Source: PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
POULTRY DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0027621
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
PEN01606
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 1967
Project End Date
Dec 31, 2050
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Kennett, M. J.
Recipient Organization
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
208 MUELLER LABORATORY
UNIVERSITY PARK,PA 16802
Performing Department
Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
10%
Applied
90%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
3113210116050%
3153210116050%
Goals / Objectives
Operate a laboratory to diagnose diseases of poultry and to test samples of poultry for pullorum disease.
Project Methods
Specimens presented by poultry owners of Pennsylvania and nearby states will be examined by appropriate methodology for diagnosis.

Progress 10/01/12 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: This project reaches commercial poultry producers of all species and types, backyard producers, organic producers, bird fanciers, live bird market producers, auction markets, game bird producers, wildlife rehabilitators, PA Department of Agriculture (PDA), Bureau of Animal Health and Diagnostic services, Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission, PA Game Commission, USDA-APHIS and pharmaceutical and biologics companies, consumers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Conducted the annual American Association of Avian Pathologists Meeting. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? 1) Poultry Meetings in PA. 2) Practitioners Annual Meeting. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Nothing Reported

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? 130,668 avian and avian related specimens were examined during the period. This includes a wide range of disease surveillance and diagnostic tests for programs including private, state and federal institutions. During the period, post mortem exams were performed on 3,184 birds, and 5,786 histopathology slides were evaluated. Other tests performed include 115,218 serology tests, 3,283 virology tests, 1,560 parasitology tests, 96 E. coli virulence tests, and 7,327 bacteriology tests including 3,815 tests to support the PEQAP and FDA Egg Rule Program. The PEQAP program has reduced the incidence of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in poultry and table eggs significantly in PA, and has become a model for a national SE program to promote food safety in poultry and egg products. The avian expertise at ADL has provided disease surveillance and biosecurity management information to help safeguard the layer flocks that supply the majority of the fertile eggs for human influenza vaccine production for the Americas. The economic stability of the poultry industry in PA is not only helped by disease diagnostics and disease surveillance performed at ADL, but by performing tens of thousands of avian influenza tests to support export of poultry to the Northeast Live Bird Marketing System. The avian virologist and pathologists are conducting comprehensive investigations into new strains of pathogenic reoviruses in broiler chickens that are causing significant production problems and downgrades in Kosher processing plants. These studies have resulted in production of autogenous vaccine for use in broiler breeders during 2012, 2013. Further investigations into the reovirus strains are ongoing. Dr. Lu’s expertise is being used to support avian diagnostics in other countries through the United Nations FAO, USDA and USAID, especially in the area of avian influenza detection and control.) Drs. Kariyawasam and Wallner- Pendleton continue to work on a USDA-NIFSI grant to determine the incidence of SE in small laying flocks (less than 50,000 birds) by testing pullets and layer feeds, flies, rodents, water and environments. This is a group which up until July, 2012 was not part of the FDA SE rule and hence the incidence of SE is currently unknown. In another project, molecular comparisons of SE of poultry origin with SE from human outbreaks are also being investigated by Dr. Kariyawasam Drs. DebRoy and Kariyawasam, with other collaborators, examined the likelihood of ExPEC strains of E. coli contaminating retail poultry, by genetically comparing E. coli isolated from many sources to those that cause colibacillosis in poultry. Projects involving analyses of gut microbiota in chickens to determine the potential role of microbiota in diseases such as E. coli peritonitis in layers and Enterococcus cecorum vertebral abscesses in broilers are also in progress. Dr. Dunn is participating in a NIH research grant on the disease ecology of Marek’s disease in chickens. Dr. Pendleton is the project organizer for the Poultry Handling and Transportation Quality Assurance Certification Program. This program has an extensive section on biosecurity for poultry handlers and transporters. The goal is to reduce farm to farm and farm to market spread of diseases such as Avian Influenza and other infections.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Ren Theary, Sorn San, Holl Davun, Lotfi Allal, Huaguang Lu*. New Outbreaks of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Domestic Poultry and Wild Birds in Cambodia in 2011. (*Lu, correspondence author). Avian Diseases. 56: 861-864, 2012.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Lynne, A. M., S. Kariyawasam, V. Y. Wannemuehler1, T. J. Johnson, S. J. Johnson, A. S. Sinha, D. K. Lynne, H. W. Moon, D. M. Jordan, C. M. Logue, S. L. Foley, and L. K. Nolan. 2012. Recombinant Iss as a potential vaccine for avian colibacillosis. Avian Dis. 56:192-199.


Progress 10/01/11 to 09/30/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Pennsylvania State University Animal Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) provides diagnostic services to a wide range of stakeholders in Pennsylvania. These include: commercial poultry producers of all species and types, backyard producers, organic producers, bird fanciers, live bird market producers, auction markets, game bird producers, wildlife rehabilitators, PA Department of Agriculture (PDA), Bureau of Animal Health and Diagnostic services, Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission, P A Game Commission, USDA-APHIS and pharmaceutical and biologics companies. Available services to the stakeholders are in the sections of avian pathology, bacteriology, virology, serology, parasitology, field investigation, E. coli Reference Center (ECRC) and molecular diagnostics. The ADL provides specimen and biological waste disposal services through the ADL Incinerator. ADL participates in programs such as: National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP), PA Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP), and FDA Egg Rule Program. ADL provides testing for PDA through Cooperative Agreements with USDA Notifiable Avian Influenza (NAI)Program; AI Programs for the live Bird Markets in PA; Biosecurity, Emergency Planning, Animal Welfare Training and Certification For Poultry Haulers and Catch Crews. PARTICIPANTS: Patricia Dunn, Avian Pathologist, Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory; Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Avian Pathologist, Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory; Huaguang Lu, Avian Virologist, Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory; Chobi DebRoy, ECRC Director, Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory; Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Microbiologist, Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory. TARGET AUDIENCES: Animal agricultural industry of Pennsylvania in particular poultry industry, academia, State and Federal Governments including PDA, FDA and USDA, consumers, diagnostic laboratories, public health agencies PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Decreased funding from state and federal sources has caused the laboratory to provide testing with fewer personnel.

Impacts
131,934 avian and avian related specimens have examined during the period. This includes a wide range of disease surveillance and diagnostic tests for programs including private, state and federal institutions. 6318 samples were tested to support the PEQAP and FDA Egg Rule Program. The PEQAP program has reduced the incidence of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in poultry and table eggs significantly in PA, and has become a model for a national SE program to promote food safety in poultry and egg products. The avian expertise at ADL have provided disease surveillance and biosecurity management information to help safeguard the layer flocks that supply the majority of the fertile eggs for human influenza vaccine production for the Americas. The economic stability of the poultry industry in PA is not only helped by disease diagnostics and disease surveillance performed at ADL, but by performing tens of thousands of avian influenza tests to support export of poultry to the Northeast Live Bird Marketing System. The avian pathologists and virologist are conducting comprehensive investigations into new strains of pathogenic reoviruses in broiler chickens, resulting in production of autogenous vaccine for use in broiler breeders. Two studies are being conducted through support of check off grants on FDN in commercial layers and spinal abscesses in broilers and broiler breeders. Dr. Lu's expertise is being used to support avian diagnostics in other countries through the United Nations FAO, USDA and USAID, especially in the area of avian influenza detection and control. Drs. Kariyawasam and Wallner- Pendleton have a USDA-NIFSI grant to determine the incidence of SE in small laying flocks (less than 50,000 birds) by testing pullets and layer feeds, flies, rodents, water and environments. This is a group which up until July, 2012 was not part of the FDA SE rule and hence the incidence of SE is currently unknown. In another project, molecular comparisons of SE of poultry origin with SE from human outbreaks are also being investigated by Dr. Kariyawasam. Drs. DebRoy and Kariyawasam, with other collaborators, examined the likelihood of ExPEC strains of E. coli contaminating retail poultry, by genetically comparing E. coli isolated from many sources to those that cause colibacillosis in poultry. Projects involving analyses of gut microbiota in chickens to determine the potential role of microbiota in diseases such as E. coli peritonitis in layers and Enterococcus cecorum vertebral abscesses in broilers are also in progress.

Publications

  • Wijetunge, D. S., P. Dunn, E. Wallner-Pendleton, V. Lintner, and S. Kariyawasam. 2012. Fingerprinting of poultry isolates of Enterococcus cecorum: Evaluation of three typing methods. J. Vet. Diagn. Inves (In Press).
  • Sandford, E. E., M. Orr, E. Balfanz, N. Bowerman, X. Li, H. Zhou, T. J. Johnson, S. Kariyawasam, P. Liu, L. K. Nolan, and S. J. Lamont. 2012. Leukocyte Transcriptome from Chickens Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Identifies Pathways Associated with Resistance. Results in Immunology (In Press).
  • Johnson, T. J., Y. Wannemuehler, S. Kariyawasam, J. R. Johnson, C. M. Logue, and L. K. Nolan. 2012. Prevalence of Avian-Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strain O1 Genomic Islands Among Extraintestinal and Commensal E. Coli Isolates. J. Bacteriol. 194:2846-2853.
  • Li, G., S. Kariyawasam, K. A. Tivendale, Y. Wannemuehler, C. Ewers, L. H. Wieler, C. M. Logue, and L. K. Nolan. 2012. tkt1, Located on a Novel Pathogenicity Island, is Prevalent in Avian and Human Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli. BMC Microbiol. Apr 3;12:51.
  • Kariyawasam, S. and L. K. Nolan. 2011. papA gene of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Avian Dis. 55:532-538.
  • Huaguang, L., L. Lin, W. Ronghui, L. Yanbin, B. Scheuchenzuber, and J. A. Rosebrock. 2012. Development of H5 Subtype-specific Monoclonal Antibodies (MAb) and Mab-based Assays for Rapid Detection of H5 Avian Influenza. Health (In Press).
  • Theary, R., S. San, H. Davun, L. Allal, and H. Lu. 2011. New Outbreaks of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Domestic Poultry and Wild Birds in Cambodia. Avian Diseases (In Press).
  • Wang, R., J. Lin, K. Lassiter, B. Srinivasan, L. Lin, H. Lu, S. Tung, B. Hargis, W. Bottje, L. Berghman, and Y. Li. 2011. Evaluation study of a portable impedance biosensor for detection of avian influenza virus. J Virol Methods 178:52-58.
  • Burley, A. Adrizal, P. H. Patterson, R. M. Hulet, H. Lu, R. M. Bates, G. P. Martin, C. A. B. Myers, and H. M. Atkins. 2011. The Potential of Vegetative Buffers to Reduce Dust and Respiratory Virus Transmission from Commercial Poultry Farms. J Appl Poult Res. 20:210-222.
  • Li, D., J. Wang, Y. Li, Y. D. Berghmand, B. Hargis, and H. Lu. 2011. A nanobeads amplified QCM immunosensor for the detection of avian influenza virus H5N1. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26:4146-4154.
  • Hua Bai, H., R. Wang, B. Hargis, H. Lu, and Y. Li. 2012. A SPR Aptasensor for Detection of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1. Sensor. 12:12506-12518.


Progress 10/01/10 to 09/30/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Pennsylvania State University Animal Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) provides diagnostic services to a wide range of stakeholders in Pennsylvania--Commercial poultry producers of all species and types, backyard producers, organic producers, bird fanciers, live bird market producers, auction markets, game bird producers (in over 15 states), wildlife rehabilitators, PA Department of Agriculture (PDA), Bureau of Animal Health and Diagnostic services, Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission, PA Game Commission, USDA/APHIS and pharmaceutical companies all use the ADL services. Available services to the stakeholders are in the sections of avian pathology, bacteriology, virology, Immunology, parasitology, field investigation, E. coli Reference Center (ECRC) and molecular diagnostics. The ADL provides for specimen and biological waste disposal through the ADL Incinerator. ADL participates in programs like the USDA Wildlife avian influenza (AI) surveillance, National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP), and the PA Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP). ADL provides testing for PDA through Cooperative Agreements with USDA Upland Game Bird, Exhibition Poultry and Waterfowl (Subpart E, NPIP) Notifiable AI (NAI); High Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic AI Programs for the live Bird Markets in PA; Managing NPIP NAI, Biosecurity, Emergency Planning, Animal Welfare Training and Certification For Poultry Haulers and Catch Crews and Development of the Game Bird Chapter of the Poultry and Upland Gamebird and Raised for Release Waterfowl Field Manual for Members of the National Animal Health emergency Response Corps (NAHERC). PARTICIPANTS: Patricia Dunn, Avian Pathologist - Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Avian Pathologist - Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Huaguang Lu, Avian Virologist-Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Chobi DebRoy, ECRC Director -Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Microbiologist-Penn State Animal Diagnostic Laboratory. TARGET AUDIENCES: Animal agricultural industry of Pennsylvania in particular poultry industry, Academia, State and Federal Governments including PDA, FDA and USDA, Consumers, Diagnostic Laboratories, and Public Health Agencies. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Funding decrease from the state and federal sources has caused the laboratory to provide testing with fewer personnel.

Impacts
114,965 avian and avian related specimens have examined during the period. This includes a wide range of disease surveillance and diagnostic tests for programs including private, state and federal institutions. Our avian pathologists conducted comprehensive investigations into reo-viral tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys. Two studies are currently being conducted through support of check off grants on FDN in commercial layers and spinal abscesses in broilers and broiler breeders. Nearly 6990 specimens were examined to support the PEQAP and FDA Egg Rule Program. This program has reduced the incidence of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in poultry and table eggs significantly in PA. The PEQAP program has become a model for a national SE program to promote food safety in poultry and egg products. The avian expertise at ADL have provided extensive disease surveillance and biosecurity management information to help safeguard the extensive fertile egg producers that supply the majority of the fertile eggs for human influenza vaccine production for the Americas. The economic stability of the poultry industry in PA is not only helped by disease diagnostics and disease surveillance performed at ADL, but by performing tens of thousands of avian influenza tests to support export of poultry to the New York and New Jersey Live Bird Markets. Dr. Lu's expertise is being used to support avian diagnostics in other countries through the United Nations FAO, USDA and USAID. Extraintestinal pathogenic strains of E. coli (ExPEC) are major players in human urinary tract infections, meningitis and sepsis. Drs. DebRoy and Kariyawasam, with other collaborators, examined the likelihood of ExPEC strains of E. coli contaminating retail poultry. To ascertain the source of contamination, E. coli isolated from multiple locations were compared genetically with those that cause colibacillosis (Avian Pathogenic E. coli or APEC) in poultry. E. coli isolated from retail poultry exhibited gene profiles more similar to APEC strains and belonged to phylogenetic group B2 that are known to be human pathogen. This research suggested that sources of poultry contamination need to be reassessed.

Publications

  • Wallner-Pendleton, E. A. and M. R. Hulet. 2011. Poultry and Upland Game Bird and rose for Release Waterfowl. Field Manual for Members of the National Health Emergency Response Corps (In Press).
  • Wallner-Pendleton, E. A., E. Gingerich, R. M. Hulet, G. Martin, P. Patterson, and C. Wood. 2010. Poultry Handling and Transportation Quality Assurance Training and Certification Manual http://www.poultryhandling.org.
  • Kariyawasam, S. and L. K. Nolan. 2011. A gene of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Avian Dis. (In Press).
  • Lynne, A. M., S. Kariyawasam, V. Y. Wannemuehler, T. J. Johnson, S. J. Johnson, A. S. Sinha, D. K. Lynne, H. W. Moon, D. M. Jordan, C. M. Logue, S. L. Foley, and L. K. Nolan. 2011. Recombinant Iss as a Potential Vaccine for Avian Colibacillosis. Avian Dis. (In Press).
  • Sandford, E. E., M. Orr, E. Balfanz, N. Bowerman, X. Li, H. Zhou, T. J. Johnson, S. Kariyawasam, P. Liu, L. K. Nolan, and S. J. Lamont. 2011. Spleen transcriptome response to infection with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in broiler chickens. BMC Genomics 27(12):469.
  • Liu, P., S. Kariyawasam, B. M. Jayarao, R. Barrangou, P. Gerner-Smidt, E. M. Ribot, S. J. Knabel, and E. G. Dudley. 2011. Subtyping Salmonella serovar Enteritidis isolates from different sources using sequence typing based on virulence genes and CRISPRs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:4520-4526.
  • Tivendale, K. A., C. M. Logue, S. Kariyawasam, D. Jordan, A. Hussein, G. Li, Y. Wannemuehler, and L. K. Nolan. 2010. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains are similar to neonatal meningitis E. coli strains and are able to cause meningitis in the rat model of human disease. Infect. Immun. 78:3412-3419.
  • Johnson, T. J., D. Jordan, S. Kariyawasam, A. L. Stell, N. P. Bell, Y. M. Wannemuehler, C. F. Alcaron, G. Li, K. A. Tivendale, C. M. Logue, and L. K. Nolan. 2010. Sequence analysis and characterization of a transferrable hybrid plasmid encoding multidrug resistance and enabling zoonotic potential for extraintestinal Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 78:1931-1942.
  • Li, G., Y. Feng, S. Kariyawasam, K. A. Tivendale, Y. Wannemuehler, F. Zhou, C. M. Logue, C. L. Miller, and L. K. Nolan. 2010. AatA is a novel autotransporter and virulence factor of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 78(3):898-906.
  • Wallner-Pendleton, E. A. 2011. A Practical Guide for Managing Risk in Poultry Production, Special Considerations for Upland Game Birds. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc. pp. 248-253.


Progress 10/01/09 to 09/30/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Pennsylvania State University Animal Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) provides diagnostic services to a wide range of stakeholders in Pennsylvania (PA). Commercial poultry producers of all species and types, backyard producers, organic producers, bird fanciers, live bird market producers, auction markets, game bird producers (in over 15 states), wildlife rehabilitators, PA Department of Agriculture (PDA), Bureau of Animal Health and Diagnostic services, Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission, P A Game Commission, USDA/APHIS and pharmaceutical companies all use the ADL services. Available services to the stakeholders are in the sections of avian pathology, bacteriology, virology, immunology, parasitology, field investigation, E. coli Reference Center (ECRC) and molecular diagnostics. The ADL provides for specimen and biological waste disposal through the ADL Incinerator. ADL participates in programs like; the USDA Wildlife avian influenza (AI) surveillance, National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the PA Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP). ADL provides testing for the three PDA Cooperative Agreements with USDA. Upland Game Bird, Exhibition Poultry and Waterfowl (Subpart E, NPIP) Notifiable AI (NAI); High Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic AI Programs for the Live Bird Markets in PA; Managing NPIP NAI, Biosecurity, Emergency Planning, Animal Welfare Training and Certification For Poultry Haulers and Catch Crews and Development of the Game Bird Chapter of the Poultry and Upland Gamebird and Raised for Release Waterfowl Field Manual for Members of the National Animal Health emergency Response Corps (NAHERC). Avian virology diagnostic training is being performed for 3 international scholars (Dr Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Dr Qaiser Alkram, Dr Mobeen Sarwar) from Pakistan. PARTICIPANTS: Bhushan M. Jayarao, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, John I. Enck, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Patricia Dunn, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Huaguang Lu, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Chobi DebRoy, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Animal Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences TARGET AUDIENCES: Veterinary, producer, institutional, governmental and consumer clients of the Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, the Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission and the animal agricultural industry of Pennsylvania . PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Funding decrease from the state and federal sources has caused the laboratory to provide testing with fewer personnel.

Impacts
Over 122,000 specimen tests have been performed for avian pathogens during the period. This includes a wide range of disease surveillance and diagnostic tests for programs and institutions listed above. Over 8000 specimens were examined to support the PEAQAP (Salmonella enteritidis) program. This program has reduced the incidence of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in poultry and table eggs significantly in PA. This program has become a model for a national Food and Drug (FDA) SE program to promote food safety in poultry and egg products. The avian expertise at ADL have provided extensive disease surveillance and biosecurity management information to help safeguard the extensive fertile egg producers that supply the majority of the fertile eggs for human influenza vaccine production for the Americas. The economic stability of the poultry industry in PA is not only helped by disease diagnostics and disease surveillance performed at ADL, but by performing tens of thousands of avian influenza tests to support export of poultry to the New York and New Jersey Live Bird Markets. Pathologists are participating in the USDA microtagging bird identification research trial to examine safety and efficacy of this technology aimed at identifying flocks / birds that are qualified to enter the northeast live bird markets. Pathologists provided expertise for investigations into reoviral tenosynovitis at Kosher broiler processing plant and into duck species identifications at Kosher duck processing facilities. A study on specific coccidiostat effects in different breed crosses of broiler chickens was also conducted. A pathologist and microbiologist are directing an undergraduate student in further research into the prevalence of Brachyspira sp. (the agent of avian intestinal spirochetosis) in younger commercial pullet and layer flocks in follow-up of previous work. ADL developed a new real-time PCR assay to detect of Chlamydophila psittaci mammalian species. ADL conducted validation of modified procedures for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation and negative staining to enhance recognition of virus particles in diagnostic specimens. ADL is producing Turkey HE vaccine for PA turkey industry. ADL is continuing to develop real-time PCR for avian enteric viruses and monoclonal antibodies to common and important avian viruses to enhance avian diagnostics.The ECRC has detected the presence of E. coli strains that carried virulence genes associated with avian sp. and other virulence genes that are known to be associated with mammals in threatened sea ducks in Alaska. Genetic profiles of E. coli isolates from water sample matched with an isolate from a duck providing evidence of transmission between water and birds in near-shore marine habitat of southwest Alaska (Hollmen et al., 2010). Many samples from petting zoos across America are tested for the presence of E. coli 0157 H7.

Publications

  • Myers, S. E., P. A. Dunn, N. D. Phillips, T. La, and D. J. Hampson. 2009. Brachyspira intermedia and Brachyspira pilosicoli are commonly found in older laying flock in Pennsylvania. Avian Dis. 53:533-537.
  • Dunn, P. A., E. A. Wallner Pendleton, S. E. Myers, S. Kariyawasam, H. Lu, D. J. Hampson, A. Murdoch, and C. DebRoy. 2009. Interesting diagnostic cases from Pennsylvania, 58th Western Poultry Disease Conference. Sacramento, CA. March, 2009. pp. 93-96. (Abstract).
  • Hollmen, T. E., C. DebRoy, P. L. Flint, D. E. Safine, J. L. Schamber, A. E. Riddle, and K. A. Trust. 2010. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains associated with threatened sea ducks and near-shore marine habitats of southwest Alaska. Environmental Microbiology Report (Accepted for Publication).
  • Lu, H., M. M. Ismail, O. A. Khan, M. H. Al-Blowi, and S. A. Rhman. 2010. Epidemic Outbreaks, Diagnostics and Control Measures for the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreaks in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2007-08. Avian Diseases. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Avian Influenza. 54:350-356.
  • Ismail, M. M., O. A. Khan, G. Cattoli, and H. Lu. 2010. Isolation and Identification of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H5N1 in Peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Avian Diseases. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Avian Influenza. 54:357-360.


Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The Pennsylvania State University Animal Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) provides diagnostic services to a wide range of stakeholders in Pennsylvania (PA). Commercial poultry producers of all species and types, backyard producers, organic producers, bird fanciers, live bird market producers, auction markets, game bird producers (in over 15 states), wildlife rehabilitators, PA Department of Agriculture (PDA), Bureau of Animal Health and Diagnostic services, Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission, P A Game Commission, USDA/APHIS and pharmaceutical companies all use the ADL services. Available services to the stakeholders are in the sections of avian pathology, bacteriology, virology, immunology, parasitology, field investigation, E. coli Reference Center and molecular diagnostics. ADL participates in programs like; the USDA Wildlife avian influenza (AI) surveillance, National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) and the PA Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP). ADL provides testing for the three PDA Cooperative Agreements with USDA. Upland Game Bird, Exhibition Poultry and Waterfowl (Subpart E, NPIP) Notifiable AI (NAI); High Pathogenic and Low Pathogenic AI Programs for the Live Bird Markets in PA; Managing NPIP NAI. This Very broad base of stakeholders supported by the avian pathology and field investigation team of Dr. Patty Dunn and Dr. Eva Pendleton and the virology expertise of Dr. Huaguang Lu, has provided PA poultry producers the PDA and the USDA a wealth of data to mitigate AI and other avian diseases diagnosed in PA. A new USDA research project on AI, "Nanowire Switch and Nanoelectrode/Nanochannel Based Impedance Biosensor for Rapid Screening of Avian Influenza," has been funded for two years 2009-10, which is collaborative research of multiple institutes between the University of Arkansas and Penn State University. PARTICIPANTS: John I. Enck, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Patricia Dunn, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Huaguang Lu, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Chobi DebRoy, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Suzanne Myers, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Animal Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences TARGET AUDIENCES: Clients of the Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, the Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission and the animal agricultural industry of Pennsylvania PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Over 146,000 specimen tests have been performed for avian pathogens during the period. In addition to a wide range of disease surveillance and diagnostic tests, active research programs have brought rapid molecular assays (standard and real-time PCR) for avian influenza, fowl adenovirus, avian reovirus and rotovirus, avian chlamydia and avian mycoplasma sp. Dr. Lu has developed AI monoclonal antibodies and rapid Dot-ELISA to diagnose multiple H and N types of avian influenza, and he is currently collaborating a USDA research project with University of Arkansan for the development of a novel biosensor assay for AI rapid detection. Over 7000 specimens were examined to support the PEAQAP program. This program has reduced the incidence of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in poultry and table eggs significantly in PA. This program has become a model for a national SE program to promote food safety in poultry and egg products. The avian expertise at ADL have provided extensive disease surveillance and biosecurity management information to help safeguard the extensive fertile egg producers that supply the majority of the fertile eggs for human influenza vaccine production for the Americas. The economic stability of the poultry industry in PA is not only helped by disease diagnostics and disease surveillance performed at ADL, but by performing tens of thousands of avian influenza tests to support export of poultry to the New York and New Jersey Live Bird Markets. Dr. Lu's expertise is being used to support avian diagnostics in other countries through the United Nations FAO, USDA and USAID. Extraintestinal pathogenic strains of E. coli (EXPEC) are major players in human urinary tract infections, meningitis and sepsis. Drs. DebRoy and Kariyawasam, with other collaborators, checked whether E. coli contaminating retail poultry are possible ExPEC strains. To ascertain the source of contamination, E. coli isolated from multiple locations were compared genetically with those that cause colibacillosis (Avian Pathogenic E. coli or APEC) in poultry. E. coli isolated from retail poultry exhibited gene profiles more similar to APEC strains and belonged to phylogenetic group B2 that are known to be human pathogen. This research suggested that sources of poultry contamination need to be reassessed.

Publications

  • Johnson, T.J., C.M. Logue, Y. Wannemuehler, S. Kariyawasam, C. Doetkott, C. DebRoy, D.G. White, and L.K. Nolan. 2009. Examination of the source and extended virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli contaminating retail poultry meat. Foodborne Path. Dis. 6:657-667.
  • Lu, H., M. Yan, and L. Lin. 2009. Development of Real-Time PCR for Avian Enteric Viral Pathogens. The 81st Northeastern Conference on Avian Diseases. Grantville, PA. Sept. 17-18, 2009. p. 28.


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The avian pathology, virology, bacteriology, serology and molecular sections at the Animal Diagnostic Laboratory provide services to detect, diagnose and aid in control of endemic and emerging zoonotic diseases of avian species. The laboratory, due in part to national educational efforts of the avian influenza (AI) control and prevention (CAP) grant, receives game bird cases from 15 states for disease-comprehensive, laboratory-based diagnostic testing for game bird producers, and also participates in the USDA/APHIS Wildlife AI surveillance program. Funding for HPAI in game birds is accomplished through an NPIP grant award. The laboratory conducts routine AI surveillance tests for PA poultry resources including commercial poultry, back-yard poultry, live bird markets, and auctions in coordination with the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA). Isolation and identification of infectious disease organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites is performed on these animals. New molecular diagnostic tests being developed include RT-PCR for the rapid detection of fowl adenovirus, avian reovirus and rotavirus, and avian Chlamydia. A new USDA research project on AI "Nanowire Switch and Nanoelectrode/Nanochannel Based Impedance Biosensor for Rapid Screening of Avian Influenza" has been approved for funding, which is collaborative research of multiple institutes between the University of Arkansas and Penn State University. The application of mycoplasma PCR has resulted in more rapid and specific results for use in controlling these avian pathogens. Examples of diagnostic investigations include: infectious bronchitis in layers chickens, multifactorial enteritis and immunosuppression in growing turkeys; coccidiosis and clostridial enteritis control in "antibiotic-free" broiler chickens; coccidiosis and marble spleen disease investigations in pheasants and chukar partridges; investigation into causes of high mortality in cage-free laying hens; broiler hatchery monitoring for microbial pathogens (with emphasis on salmonellae). A comprehensive national study was initiated through efforts of the North American Game Bird Association, ADL and the University of Georgia into the causes of intestinal coccidiosis in game birds through grants. As an outcome, several new drugs have been identified for treatment of coccidiosis. A novel disease of pheasants that causes high mortality due to hepatitis and hemorrhages in the duodenum is currently under investigation. Cases have been seen in PA, NY, CT and SD.. An international study to determine the prevalence of Brachyspira sp. in commercial layers is in progress and has resulted in enhanced molecular capabilities to detect these potential pathogens in PA flocks. Five high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing continue (PA AI program, game bird AI monitoring program, live bird market AI surveillance program, PA Egg Quality Assurance Program, and National Poultry Improvement Plan AI program). The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for AIV H9 and N1 subtypes and NDV are ongoing studies at ADL. PARTICIPANTS: John I. Enck, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. Patricia Dunn, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. Huaguang Lu, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. Chobi DebRoy, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. Suzanne Myers, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. Douglas Key, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. TARGET AUDIENCES: Clients of the Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, the Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission and the animal agricultural industry of Pennsylvania PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The project impact still affects the same stake holders. However, the degree of impact continues to rise because of new technology and improved turnaround times. As agribusiness sees the value of the project, more stakeholders use the services and information. Individually and collective the impact is greater for the industry. Testing, diagnosis, and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefits to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort and well-being, reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria and highly pathogenic viruses, and enhanced control of zoonotic pathogens. Through disease monitoring and diagnosis, the laboratory is safeguarding the supply of adequate fertile eggs for production of human influenza and pandemic avian influenza vaccine production for North America. The Pennsylvania avian influenza surveillance program continues to be recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. This system has been instrumental in clearing thousands of birds for exportation into the northeast live bird market system. The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella-contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer. The avian virology and molecular biology capabilities continue to be enhanced by additions of new tests that improve the sensitivity and shorten the time of detection of poultry pathogens. Dr. H. Lu, through the FAO, USDA, and USAID, has taken ADL's advances in avian influenza diagnostics to help develop laboratories in Southeast Asian and Mideast countries for AI surveillance tests for the global efforts to diagnose and control the H5N1 high path AI outbreaks.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The avian diagnostic laboratory provides services to detect, diagnose, and aid in control of endemic and emerging zoonotic diseases of avian species. The laboratory, due in part to national educational efforts of the AI CAP grant, receives game bird cases from 15 states for disease-comprehensive, laboratory-based diagnostic testing for game bird producers. The laboratory is participating in PA AI surveillance for the PA Game Commission. Isolation and identification of infectious disease organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites is performed on these animals. New diagnostic tests being developed include real time RT-PCR for the rapid detection of avian enteric viruses, "DIVA" test for AI surveillance, and new LMH cell lines for growing various avian viruses and applying them for avian diagnostics. The application of mycoplasma PCR has resulted in more rapid and specific results for use in controlling these avian pathogens. Examples of diagnostic investigations include: multifactorial enteritis and immunosuppression in growing turkeys; coccidiosis and clostridial enteritis control in "antibiotic- free" broiler chickens; broiler hatchery monitoring for microbial pathogens (with emphasis on salmonellae) during transition to in-ovo vaccination technologies and chlamydiosis in pigeons; investigations into high early death loss in commercial broilers led to monitoring of hatch residue from a hatchery over a 10-month period; a high incidence of S. enteritidis was detected in eggs from a broiler breeder company; an investigation into excessive skin and muscle tears during processing determined Nicarbazin at very high levels, however, by removing this coccidiostat from the feed, processing down-grades returned to normal; chlamydiosis was diagnosed in a flock of commercial pigeons and circovirus lesions are also commonly detected in the bursas. Four high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing continue (PA AI program, game bird AI monitoring program, live bird market AI surveillance program, PA Egg Quality Assurance Program, and National Poultry Improvement Plan AI program). The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for AIV H9 and N1 subtypes and NDV are ongoing studies at ADL. ADL participates in USDA/APHIS wildlife AI surveillance. PDA funded the detection, prevalence, and characterization of Campylobacter spp. in poultry processed in PA and interventions to reduce contamination. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and turkey carcasses was examined at different stages of processing from three poultry processing plants in PA. Presence of both C. jejuni and C. coli were observed in Poultry Processing Plant A that was kosher and only C. coli was observed in Poultry Processing Plant B that carried chickens that were never exposed to antimicrobials. Treatment of carcasses with acidified Sodium Chlorite did not have much effect in reducing Campylobacter as observed in samples from chicken processed in Plant C. Intervention strategies reflected that antimicrobial ASC has the greatest effect in decontaminating Campylobacter in chicken, followed by POAA, Sodium hypochlorite and then water. PARTICIPANTS: John I. Enck, Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences; Patricia Dunn, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences; Eva Wallner-Pendleton, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences; Huaguang Lu, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences; Chobi DebRoy, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences; Brenda Love, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences; Suzanne Myers, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences; and Douglas Key, Diagnostic Laboratory, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences. TARGET AUDIENCES: Clients of the Animal Diagnostic Laboratory, the Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission and the animal agricultural industry of Pennsylvania.

Impacts
Testing, diagnosis, and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefits to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort and well-being, reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria and highly pathogenic viruses, and enhanced control of zoonotic pathogens. Through disease monitoring and diagnosis, the laboratory is safeguarding the supply of adequate fertile eggs for production of human influenza and pandemic avian influenza vaccine production for North America. The Pennsylvania avian influenza surveillance program continues to be recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. This system has been instrumental in clearing thousands of birds for exportation into the northeast live bird market system. The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella-contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer. The avian virology and molecular biology capabilities continue to be enhanced by additions of new tests that improve the sensitivity and shorten the time of detection of poultry pathogens. Dr. H. Lu, through the FAO, USDA, and USAID, has taken ADL's advances in avian influenza diagnostics to help develop laboratories in Mideast countries for AI surveillance tests for the global efforts to diagnose and control the H5N1 high path AI outbreaks.

Publications

  • Lu, H. 2007. Emergency assistance in laboratory setting and diagnosis for the control of avian influenza in Lao and Cambodia. Avian Dis. 50:359-362.
  • Lu, H., Y. Mohammed, O. A. Khan, M. Hashem and M. Shuaib. 2007. A Rapid Laboratory Diagnosis of H5N1 Avian Influenza in Saudi Arabia. Poster Presentation at 13th International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, November 12-14, 2007, Melbourne, Australia. p. 143
  • Lu, H. 2007. The Rapid Diagnosis and Serotype Identification of H5 and H7 Avian Influenza by Dot-ELISA. Presented at the 15th Congress and Exhibition of the World Veterinary Poultry Association, October 10-15, 2007, Beijing, China. p. 127
  • Lu, H., J. White and Y. Cao. 2007. Studies of non-metallic organic disinfectants on inactivation of avian respiratory viruses. Presented at the 79th Northeastern Conference on Avian Diseases. September 18-20, 2007. Lancaster, PA. 83 pgs
  • Dunn, P. A. and E. A. Wallner-Pendleton. 2007. Selected avian diagnostic cases with interesting neurologic findings. In Proc. 79th Northeastern Conference on Avian Diseases. September 18-20, 2007. Lancaster, PA. (Abstract). 83 pgs.
  • Geiger, A., C. DebRoy, and C. N. Cutter. 2007. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in red meat and poultry processed in Pennsylvania. IFT Annual Meeting, July 28-August 1, 2007, Chicago, IL. Presentation number 098-14


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Avian diagnostics provides comprehensive services to detect, diagnose, and aid in control of endemic and emerging diseases of avian species including diseases with zoonotic potential. Cases are from commercial poultry species including chickens (broilers, layers and breeders), turkeys, ducks, game birds (pheasant, quail, partridge), other wildlife species and waterfowl, ratites, pet birds and zoological/exotic species. The Diagnostic laboratory also provides disease diagnosis, preventative visits and comprehensive testing, regulatory testing and monitoring for Pennsylvania's vaccine embryo producers. Isolation, identification, and characterization of infectious disease organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites on these animals, New diagnostic tests continually are being developed such as a multiplex RT-PCR to detect all subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and specific for H5 and H7 subtypes, and a multiplex RT-PCR to detect AIV, PMV and IBV simultaneously in one reaction. Examples of work during this report period include investigations into; early onset of lameness and chondrodystrophy in multiple flocks of commercial turkeys to identify vertically transmitted Mycoplasma iowae infection, runting/stunting syndrome in broiler chickens (reovirus, hypoglycemia/spiking mortality syndrome); recurring rickets in broiler chickens; proventriculitis in broilers; and coccidiosis and clostridial enteritis control in antibiotic free broiler chickens. Studies were initiated to determine vaccine efficacy against strains of novel IBV serotypes. AIV monoclonal antibodies specific for H5 subtypes has been developed and applied for diagnostic tests by Dot-ELISA and IFA for identification of AIV subtypes. The Animal Diagnostic Laboratory participated in a USDA-NRI grant (AI CAP) in 2006. This grant involved disease educational programs for the upland game bird industry in 10 states across the US. Through this grant, game bird producers received comprehensive training on Avian Influenza prevention and recognition. They also developed an AI monitored program for commercial game bird producers. This grant is also analyzing AI risk factors in the NE Live Bird Markets. Many antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on pathogenic bacteria including E. coli, Staphylococcus sp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Pasteurella sp. Results have guided judicious use of antimicrobials in birds raised for human consumption. Results of specific typing of pathogens including bacteria, mycoplasma, and viruses have guided vaccine selection and vaccination protocols. Three high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing continue: the avian influenza monitoring program, LBM AI surveillance program and the PA Egg Quality Assurance Program. Poultry faculty has developed significant expertise in the diagnosis and prevention of diseases in game birds, which led to educational programs.

Impacts
Testing, diagnosis and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefit to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort, and well-being, reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria and highly pathogenic viruses, and enhanced control of zoonotic pathogens. Through regular biosecurity training programs, disease monitoring and diagnosis, ADL is safeguarding the supply of adequate fertile eggs for production of human influenza and pandemic avian influenza vaccine production for the USA The Pennsylvania avian influenza surveillance program continues to be recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. This system has been instrumental in clearing thousands of birds for exportation into the Live Bird Market System. The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer. The avian virology capability continues to be enhanced by additions of new tests that improve the sensitivity and shorten the time of detection of poultry pathogens. Specifics on numbers of tests performed, selected diagnostic cases and projects of interest can be found in bi-monthly activity reports to the PA Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission. Dr. H. Lu, through the FAO, has taken ADL's advances in avian influenza diagnostics to Southeast Asia to help those countries develop laboratories for disease detection.

Publications

  • Poonia, B., Dunn, P. A., Lu, H., Jarosinski, K. W., and Schat, K. A. 2006. Isolation and molecular characterization of a new parvovirus form Muscovy ducks in the USA. Avian Pathol. Accepted for Publication.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Avian diagnostics provides comprehensive services to detect, diagnose, and aid in control of endemic and emerging diseases of avian species including diseases with zoonotic potential. Cases are from commercial poultry species including chickens (broilers, layers and breeders), turkeys, ducks, game birds (pheasant, quail, partridge), other wildlife species and waterfowl ratites, pet birds and zoologic/exotic species. Isolation, identification, and characterization of infectious disease organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites form the basis of support testing for these animals.. New diagnostic tests have been developed such as a multiplex RT-PCR to detect all subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and specific for H5 and H7 subtypes, and a multiplex RT-PCR to detect AIV, PMV and IBV simultaneously in one reaction. Through a USDA grant, ADL has acquired equipment to run real time RT-PCR for detection and surveillance of AI and Exotic Newcastle Disease. ADL became certified by USDA to run RT-PCR for AI and Newcastle Disease. ADL has developed PCR tests that detect Brachyspira intermedia in fecal samples. This is an advanced method requiring no sacrifice of birds and is quicker and more specific than conventional isolation and identification.. ADL is performing challenge studies to determine if Brachyspira is the etiologic agent for Dirty Egg Syndrome. Examples of work during this report period include investigations into; early onset of lameness and chondrodystrophy in multiple flocks of commercial turkeys to identify vertically transmitted Mycoplasma iowae infection, runting/stunting syndrome in broiler chickens (reovirus, hypoglycemia/spiking mortality syndrome); recurring rickets in broiler chickens; proventriculitis in broilers; and coccidiosis and clostridial enteritis control in antibiotic free broiler chickens. Studies were initiated to determine vaccine efficacy against strains of novel IBV serotypes. AIV monoclonal antibodies specific for H5 subtypes has been developed and applied for diagnostic tests by Dot-ELISA and IFA for identification of AIV subtypes. Many antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on pathogenic bacteria including E. coli, Staphylococcus sp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Pasteurella sp. Results have guided judicious use of antimicrobials in birds raised for human consumption. Results of specific typing of pathogens including bacteria, mycoplasma, and viruses have guided vaccine selection and vaccination protocols. Other research initiatives focused on salmonellosis, avian influenza (AI) virus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), focal duodenal necrosis in laying hens, Field investigations to poultry operations to define and control health problems were performed. Three high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing continue: the avian influenza monitoring program, LBM AI surveillance program and the PA Egg Quality Assurance Program. Poultry faculty has developed significant expertise in the diagnosis and prevention of diseases in game birds, which led to educational programs.

Impacts
Testing, diagnosis and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefit to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort, and well-being, reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria and highly pathogenic viruses, and enhanced control of zoonotic pathogens. The Pennsylvania avian influenza surveillance program continues to be recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer. The avian virology capability continues to be enhanced by additions of new tests that improve the sensitivity and shorten the time of detection of poultry pathogens. Specifics on numbers of tests performed, selected diagnostic cases and projects of interest can be found in bi-monthly activity reports to the PA Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission. Dr. H. Lu, through the FAO, has taken ADLs advances in avian influenza diagnostics to Southeast Asia to help those countries develop laboratories for disease detection.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Avian diagnostics provides comprehensive services to detect, diagnose, and aid in control of endemic and emerging diseases of avian species including diseases with zoonotic potential. Cases are from commercial poultry species including chickens (broilers, layers and breeders), turkeys, ducks; game birds (pheasant, quail, partridge); other wildlife species; and waterfowl. Ratites, pet birds and zoologic/exotic species are also represented. Isolation, identification, and characterization of infectious disease organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites form the basis of support testing. New diagnostic tests have been developed such as a multiplex RT-PCR to detect all subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and specific for H5 and H7 subtypes, and a multiplex RT-PCR to detect AIV, PMV and IBV simultaneously in one reaction. Through a USDA grant, we will acquire equipment to run real time RT-PCR for detection and surveillance of AI and Exotic Newcastle Disease. We have developed PCR tests that detect Brachyspira intermedia in fecal samples. This is an advanced method requiring no sacrifice of birds and is quicker and more specific than conventional isolation and identification. Examples during this report period include investigations into runting/stunting syndrome in broiler chickens (reovirus, hypoglycemia/spiking mortality syndrome); recurring rickets in broiler chickens; proventriculitis in broilers; and coccidiosis and clostridial enteritis control in antibiotic free broiler chickens. Studies were initiated to determine vaccine efficacy against strains of novel IBV serotypes. AIV monoclonal antibodies specific for H5 subtypes has been developed and applied for diagnostic tests by Dot-ELISA and IFA for identification of AIV subtypes. Personnel identified Salmonella pullorum in a small flock in Somerset County. This disease has not been reported in PA for several years. Many antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on pathogenic bacteria including E. coli, Staphylococcus sp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Pasteurella sp. Results have guided judicious use of antimicrobials in birds raised for human consumption. Results of specific typing of pathogens including bacteria, mycoplasma, and viruses have guided vaccine selection and vaccination protocols. Visits to poultry operations to define and control health problems have also occurred. Guidance on Salmonella reduction was provided for a broiler chicken processor to decrease carcass contamination at the plant. Two high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing continue: the avian influenza monitoring program and the PA Egg Quality Assurance Program (aimed at detecting Salmonella enteritidis in commercial layer flocks--major food safety initiative). Poultry faculty has developed significant expertise in the diagnosis and prevention of diseases in game birds. As a result, we has seen an increase in caseload and developed educational programs. Specifics on numbers of tests performed, selected diagnostic cases and projects of interest can be found in bi-monthly activity reports to the PA Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission.

Impacts
Testing, diagnosis and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefit to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort, and well-being, reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria and highly pathogenic viruses, and enhanced control of zoonotic pathogens. The Pennsylvania avian influenza surveillance program continues to be recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer. The avian virology capability continues to be enhanced by additions of new tests that improve the sensitivity and shorten the time of detection of poultry pathogens. ADL has provided the poultry health course to students in the College of Agriculture.

Publications

  • Jirjis, F. F., Noll, S. L., Halvorson, D. A., Nagaraja, K. V., Martin, F. and Shaw, D. P. 2004. The effects of bacterial co-infection on the pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys. Avian Dis 48:34-49.
  • Lu, H., Dunn, P. A., Wallner-Pendleton, E. A., Henzler, D., Kradel, D., Liu, J., Shaw, D. and Miller, P. 2004. Investigation of H7N2 avian influenza outbreaks in two broiler breeder flocks in Pennsylvania, 2001-2002. Avian Dis 48:26-33.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
The avian diagnostic program provides comprehensive services to detect, diagnose, and aid in the control of endemic and emerging diseases of avian species including diseases with zoonotic potential. The cases are from commercial poultry species including chickens (broilers, layers and breeders), turkeys, ducks; game birds (pheasant, quail, partridge); other wildlife species; and waterfowl. Ratites, pet birds and zoologic/exotic species are also represented. Isolation, identification, and characterization of infectious disease organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites form the basis of much of the laboratory support testing. In addition, new diagnostic tests are under development. Specific examples of work during this report period include investigations into runting/stunting syndrome in broiler chickens (reovirus, hypoglycemia/spiking mortality syndrome); recurring rickets in broiler chickens; proventriculitis in broilers; coccidiosis and clostridial enteritis control in antibiotic free broiler chickens; and a challenge study with Braychyspira intermedia in layer chickens. Serotyping capabilities for Riemerella anatipestifer were initiated. Software to determine genetic relatedness of viruses such as Infectious Bronchitis Virus was acquired. Studies were initiated to determine vaccine efficacy against strains of novel IBV serotypes. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared for avian influenza virus for use in diagnostic tests. An example of work with zoonotic disease is detection of West Nile virus in multiple avian species including ruffed grouse on a game bird farm. Many antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on pathogenic bacteria including E. coli, Staphylococcus sp., Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Pasteurella sp. The results have guided judicious use of antimicrobials in birds raised for human consumption. The results of specific typing of pathogens including bacteria, mycoplasma, and viruses have guided vaccine selection and vaccination protocols. Visits to poultry operations to define and control health problems have also occurred. Guidance on Salmonella reduction was provided for a broiler chicken processor to decrease carcass contamination at the plant. The two high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing in the laboratory continue: the avian influenza (AI) monitoring program and the Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (aimed at detecting Salmonella enteritidis in commercial layer flocks--major food safety initiative). Specifics on numbers of tests performed and narrative detailing diagnostic cases and projects of interest can be found in bi-monthly activity reports to the PA Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission. ADL supplied a visiting diagnostician to the California Diagnostic Laboratory in San Bernardino for two weeks in February 2003 assisting in diagnosis and control of the exotic Newcastle disease outbreak in Southern California and adjacent states. The Avian Diseases course (VetSci/AnSci 420) was led and taught by ADL veterinarians.

Impacts
Testing, diagnosis and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefit to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort, and well-being, reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria and highly pathogenic viruses, and enhanced control of zoonotic pathogens. The Pennsylvania avian influenza surveillance program continues to be recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer. The avian virology capability continues to be enhanced by additions of new tests that improve the sensitivity and shorten the time of detection of poultry pathogens. ADL has provided the poultry health course to students in the College of Agriculture.

Publications

  • Lu, H. 2003. A longitudinal study of a novel Dot-ELISA for detection of avian influenza virus Avian Diseases. 47:361-369.
  • Henzler, D.J., Kradel, D.C., Davison, S., Ziegler, A.F., Singletary, D., DeBok, P., Castro, A.E., Lu, H., Eckroade, R,. Swayne, D., Logoda, W., Schmucker, B. and Nesselrodt, A. 2003. Epidemiology, production losses, and control measures associated with an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H7N2 in Pennsylvania (1996 - 1998). Avian Diseases 47:1022-1036.
  • Fluckey, W.M., Sanchez, M.X., McKee, S.R,. Smith, D., Wallner-Pendleton, E. and Brashears, M.M. 2003. Establishment of a microbial profile for an air-chilling poultry operation in the United States. Journal of Food Protection 66:272-279.
  • Lu, H. and Castro, A.E. 2003. Evaluation of the infectivity, length of infection and immune response of a low-pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza virus in SPF chickens. Avian Diseases. Accepted for Publication.
  • Lu, H., Dunn, P.A., Wallner-Pendleton, E.A., Henzler, D. J., Kradel, D.C., Liu, J., Shaw, D.P. and Miller, P. 2003. Investigation of H7N2 avian influenza outbreaks in two broiler breeder flocks in Pennsylvania, 2001/02. Avian Diseases. Accepted for Publication.
  • Dunn, P. A., Wallner-Pendleton, E. A., Lu, H., Shaw, D. P., Kradel, D., Henzler, D. J., Miller, P., Key, D.W., Ruano, M. and Davison, S. 2003. Summary of the 2001-2002 Pennsylvania H7N2 mildly pathogenic (MP) avian influenza (AI) outbreak in meat-type chickens. Avian Diseases 47:812-816.
  • Lu, H., Castro, A. E., Pennick, K., Liu, J., Yang, Q., Dunn, P., Weinstock, D. and Henzler, D. 2003. Survival of avian influenza virus H7N2 in SPF chickens and their environments. Avian Diseases 47:1015-1021.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
The avian diagnostic program provides comprehensive services to detect, diagnose and aid in the control of endemic and emerging diseases of avian species including diseases with zoonotic potential. The cases are from commercial poultry species including chickens (broilers, layers and breeders), turkeys, ducks, and lesser numbers of game birds (pheasant, quail, partridge), other wildlife species and waterfowl. Ratites, pet birds and zoologic/exotic species are also represented. Isolation, identification and characterization of infectious disease organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites form the basis of much of the laboratory support testing. In addition, diagnostic tests are under development. Specific examples of work during this report period include investigations into runting/stunting in broilers (reovirus, hypoglycemia/spiking mortality syndrome); detection of infectious coryza in embryo egg layers; isolation and identification of Riemerella anatipestifer in multiple cases from commercial Pekin ducks and turkeys; multiple evaluations of hatcheries including chick quality and microbial monitoring; and studies of vaccine efficacy against novel IBV serotypes and preparation of monoclonal antibodies for avian influenza virus for use in diagnostic tests. Examples of work on zoonotic diseases include detection of chlamydiosis in a large aviary open to the public and prompt identification of West Nile virus in multiple avian species including a black-billed magpie in an aviary collection, Impeyan pheasants on a game bird farm, and wild American crows. Many antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on pathogenic bacterial including E. coli, Staphylococcus sp., and Pasteurella sp. The results have guided judicious use of antimicrobials in food producing birds. The results of specific typing of pathogens including bacteria, mycoplasma and viruses have guided vaccination selection and protocols. Farm visits to poultry operations to define and control health problems have also occurred. The two high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing in the laboratory continue: the avian influenza (AI) monitoring program and the Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (aimed at detecting Salmonella enteritidis in commercial layer flocks --- major food safety initiative). Specifics on numbers of tests performed and narrative detailing diagnostic cases and projects o f interest can be found in bimonthly activity reports to the PA animal Health and Diagnostic Commission.

Impacts
The outbreak of low pathogenic AI (H7N2) in central PA poultry flocks in early December 2001 was contained by mid-January 2002. Extensive monitoring of flocks in the area continued until March 1, 2002. Follow-up environmental testing was done on chicken houses to verify adequate cleaning and disinfection as part of the process to release the affected farms from quarantine. In response to Pennsylvania's verification of the containment of the outbreak, Japan lifted its embargo on poultry products from the United States in early 2002. Extensive information and targeted testing support was provided to Virginia during the spring and summer outbreak of low pathogenic H7N2 AIV in Virginia. The Pennsylvania avian influenza (AI) surveillance program continues to be recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer. Testing, diagnosis and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefit to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort and well-being, reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria and highly pathogenic viruses, and enhanced control of zoonotic pathogens.

Publications

  • Altekruse, S.F., Elvinger, F., DebRoy, C., Pierson, F. W., Eifert, J. D. and Sriranganathan, N. 2002. Pathogenic and fecal Escherichia coli strains from turkeys in a commercial operation. Avian Disease 46:562-569.
  • Dunn, P.A., Wallner-Pendleton, E. A., Lu, H., Shaw, D. P., Kradel, D., Henzler, D. H., Miller, P; Key, D. W., Ruano, M. and Davison, D. 2002. Summary of the 2001-2002 Pennsylvania H7N2 mildly pathogenic (MP) avian influenza (AI) outbreak in meat-type chickens. Avian Diseases. Accepted for Publication.
  • Jirjis, F.F., Noll, S. L,, Halvorson, D. A., Nagaraja, K. V., Townsend, E., Goyal, S. M. and Shaw, D. P. 2002. Rapid detection of Avian pneumovirus in tissue culture by micro-indirect immunofluorescence. J Vet Diag Invest 14:172-175.
  • Lu, H., Yang, Q., Liu, J. and Ward, T. 2002. Persistence and immune response of a Pennsylvania nepgropathogenic strain of IBV in SPF chickens. The 51st WPDC/ANECA proceeding. Puerto Vallarta, Mexico. May 1-4,pp:71-72.
  • Lu, H., Castro, A. E., Pennick, K., Liu, J., Yang, Q., Dunn, P. A., Weinstock, D. and Henzler, David. 2002. Survival of avian influenza virus H7N2 in SPF chickens and their environments. Avian Diseases. Accepted for Publication.
  • Shin, H.J., Halvorson, Shaw, D. P. and Nagaraja, K. V. 2002. Studies on susceptibility of ducks to avian pneumovirus (APV) of turkey origin. J Am Vet Research. Accepted for Publication.
  • Ziegler, A.F., Ladman, B. S., Dunn, P. A., Schneider, A., Davison, S., Miller, P. G., Lu, H., Weinstock, D., Salem, M., Eckroade, R. J. and Gelb, Jr., J. 2002. Nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis in Pennsylvania chickens 1997-2000. Avian Diseases 46:847-858.
  • Bhudevi, B. and Weinstock, D. 2002. Detection of bovvine viral diarrhea virus in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections by real time RT-PCR (Taqman). J. Virol Methods. Accepted for Publication.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
The avian diagnostic program provides comprehensive services to detect, diagnose and aid in the control of endemic and emerging diseases of avian species including diseases with zoonotic potential. The cases are from commercial poultry species including chickens (broilers, layers and breeders), turkeys and ducks, and lesser numbers of game birds (pheasants, quail, partridge), other wildlife species and waterfowl. Ratites pet birds and zoologic/exotic species are also represented. Isolation, identification and characterization of infectious disease organisms including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites form the basis of much of the laboratory support testing. In addition, diagnostic tests are under development. Specific examples of work during this report period include the completion and validation of a new dot-ELISA tests to detect avian influenza virus, validation of a dot-ELISA to identify the type of avian influenza virus, PCR to identify serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus(IBV), further characterization of the lesion of focal necrotizing duodenitis of chickens and identification of small intestinal coccidiosis in broilers occurring despite the presence of preventive medication in the feed. Many antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on pathogenic bacteria including E. coli, Staphylococcus sp., and Pasteurella sp. The results have guided judicious use of antimicrobials in food producing birds. Farm visits to poultry operations to define and control health problems have also occurred. The two high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing in the laboratory continue: the avian influenza (AI) monitoring program and the Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (aimed at detecting Salmonella enteritidis in commercial layer flocks--major food safety initiative). Specifics on numbers of tests performed and narrative detailing diagnostic cases and projects of interest can be found in bimonthly activity reports to the PA Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission.

Impacts
An outbreak of low pathogenic AI (H7N2) in central PA communal poultry flocks in early December 2001 was rapidly detected and appears to have been fully contained by mid-January 2002. Only a few flocks in the immediate areas were affected. This outbreak caused Japan to place an embargo on poultry products from the United States for 90 days in early 2002. The avian influenza (AI) surveillance program is also recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer. Testing, diagnosis and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefit to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort and well-being, and reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria. Collaborative efforts by ADL poultry diagnosticians on reducing condemnations in two PA kosher processing facilities were successful due to investigation and education of kosher inspectors who were unnecessarily condemning whole carcasses with retained yolk sacs. One affected company reported a significant improvement in grade as a result of ADL's efforts.

Publications

  • Jirjis, F.F., Noll, S.L., Martin, F., Halvorson, D.A., Nagaraja, K.V., and Shaw, D.P. 2001. Vaccination of turkeys with an avian pneumovirus isolate from the United States. Avian Diseases 45:1006-1013.
  • Jirjis, F.F., Noll, S., Nagaraja, K.V., Halvorson, D.A., and Shaw, D.P. 2001. Immunohistochemical detection of avian pneumovirus in tissues. J Vet Diag Inv 13:11-14.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
The ongoing avian diagnostic program provides comprehensive services to detect, diagnose and aid in the control of all types of endemic and emerging diseases of avian species including diseases with zoonotic potential. The majority of the submitted samples/cases are from commercial poultry species including chickens (broilers, layers and breeders), turkeys and ducks, and lesser numbers of game birds (pheasants, quail, partridge), other wildlife species, waterfowl, ratites and pet bird species (psittacines) are also represented. Isolation, identification and characterization of infectious disease organisms including a multitude of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites are the bases of much of the laboratory support testing, and a wide variety of diagnostic tests are available or under development. Specific examples of work during this report period include the completion and validation of PCR to identify a variety of serotypes of infectious bronchitis, adaptation of Muscovy duck parvovirus to cell culture, studies on duck reoviral disease including the fulfillment of Koch's postulates, isolation of Brachysprira from the cecae of laying chickens with increased dirty eggs, further characterization of the lesion of focal necrotizing duodenitis of chickens, identification of small intestinal coccidiosis as the underlying cause of necrotic enteritis and poor performance in broilers, identification of an outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in broilers and establishing control by regional vaccination, and detection of arizonosis in commercial turkeys. Many antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on pathogenic bacteria including E. coli, Staphylococcus and Pasteurella spp., and results have guided judicious use of antimicrobials in food producing birds. Farm visits to poultry operations to define and control health problems have also occurred. The two high volume regulatory/quality assurance programs supported by testing in our laboratory continue: the avian influenza (AI) monitoring program aimed at detecting AI by serology and virus isolation, and the Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP) aimed at detecting Salmonella enteritidis in commercial layer flocks - a major food safety initiative. Specifics on numbers of tests performed and narrative detailing diagnostic cases and projects of interest can be found in bimonthly activity reports to the PA Animal Health and Diagnostic Commission. The Gastroenteric Disease Center (E. coli Reference Center) received 3373 cultures and all were serotyped for O and H antigens. The total number of virulence factors tested by molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) grew to 14 during the year. The presence of the following genes were tested: Labile toxin (LT), Stable toxins a and b (ST-a, ST-b), Shiga toxins I and II (stx I and II), Cytotoxic necrotizing factors 1 and 2 (cnfl and 2), attaching and effacing gene (eae), several attachment factors such as K88, K99, P987, CS31A, F1845 and F18. A total of 9,026 PCR reactions were performed.

Impacts
The PEQAP program is recognized nationally as a model food safety effort to reduce the potential for salmonella contaminated table eggs to reach the consumer market, and numbers of infected flocks continue to decrease. The avian influenza (AI) surveillance program is also recognized nationally as an aggressive early detection system. The AI program has enhanced cooperation with New York state to reduce spread of AI into or from the urban live bird marketing system, and has contributed to controlling AI within Pennsylvania (no outbreaks in commercial poultry in 2000). Testing, diagnosis and control recommendations for many diseases have resulted in significant economic benefit to farmers and agribusinesses, increased bird comfort and well-being, and reduced potential for emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
The ongoing program related to poultry health and diagnostics is primarily geared toward the isolation and identification of infectious microorganisms in all avian species. Primarily, this program involves studies of infectious diseases in broilers, layers, pheasants, ducks, ostriches, pigeons, turkeys and wildlife birds. The isolation and identification of AIV, IBV, NDV (PPMV-1 strains), reoviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses, polyomaviruses and chlamydia psittaci are included in the plethora of agents for which diagnostic tests are available or under development. A field investigator, Dr. Patricia Dunn, provides a major component to this program by her advice to growers and poultrymen on the therapeutics (antimicrobials) and management criteria for both infectious and non-infectious disease problems in different avian species. A model program (PEQAP) on food safety in eggs involving the isolation and identification of salmonella species, specifically S. enteriditis in layer flocks, requires extensive annual surveillance. An expansive surveillance program exists for avian influenza virus (specifically H5, H7 subtypes which can mutate to high virulence) is ongoing which involves commercial, backyard and wildlife birds. A PPMV-1 from a gannet was isolated and sent to the federal laboratory for pathotyping. Monoclonal antibodies for AIV, subtype H7 have been produced and are available for diagnostic use within the laboratory system. An immunohistochemistry program which detects specific microorganisms in fixed tissues is now available and an antigen retrieval system in fixed avian tissues has been developed. A new PCR for detection of IBV subtypes has also been modified for use on avian tissues. Two isolations of Muscovy duck parvovirus have been made in embryonated duck eggs and the isolates are currently being adapted to cell cultures. The surveillance program for AIV handled 39,065 eggs and 9,653 blood tests for serology and processed 1,335 virus isolations. The PEQAP program processed 115,860 eggs (5,793 pools) and 3,116 environmentals for SE surveillance. A total of 245 accessions were processed as diagnostic cases for avian viruses and 99 cases were examined for avian chlamydia.

Impacts
The PEQAP model provides safeguards in preventing the introduction of human bacterial pathogens (SE & E. coli) and viruses into the human food chain. AIV surveillance has contributed to controlling AIV in 1999. The 97/98 AIV outbreak led to the lost of 1,000,000 layers. Biotechnologies developed at ADL (PAGE, PCR, monoclonals) have led to increased economic benefits to growers.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
Poultry diagnostics at Wiley Laboratory is primarily involved with isolation of viruses from broilers, layers, ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys. The isolation and identification of IBV, IBDV, NDV, reoviruses, adenoviruses and chlamydia psittaci are included in these disease assessments. A field investigation component (P. Dunn) advises producers, poultrymen on therapeutics (antimicrobials) and management for specific infectious diseases and non-disease problems, respectively. Comprehensive model surveillance programs exist for Salmonella enteriditis (SE) in eggs from layer flocks (PEQAP) and also for avian influenza virus (H5, H7, subtypes) in domestic poultry, live bird markets, and avian wildlife. An intensive immunohistochemistry (IHC) program has established IHC detection tests for chlamydia, IBV and AIV. The avian program also has extensive studies ongoing for AIV for the production of monoclonal antibodies to HA protein, transmission by beetles, detection by PCR, pathogenesis and IHC on AIV-infected tissues. ADL also has ongoing studies on; spiking mortality syndrome in broilers, a unique nephrotropic strain of IBV, and an emerging parvovirus of Muscovy ducks. Wiley lab also established a frozen repository of AIV subtypes and also of avian cell cultures (e.g., emu). The surveillance program for AIV handled eggs for serology (65,349) and virus isolations (2,832). The PEQAP program processed 83,920 eggs and 2,448 environmentals for SE. These avian programs are incorporated into the ongoing diagnostic and investigational programs of ADL.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
Using a recently evaluated and implemented Mab-based immunoperoxidase procedure for identifying and subtyping IBV, a Massachusetts type of IBV was isolated from SPF sentinels placed in a commercial layer flock exhibiting increased mortality and severely wrinkled and misshaped egg shells. When this IBV field isolate was placed in 28-week-old SPF layers and 32- and 73-week-old commercial layers the virus failed to induce any respiratory distress, mortality, production losses or to negatively impact on egg shell quality.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

    Outputs
    A Dot-ELISA was developed and evaluated for its ability to detect and antigenically characterize IBV and was compared to that of established CE lesions and IFA procedures. Of 81 field samples examined, 73, 75 and 78 were found to contain IBV using IFA, CE lesions and Dot-ELISA procedures, respectively. In addition to the Dot-ELISA being as sensitive as the established methods in IBV detection, it was found to be superior to the other assays in detecting IBV earlier in the embryo adaptation process. A Mab-based (IBV group and Mass., Conn., and Ark. serotypes) immunoperoxidase procedure (i. e. virus infected chicken embryo cells) was also evaluated for IBV identification and serotyping and was found to be as sensitive and specific as IFA.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

      Outputs
      Studies were continued on a coronavirus associated with high mortality and malabsorption in young guinea fowl (keets). An attempt to reproduce the disease in 2-day-old commercial keets, using 2 different intestinal homogenates containing coronavirus, resulted in watery feces and pale and enlarged intestines in virus inoculated keets. A statistical analysis of weight gains of keets, during the 21 day trial, revealed that virus treatments had significantly lower weight gains (p<0.0001) than the uninoculated controls at 7 and 12 days post inoculation (PI). Coronaviruses were observed by TEM in the feces of clinically affected keets at 9 days PI. Attempts to serially propagate the coronavirus of guinea fowl in chicken and guinea fowl embryos (by AC, DCAM and intestinal routes) and in keet embryo liver and kidney cell culture have as yet been unsuccessful.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

        Outputs
        Attempts to experimentally reproduce a malabsorption syndrome of guinea fowl (GF), with intestinal homogenates from clinically affected GF containing coronavirus, were conducted in neonatal SPF chickens, GF, turkeys and pheasants. Enteric disease was reproduced in GF only. Attempts to isolate and propagate the GF coronavirus in SPF chicken or GF embryos and several cell culture systems has been unproductive. The inability of the GF coronavirus to productively replicate 'in vitro' has delayed characterization studies and the development of a serological assay.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

          Outputs
          Four field research trials indicated 1) that the immune system is functional in a line of selected feather birds, 2) that turkey feed was not responsible for a serious health problem, 3) that a health problem in guinea fowl was not due to eating grit/wood shavings litter but may be related to the breeder flock, 4) that the Szechuan pheasant has a higher dietary phosphorus requirement than the ringneck pheasant. Twelve field investigations were conducted which involved broiler, layers, pheasants, chukars, guinea fowl and turkeys. Seven different poultry producers/companies were involved. Some of the problems identified were infectious bronchitis in layers producing eggs for human vaccine, hexamitiasis in turkeys, viral enteritis in game birds and in turkey poults, aspergillosis in broilers, pendulous crops in layers, coccidiosis in chukars and reovirus infection in broilers.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

            Outputs
            Epidemiologic studies on 'Salmonella enteritidis' (SE) indicated: 1) mice on farms were consistently positive and are believed to be a major factor in maintenance and transmission of SE; 2) formaldehyde fumigation or heating were the most successful in eliminating SE from a cleaned and disinfected premise; 3) culturing of pooled blood spot eggs appears to be an effective means of determining SE flock status and the potential public health risk that a flock may present. Continuing surveillance for avian influenza in which 103,622 samples were tested demonstrated no H5N2 activity. A field investigation to determine the factors involved in the health and leg problem of roasters indicated that poultry house environment played a major role. Among the problems investigated by the poultry diagnostic lab were encephalomalacia in turkey poults, a sarcoystosis-associated encephalitis in an eagle, macaw wasting disease, stunting-runting syndrome in broilers, diuresis in caged layers, mycotoxin associated mortality in geese and ascites in broilers.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

              Outputs
              The Penn State Poultry Diagnostic Laboratory provides service primarily to the large commercial poultry producer. However, the small backyard poultry flock owner, pet bird people and the game bird industries also use the services of the diagnostic lab. Poultry researchers here at Penn State find the lab helpful, too. The laboratory conducts a number of supportive activities including histopathology, bacteriology, antibiotic sensitivity and serology. While the main function of the laboratory is diagnostic, it also has a regulatory function by assisting in the pullorum, exotic newcastle and avian influenza surveillance programs. More recently the laboratory has become active in field/applied investigative research involving unusual or difficult poultry health problems. To provide more reliable service, the poultry diagnostic laboratory has approval to separate into a receiving area and a necropsy area.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

                Outputs
                The avian diagnostic laboratory provides service to a large variety of clients -from the large commercial poultry operation to an individual with a single avian specimen. A large variety of avian species are seen in the laboratory from the common chicken and turkey to game birds, pet birds and wild and exotic species. Diagnostic service is also provided to university researchers who use poultry in their research projects. Service is available 24 hours per day, 7 days a week. The avian diagnostic laboratory provides basic diagnostic service (gross examination, serology, histopathology, bacteriology, etc.), and also provides assistance in various state regulatory and surveillance programs. The laboratory had 330 chicken cases submitted representing 1071 birds, 57 turkey cases representing 476 turkeys and 78 other avian species representing 411 birds for 1989.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

                  Outputs
                  During 1988 40,561 samples representing 1637 submissions were examined in the poultry diagnostic and surveillance programs. 'Salmonella enteritidis' (SE) work demonstrated that culturing of pooled eggs was useful in detecting infected flocks. Vertical transmission was suggested by finding ovarian infection and lesions and the SE organisms in yolks. Ascites syndrome in broilers was regularly reproduced with feed implicated in field outbreaks. Live spray administered 'Mycoplasma gallisepticum' vaccine produced no risk to turkeys housed adjacent to the spraying site suggesting that use of this vaccine in chicken flocks should pose no threat to area turkey farms. An outbreak of botulism was responsible for high mortality in pheasants. Drought associated hydrocyanic acid poisoning may have precipitated the initial mortality. A widespread growth and locomotion problem in poults was associated with trace mineral deficiencies caused by sporadic malfunctioning of feed mill equipment. Curled toe paralysis (riboflavin deficiency) was reproduced in test birds with feed from a field case of curled toe paralysis. An infectious bronchitis virus was isolated from a case of urolithiasis in layers. The virus is being further characterized.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                    Outputs
                    During 1987 Program at Penn State examined 34004 samples representing 1697 casesthe lab participated in various surveillance and/or initial epidemiologic studies. Preliminary findings suggest that a "litter factor" may be involved in some cases of field rickets in poults. The ascites syndrome in broilers has been reproduced using feed associated with 3 field outbreaks with initial findings suggesting that phosphorus deficiency may be involved inthe pathogenesis of this increasingly important problem. Salmonella enteritidis, increasingly recognized as a public health problem, was not found in random testing of 1300 samples of table eggs but was found in 2 flocks after epidemiologic traceback procedures. Prevalence studies suggest about 20% of layer flocks experience Myco. gallisepticum infection. Forty-one clone-purified cell culture-propagated type I avian adenoviruses representing 11 serotypes and 2 intermediate strains were evaluated for virus replication resulting from the inoculation of the chorioallantoic sac and yolk sac of SPF embryos. This work identified the yolk sac as a practical means of isolating these viruses in the diagnostic lab. The data suggests that it should be a reliable alternative to cell culture for the successful isolation of all fowl adenovirus serotypes. An antigen for the detection of precipitatingantibodies to avian adenoviruses has been developed.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                      Outputs
                      Following diagnosis of the index case of avian influenza (AI) H5N2 at the Penn State Diagnostic Lab in Dec. 1985 an epidemiologic study of the ensuing outbreak was initiated. This study determined that the initial virus introduction to the index flock occurred via contaminated hauling crates from a New York City live poultry market. It has now been established that the large, multispecies, urban live bird markets are proabably an endemic source of the AI virus. The epidemiologic study also demonstrated that within 10 days of cessation of mortality, the flock or its product present minimal risk of disease spread and that means of transmission between flocks is sometimes uncertain. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) on tracheal smears and chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of inoculated embryos was demonstrated to be a rapid and accurate method of diagnosing AI and to differentiate AI and Newcastle virus in embryos showing positive HA activity. Agar gel precepitin testing of minced CAM or allantoic fluid from inoculated embryos also provided for rapid confirmation of AI virus activity. Studies were initiated on the development of an ELISA system to detect AIV antigen(s) in poultry secretions and environmental samples. A preliminary evaluation of the specificity of the ELISA antigen capture system revealed that AIV antigen could be distinguished from IBV and IBDV, but not NDV. During 1986 the Poultry Diagnostic Lab examined 35,103 samples representing 2,031 case submissions.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                        Outputs
                        Research has continued on the evaluation of a quail fibroblast (QT35) continuouscell line for the propagation of a wide variety of avian viruses and the quantitation of their antibody. A comparison of avian reovirus neutralizing antibody titers (microassay) in CEF and QT35 cell cultures revealed comparable results. An ELISA was developed to detect and differentiate avian influenza virus (AIV) antibody from antibody to other avian viruses. Studies were undertaken to determine when AIV antibody activity first appears in blood and egg yolk samples and how long it lasts. The effect of storage temperature and time on egg yolk antibody titers was also evaluated. A comparative evaluation of AI ELISA and HI procedures was performed on a large number of serum samples from chickens depopulated during the Pennsylvania AI outbreak. Significant differences in ELISA antibody activity to homologous and heterologous AIV antigens were observed. AI ELISA was found to be specific when antibody to other avian viruses were examined. AIV antibody was first detected by ELISA in sera and egg yolk of vaccinated chickens by 18-21 days PV and it persisted long after the samples became precipitin negative. Room temperature storage of eggs for more than a week can result in yolk sac membrane deterioration. Storage temperature (4C versus room) was found to have no effect on egg yolk ELISA activity. AI ELISA and HI test results were found to correlate poorly when numerous field sera were evaluated.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                          Outputs
                          A quail fibroblast (QT(35)) cell line is being evaluated for its ability to support the growth of a diverse group (e.g., adenoviruses, coronaviruses, herpesviruses, reoviruses, etc.) of avian viruses. The ability to propagate a number of the more important avian viruses to a relatively high titer in a continuous cell line would make antibody quantitation techniques available to laboratories with limited funds for or access to SPF embryos. The QT(35) cell line was established from a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma of Japanese quail by Moscovici, et al. (Cell 11:95-103, 1977). In our laboratory these cells (60-85 passage level) are grown in 199/F10 medium and subcultured (1:3 split; 2x/wk) by enzymatic disaggregation with trypsinversene. Several avian virus families have been evaluated for replication in QT(35) cells, growth being assayed by observation for CPE and/or FA reaction. Representative strains/serotypes of 6 of 8 virus families (i.e., coronaviridae, herpesviridae, paramyxoviridae, poxviridae, reoviridae and retroviridae) were observed to produce CPE in 1 to 3 serial passages. Reovirus and IBDV strains were found to replicate to equivalent titers in CEF and QT(35) cell cultures. A comparison of IBDV serum and yolk virus neutralizing antibody titers in the same cell systems revealed comparable antibody levels.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                            Outputs
                            A filterable agent isolated in 1983 from eye-notch syndrome in layers was identified as a variant strain of fowl pox virus. Two avian paramyxoviruses from other field cases were identified as 1) Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus and 2) unclassified paramyxovirus, respectively. Both exhibited hemagglutination, RNA genome and produced syncytial formation on chick kidney cell tissue culture. A 'Pasteurella' isolate from pen-raised pheasants was sent to NADC for typing.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                              Outputs
                              A filterable agent isolated in 1982 from eye-notch syndrome in layers was identified as a variant strain of fowl pox virus. Two avian paramyxoviruses from other field cases were identified as 1) Lentogenic Newcastle Disease virus and 2) unclassified paramyxovirus, respectively. Both exhibited hemagglutination, RNA genome and produced syncytial formation on chick kidney cell tissue culture. A 'Pasteurella' isolate from pen-raised pheasants was sent to NADC for typing.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                                Outputs
                                The filterable agent isolated from the case of eye-notch syndrome in layers has been identified as a variant strain of fowl pox virus. The two virus isolants from broilers showed a RNA genome, hemagglutination and hemadsorption of infected cells as well as syncytial formation in chick kidney cells. These agents are tentatively identified as avian paramyxoviruses and will be classified as to what group they belong to. Several cases of what appeared to be typical marble spleen disease in mature pheasants turned out to be pasteurellosis. These 'Pasteurella sp.' isolates will be sent out for serotyping.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                                  Outputs
                                  Of the four virus isolants obtained last year, one proved to be a reovirus. The other three have not been adapted to grow in primary chick embryo cell culture for characterization. A new disease syndrome in laying hens causing blepharitis and notching of healed eyelids (eye-notch syndrome) has yielded an agent that produces pocks or plaques on the allantoic membrane of embryonating eggs. Histopathology of affected membranes showed lesions very similar to that induced by avian pox virus without the characteristic inclusion bodies produced by poxvirus. An embryo-lethal agent has been isolated from a case of non-specific tracheitis and pneumonia in 5-week-old broiler chicks. These two agents are in the process of being characterized and their pathogenicity in chickens being determined.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                    Outputs
                                    There were four virus isolations from cases submitted for diagnosis which merit further characterization and identification. Two were from chickens, one from a parakeet and another one from a case of severe enteritis in young turkey poults. The virus from turkey poults (PS3922) was isolated on primary chick kidney cell monolayer. A well defined cytopathogenic effect consisting of polykaryocytes and cell lysis was produced. The size of the organism, its resistance to heat and lipid solvent, its ability to replicate in the presence of iododeoxyuridine and medium of a pH 3.0 has been determined. Initial electron microscopic studies reveal an icosahedral symmetry and is probably a reovirus. Oral inoculation of tissue culture propagated virus into day old chicks showed a mortality rate of 25% and a predominantly respiratory and intestinal infection.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                      Outputs
                                      Administrative project for operation of the poultry diagnostic laboratory.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                        Outputs
                                        This administrative project covers operation of the Poultry Diagnostic Laboratory.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/73 to 12/30/73

                                          Outputs
                                          This administrative project covers operation of the Poultry Diagnostic Laboratory.

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                            Outputs
                                            This project covers operation of the poultry diagnostic laboratory.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/69 to 12/30/69

                                              Outputs
                                              This project consists of operating a poultry diagnostic service for poultrymen in central Pennsylvania.

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/68 to 12/30/68

                                                Outputs
                                                This work consists of operating the poultry diagnostic laboratory as a service unit. Approximately 3500 specimens from 225 cases are examined per year. The laboratory also conducts serological tube tests for Pullorum Disease on 45,000 blood samples.

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications