (Diuron and Rout) on four commercial anthurium varieties was terminated. The data is being analyzed. The drip vs. overhead irrigation methods under saran and natural rainfall gave no difference in yield, spathe size or flower stem length. The plots were covered with plastic to eliminate rainfall and data are being collected. Placing a sheet of saran cloth near the anthurium roots so they can cling to it in the aeroponics study has resulted in much improved anthurium growth. Non-circulating hydroponic studies have now been initiated. The four cultivar, six shade level study is continuing. Propagation studies utilizing various plant hormones are also continuing. Special containers to grow anthurium to study root growth were designed and fabricated. Various media (black cinder, peat moss, macadamia shells and their combinations) are being studied.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 10/01/89 to 09/30/90

            Outputs
            The combination herbicide test (Diuron and Rout) on four commercial anthurium varieties is continuing, with 18 months of data collected. Two years of data have been collected for the study testing two overhead and two drip irrigation methods under saran and natural rainfall. The experimental plots will now be covered with plastic to eliminate rainfall and data collected for two years. Anthurium plants grown aeroponically (roots in a fogging chamber with no media) did not do well. Further studies with inclusion of systems for root anchorage will be initiated. Four anthurium cultivars (Marian Seefurth, Ozaki, Nitta and Kozohara) were grown under six shade levels. Nine months of yield, flower quality and post harvest data have been obtained. Studies on propagation of anthuriums are continuing. There was no difference in sucker production of matured plants topped and treated with drenches versus sprays of 0, 500, 1000 ppm GA or GA and BA. There was a significant interaction between BA (0, 500, 1000, 1500 ppm) and NAA (0, 100, 500, 1000 ppm) treatments on number of shoots produced on topped plants. Further studies will be done with lower rates of combinations of BA and NAA.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 10/01/88 to 09/30/89

              Outputs
              Further studies on utilization of juvenile anthuriums for propagation were initiated. BA and NAA both at 500 and 1000 ppm individually and in combination were applied as a spray to topped anthurium juvenile plants. These growth hormones may increase sucker production. The experiment, testing effects of a combination of diuron and Rout was initiated. The herbicides are being tested on four commercial anthurium varieties; namely, Marian Seefurth, Ozaki, Nitta, and Kozohara. The method of irrigation study testing two overhead and two drip treatment is continuing. Early indications are that irrigation regardless of method is beneficial as compared to no irrigation. The test will be conducted for three years. A study utilizing fogging of the anthurium roots in a chamber without media was initiated. Fertilizer is being injected into the fogging system. The purpose of the study is to find out whether anthurium (an epiphyte) can be grown commercially without a media (aeroponics).

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 10/01/87 to 09/30/88

                Outputs
                Studies on utilization of juvenile anthuriums for propagation are continuing. Juvenile plants (unnamed cultivar) were topped at six successive height groupings from 5 cm to 25 cm. There was a linear decrease in number of suckers produced with increase in height of topped plants. Further studies on cultivar effect will be initiated soon. The weed control experiment was completed and results accepted for publication in HortScience. Granular formulations of oxyfluorfen (2%) + oryzalin (1%) (1.7, 3.3, and 6.7 kg/ha) and oxadiazon (3.3 and 6.6 kg/ha) gave excellent broad spectrum weed control but were phytotoxic to anthuriums at rates used in this experiment. Metribuzin (.6 and 1.2 kg/ha) provided equivalent and plastic ground cover, better weed control than diuron (.6 kg/ha) but reduced stem length. An experiment testing effects of a combination of diuron and a preemergent granular herbicide treatment will be initiated on four cultivars. The effect of pH 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 on growth of anthuriums was tested using modified solution cultures. Plant height, flower yield and flower stem length decreased linearly with increased pH level of nutrient solution. Data on pH effects on plant tissue weight, moisture content and nutrient analysis are being analyzed. An experiment to study the effects of methods of irrigation, two overhead and two drip treatment, was initiated and data collection started.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 10/01/86 to 09/30/87

                  Outputs
                  The NPK study to determine tissue analysis standards and post harvest effects was completed. There was a quadratic yield response to N, P and K. Interaction between N and K affected the positive linear response of flower size to increasing rates of both. Stem length increased linearly with increasing rates of N, P and K, with interactions between N and K and P and K. Tissue analysis and post harvest data are being analyzed. The anthurium propagation study using juvenile plantlets was completed and published. Topped juvenile plants produced significantly more suckers (2.2) than untopped plants (0.8). The propagation study testing various chemicals was accepted for publication in Hort Science. With increasing concentrations of GA(3) (0 to 500 ppm), topped plants showed an increase in lateral shoots. With increasing concentrations of BA (0 to 1,000 ppm) on both topped intact plants, the number of lateral shoots also increased. The solution culture experiment on the effects of pH on anthurium growth and flower production and the experiment to study chemical and non-chemical treatments to control weeds in anthurium nurseries was completed. The data are being analyzed. After one year, the shade level study to determine six shade levels on plant growth and flower production of four anthurium cultivars resulted in conflicting data. The plots were too small and consequently sunlight and shade levels were overlapping in various plots. A new study will be initiated utilizing larger plots.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 10/01/85 to 09/30/86

                    Outputs
                    The experiment on comparing methods of fertilization (liquid vs. solid) resultedin ground application of a solid slow release fertilizer at 340 and 450 kg/ha gave best results of yield, flower size, and flower stem length. They were followed by the combination of the solid and liquid fertilizer at 220 or 110 kg N/ha/yr. The liquid spray alone at 450 and 340 kg N/ha/yr gave comparable results to the slow release solid fertilizer or the combination of solid and liquid, in yield, but poorer results in stem length and flower size. The NPK study to determine tissue analysis standards and post harvest effects was completed. The data are presently being analyzed. An initial phase of the anthurium propagation study using juvenile plantlets was completed and the results are being published. The effects of other vegetative bud initiating chemicals for use in propagation are being tested. The following studies are actively being continued: The solution culture experiment on the effects of pH on anthurium growth and flower production; the shade level study to determine effects of six shade levels on plant growth and flower production of four anthurium cultivars; and the experiment to study chemical and non-chemical treatments to control weeds in anthurium nurseries.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/85 to 09/30/85

                      Outputs
                      The experiment on comparing methods of fertilization (liquid vs. solid) was completed. The data is presently being analyzed. The NPK study to determine tissue analysis standards and post-harvest effects is continuing. The nutritional deficiency symptom study was completed and the results published. The anthurium propagation studies are continuing; the effects of GA on sideshoot production experiment was completed and a publication is being prepared. Effects of other vegetative bud initiating chemicals for use in propagation will be tested in future studies. The solution culture experiment on the effects of pH on anthurium growth and flower production is continuing. Anthuriums seem to be tolerant to a wide range of pH levels. A shade level study was initiated to determine effects of six shade levels (63%, 73%, 80%, 83%, 88% and 91%) on plant growth and flower production of four anthurium cultivars. An experiment to study chemical and non-chemical treatments to control weeds in anthurium nurseries will be initiated soon. Studies on the cause of bleaching on anthuriums were temporarily suspended because of the breakdown of our growth chamber, and we are presently considering new approaches to studying the problem.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                        Outputs
                        Experiments on osmocote, dolomite, and temperature levels to induce bleaching symptoms on healthy anthurium plants were completed. None of these experiments produced the bleaching symptoms. The two fertilizer studies, comparing method of fertilizer application (liquid vs. solid) and the NPK study to determine tissue analysis standards are still continuing. A two-year evaluation of data was conducted on the method of fertilizer application to present a progress report to the growers. The experiment will be carried on for 3 years. Application of a slow release solid fertilizer at 136 kg and 182 kg N/P(2)O(5)/K(2)O or a combination of solid 91 kg N/P(2)O(5)/K(2)O and liquid 91 kg N/P(2)O(5)/K(2)O gave best results in production, flower stem length and flower size. The nutritional deficiency symptom study was completed and a manuscript submitted for publication. On the GA experiment significant side-shoot production was observed on all GA treated plants. A second experiment was done to test the effects of GA application on topped and untopped juvenile anthuriums. The results showed a linear increase in number of side-shoots produced with increasing amounts of GA application, up to 500 ppm on topped plants. A solution culture experiment on the effect of pH on anthurium growth and flower production was recently initiated.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                          Outputs
                          Experiments testing various factors that may induce bleaching symptoms on healthy anthurium plants were initiated and completed. These experiments were based on factors obtained from a survey conducted by the University Extension Service on the bleaching problem. The factors included: NO(3) vs. NH(4) forms of N, healthy vs. damaged roots, high vs. low temperatures, high vs. low levels of osmocote fertilizer. None of these experiments have produced the bleaching symptoms thus far. Experiments on osmocote, dolomite and temperature levels are continuing. Microtechnique was used to prepare slides of meristems of bleached and healthy plants in the hope of detecting bleaching symptoms in its early stages. Again, no observable difference was noted. A study on effect of Fe and B application showed that neither nutrient affected plant recovery from bleaching. The two fertilizer studies, comparing method of fertilizer application (liquid vs. solid) and the NPK study to determine tissue analysis standards are still continuing. The nutritional deficiency symptom study was completed and photos of the various symptoms are being prepared for publication. The GA study data are being analyzed. It was observed that treatment with GA induced plants to develop axillary shoots. As a result, an experiment was initiated to test GA as well as various fertilizer levels and topping vs. no topping of the main terminal of the plants to increase the propagation of anthurium plants vegetatively.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                            Outputs
                            A publication on the effect of Diuron (herbicide) on the uptake of Ca. test is being prepared. The juvenile anthurium plant propagation study initially showed that only P levels of 448 kg./ha./yr. resulted in significantly more side shoots than 0 or 224 kg./ha./yr. The study is continuing. In the solution culture elemental deficiency symptoms study, the Mg. and N treatments were terminated. These two elements showed early and destructive (terminating) symptoms. Other experiments on the effects of applying fertilizers on Anthurium andreanum by liquid or solid method; NPK factorial experiment to determine tissue analysis standards; and the leaf blade pruning study reported earlier are all continuing. An experiment to study the effects of applying gibberellic acid solutions on mature anthurium to study its effect on flower initiation was installed. Here, various concentrations of GA (conc. 0, 250ppm., 500ppm., 1000ppm.) are sprayed on to matured anthurium plants till runoff. Applications are made only once, but to different plants monthly to study the effects of the GA and the different growing seasons. Weekly production data is recorded.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                              Outputs
                              The effect of Diuron (herbicide) on the uptake of Ca test was terminated and thedata is being analyzed. Other experiments on the effects of applying fertilizers on Anthurium andraeanum by liquid or solid method; NPK factorial experiment to determine tissue analysis standards; the solution culture elemental deficiency symptoms study; the juvenile anthurium plant propagation study; and the leaf blade pruning study reported earlier are all continuing.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                                Outputs
                                An experiment to study the effects of applying fertilizers on Anthurium andraeanum by spray solutions or by solid fertilizer in ground application was initiated. Various concentrations of the fertilizers with the two methods and their effects on flower production, flower size and flower stem length are being tested. A NPK factorial experiment to determine tissue analysis standards was also initiated. The solution culture elemental deficiency symptoms study; the juvenile anthurium plant propagation study; and the leaf-blade pruning study reported earlier are continuing.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                  Outputs
                                  The media and fertilizer studies on Anthurium andreanum were completed. The data are being analyzed. The effect of Diuron (herbicide) on the uptake of Ca is being investigated. Most nurseries use Diuron for weed control, and its effect on uptake of Ca on anthurium plants is suspected. A solution-culture study on elemental (N, P, K, Mg, Fe, S) deficiency symptoms was initiated. A propagation-nutrition study of juvenile (young plantlets) anthurium plants as compared to increasing plants of the generative stage (productive plants) is being investigated. If successful, juvenile plantlets (e.g. tissue cultured plants) could be propagated rapidly in greenhouses, rather than under aseptic laboratory conditions. Use of pinching the terminal, variation in nutrition and various chemicals will be studied. Effects of removal of 50% of the leaf blade on anthuriums are being investigated. This will allow sunlight penetration into the plant and reduce crooked flower stem as well as penetration of insecticides and fungicides.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                                    Outputs
                                    Two experiments on anthurium flower production were initiated: (1) A media, fertilizer and irrigation study. Black cinder as an anthurium media is showing good results in some areas of Hawaii. However, our earlier experiment has shown that bagasse, wood shavings and fern chips far out rank black cinder as an anthurium media in flower production, flower size and stem length. Cause of difference in performance between black cinder and others, point toward water, aeration and salinity and so, are being tested in this experiment. Early results indicate that irrigation may be the difference in black cinder being a good anthurium media or not. (2) A media study. Sources of new materials for anthurium media are being studied. Materials being tested are: sugarcane bagasse, redwood soil amendment from California, shredded eucalyptus bark and eucalyptus wood chips. Early results indicate best media is eucalyptus bark.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                      Outputs
                                      A media and fertilizer study on Anthurium andreanum, Lind., cv. Ozaki Red was conducted. Media ranking from best to poorest for flower production, flower stem length, and flower and flower size were: sugarcane bagasse, wood shavings, black cinder base with bagasse mulch, tree fern chips and black cinder. The low fertilizer rate of (448N-196P-370K kg/ha/yr) gave as good as or better results in flower production as the higher rates of 2X or 3X. The 2X rate produced slightly longer flower stems and larger flowers. Through solution culture treatments at various levels of Ca, color-breakdown symptoms of the anthurium spathe were produced. A narrow cuticle level of 0.140 - 0.162% Ca was found as the concentration of Ca in the flower spathe tissue that produced or did not produce the color-breakdown disorder symptoms. A similar level of Ca was found on the leaf associated with the affected flowers. The levels on the leaf were 0.435 - 0.545% Ca, respectively.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/76 to 12/30/76

                                        Outputs
                                        Chemical growth regulators were tested to induce axillary shoots on anthurium plants, Anthurium andreanum L. Chemicals tested were PBA, BA and ethephon. BA at 1000 ppm gave best results with induction of 3.60 shoots as compared to none for no treatment. Ca deficiency in the lobe section of the anthurium flower spathe was found to be the cause of the flower color breakdown disorder (oedema). The effect on cell structure and the mode of action of Ca was investigated. A field test confirmed that application of Ca does prevent occurrence of the disorder. A gross anatomy and morphological study on Anthurium andreanum L. was completed.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/75 to 12/30/75

                                          Outputs
                                          Extension of day length with artificial lights produced taller plants than control, but days to flower from seed germination was not effected. Test using lights and bottom heat was installed. Sugarcane bagasse, wood shaving, bagasse top with cinder bottom, fern chips and block cinder ranked as best media in thatorder for anthurium flower yield, flower stem length and flower size. 400# N/A/Yr showed no significant difference with 800# and 1200# N/A/Yr fertilizer treatments. Oedema diseae symptoms were artifically produced in anthurium flowers with minus calcium treatments in nutrient culture. (45)Ca studies were installed.

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                            Outputs
                                            Preliminary experiments seem to indicate that Oedema disease of spathes may be caused by mineral deficiency. To verify with elements are involved, and to determine preventive measures, more precise nutrient-solution experiments were installed. Slightly faster growth of seedlings was noticed when daylength was extended by supplementary lights. Whether this will shorten the period of seedling growth to first flower must still be determined. Light intensity studies on retention of spathe color of "Marian Seefurth" (pink) and "Anuenue" (coral Obake) was completed, and a manuscript is being prepared for publication.During winter months, 75% shade is sufficient for color retention but in summer months, shading must be increased to about 90% to prevent fading of color of thepastel-colored "Marian Seefurth" and "Anuenue". Successful clonal increase of anthuriums through tissue culture has been reported under Project 844. Plantlets from such culture have been successfully transplanted to hapuu medium and grown in saranhouse without mortality.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/73 to 12/30/73

                                              Outputs
                                              With the anthurium industry emerging into large-scale commercial enterprises, some cultural problems such as weed control and anthracnose disease have become more acute. Weed control trials involving 7 herbicides revealed that diuron at 4 lbs/acre/200 gals of water controlled weeds for 16-20 weeks with no observablephytotoxicity. Liuron also controlled weeds for 16-20 weeks; however, slight venial chlorosis was observed. Spadices blemished by anthracnose of spadix rot disease render the flower unmarketable. Spraying of benomyl, a systemic fungicide, at 2-week intervals was recommended to reduce the incidence of this disease. Because of its absorption into the spadix, benomyl is especially recommended for high rainfall areas where non-systemic fungicides can easily be washed off. Publication of shade requirement to prevent fading of spathe duringthe summer months is being prepared. Supplementary light to hasten seedling growth is still be investigated.

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/72 to 12/30/72

                                                Outputs
                                                The experiment to determine the shade requirements that would prevent fading of spathe color during the summer months was terminated and a manuscript is being prepared for publication. Supplementary light experiments were initiated in an attempt to hasten growth of seedlings and shorten the duration of vegetative growth before first flower. Data on winter flower production and media studies are being analyzed. A mineral nutrition experiment in solution culture was initiated to provide information on tissue concentrations of minor elements in deficient plants and the associated deficiency symptoms.

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications


                                                  Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                                  Outputs
                                                  The experiments on chemical weed control and anthracnose control were terminatedand manuscripts were submitted for publication. Of ten chemicals tested for control on weeds, diuron gave best results. Benomyl, a new systemic fungicide, gave excellent control on anthracnose. The recommendations arising from both experiments have been widely adopted by the anthurium industry. Data on winter flower production and media studies are being analyzed. Experiments on vegetative propagation showed that two- or three-leaved terminal cuttings root rapidly and with minimum mortality when propagated under intermittent mist.

                                                  Impacts
                                                  (N/A)

                                                  Publications


                                                    Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                                    Outputs
                                                    Eight chemical herbicides at two rates (2O actual/A/200 gals and 4O active/A/200gals) were studied for weed control in anthurium production. Diuron at 2O/A/200gals gave best results. Results of the test will be published shortly. Two materials, Manzate and Dupont 1991, showed promise in the control of blacknose disease of anthuriums. Dupont 1991 at 0.5 lb/100 gal. was most effective. Media trials for anthuriums indicated that the sugarcane bagasse now used by most growers in still one of the best media, but that eucalyptus sawdust was also giving acceptable yields. Data are being collected on continuing studies of fertilization of anthuriums and improvement of winter production.

                                                    Impacts
                                                    (N/A)

                                                    Publications


                                                      Progress 01/01/69 to 12/30/69

                                                      Outputs
                                                      A new NPK study on anthuriums using three rates of nitrogen and two rates each of phosphorous and potassium was installed at the Waiakea Branch Station in Hilo. Also anthurium plants are being established in the newly constructed fiberglass house to determine growth and flowering behavior and degree of control of anthracnose. Data on media study and winter production study were accumulated. The experiment on chemical control of spadix rot was terminated. Results were inconclusive. A new test using fewer treatments and more replicates was initiated.

                                                      Impacts
                                                      (N/A)

                                                      Publications


                                                        Progress 01/01/68 to 12/30/68

                                                        Outputs
                                                        The following experiments are continuing as scheduled: Anthurium Media Study: Hapuu (fern fibers) showed best results initially of growth and production of anthurium flowers. However, sugar cane bagasse is producing good results lately. The test will be continued for another year. Increase Winter Production of Anthuriums. This test using heating cables during the winter to increase production did not show any significant results last year. The plants were too small. The test is continuing this year as scheduled and should show some indication of the effect of temperature on anthurium winter production.

                                                        Impacts
                                                        (N/A)

                                                        Publications