Source: CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION submitted to
IDENTIFICATION OF INSECT AND INSECT DAMAGE
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0013539
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
CONH00300
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jan 1, 1969
Project End Date
Jan 1, 2015
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Ridge, G. E.
Recipient Organization
CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
PO BOX 1106
NEW HAVEN,CT 06504
Performing Department
ENTOMOLOGY
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2110699113010%
2111199113010%
2111219113010%
2111499113010%
2111599113010%
2112199113010%
3123299113010%
3123830113010%
7215199113010%
7216099113010%
Goals / Objectives
Identify and give information on the biology and control of insects of interest to the citizens and government of Connecticut.
Project Methods
Have someone available at all times during working hours to answer requests by telephone. Reply to written requests by means of correspondence, prepared leaflet, or (occasionally) a personal visit.

Progress 01/01/13 to 09/30/13

Outputs
Target Audience: Target audiences are private citizens, pest management professionals, the real estate industry, the nursery industry, land care businesses, arborists, state and local health departments, other medical professionals and services, first responders, the hospitality industry, housing authorities, charities, museums, municipalities, libraries, state government, the media, and statelegislators. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? The office continued to lead in public outreach with numerous State and New England wide presentations and training programs, primarily for bed bugs,followed byemerald ash borer, and the Asian longhorn beetle. The office continued to build collaborative relationships and led several projects with local, state, and federal agencies, which better served the needs of the citizens of Connecticut. These included two forums on bed bugs to train pest management professionals, health department staffs, sanitarians, and industries that manage second hand materials such as mattresses,as well as numerouspublic outreach programs on the emerald ash borer and the Asian longhorn beetle. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? The dissemination of written educational material and information was facilitated through the publication of fact sheets, a list serve (serving a membership of over 400 professionals), and the internetthroughThe Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station web-site. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? We plan to continue the work as done before. In one case, we willexpand one project to a statewide campaign of public education on bed bugs using billboards, public transportation notices, and fliers.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? There were 7,633 inquiries during the last reporting period. These were in 672 categories which included insects, arachnids, animals, use of pesticides, insect damage, general entomology, and horticultural issues. Of these, 2278 (30%) were related to man and medical issues, 164 undetermined/general inquiries (3%), 4772 (63%) as natural resources, and 269 (4%) food related. Bed bug/bat bug inquiries remain the leading inquiry with 1,939, which was 25.5% of all identifications performed. In order of numbers, the second highest were ticks, followed by solitary bees and wasps, carpenter ants, hemlock woolly adelgid, white grubs, carpenter bees, Indian meal moth, carpet beetles, yellowjackets, squash vine borers, the periodical seventeen year cicada, and cicada killers.

Publications

  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2012 Citation: Insect Identification and Inquiries in Connecticut. A state perspective on the evolution and future of an entomological service. American Entomologist: Summer 2012. Pages 78-89


Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Connecticut residents annually request information on the identification and control of insects, arachnids, and other pest problems. There were 7,703 recorded inquiries by visitors, emails, mailed in specimens, and phone during this reporting period. There were 569 categories of inquiry including insects, arachnids, animals, use of pesticides, insect damage, general entomology, and horticulture. Of these 3,583 (46%) were related to man and medical issues, 101 undetermined/general inquiries (2%), 3,831 (48%) as natural resources, and 258 (4%) food related. Bed bug and bat bug inquiries remain the leading inquiry 1,411 (18%) of the identifications performed by the office; webpage activity for this insect maintained the highest, the second highest inquiry were ticks, followed by the carpenter ant, hemlock woolly adelgid, white grubs, carpenter bees, Indian meal moth, carpet beetles, yellow jackets, squash vine borers, and cicada killer wasps. Termite activity, once a leading inquiry to the office remained flat with very little activity. Most of the inquiries to the office were from phone/cell phone (33% of total) followed by visitors (30%), mail (7%), and e-mail/internet (30%). Bed bug public outreach continued to grow. Dr. Ridge produced a bed bug video titled "They're back" which was launched on Youtube. The Connecticut Coalition Against Bed Bugs (CCABB) established under the leadership of The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station continued to promote public and professional education through training forums, printed materials, and a listserv of 385 professional and private citizens. Dr. Ridge continued to author informational fact sheets on bed bugs and participated in and/or spoke to numerous groups from the property management industries, health and medical industries, libraries, Connecticut legislators, the recycling industries, schools, to first responders. They all were facing bed bug issues. The office also leads in outreach and with public awareness programs; particularly alerting and training citizens on the Emerald ash borer and Asian longhorned beetle, both major threats to the forests of Connecticut. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Gale E. Ridge is the principal scientist who oversees the daily functions of the insect inquiry office. Dr. Kirby C. Stafford III is responsible for the overall operations of the insect inquiry office. Ms. Rose Hiskes is a technician who provides diagnostic and outreach services. Ms. Katherine Dugas is an entomology assistant who also provides diagnostic and outreach services. Dr. Ridge, who initiated CCABB, and Dr. Stafford represent The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station on the board. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences were professional groups, pest management professionals, the real estate industry, nurseries, growers, arborists, land care business, extension services, health departments and other medical professionals and institutions, museums, municipalities, housing authorities, libraries, hospitality industry, educational institutions, state government, private citizens, and the media. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Stakeholder concerns about arthropods, and other life forms were addressed. Identifications were screened to determine which arthropods were considered pests, beneficial or of no importance. Correct identification and, when needed, information on appropriate control measures were provided. This included an emphasis on reducing the use of chemical pesticides through the use of biocontrol methods, cultural and behavioral practices, baits, and within buildings, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches such as cleaning, heat treatment, non-chemical dusts, baits, etc. Identification by trained staff is also important for the interception of potential new pests. The training and education of citizens and professionals was also provided through conferences, meetings, forums, seminars, lectures, and printed literature. Inquiry staff members presented numerous talks, workshops, training programs, and lectures throughout the year to professional groups, conferences, educational institutions, and club/societies. These were well received by all stakeholders.

Publications

  • Stafford III, K. C. and G. E. Ridge. 2012. Insect Identification and Inquiries in Connecticut. A State Perspective on the Evolution and Future of an Entomological Service. American Entomologist. 58: 78-89.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Connecticut residents annually request information on the identification and control of insects, arachnids, and other pest problems. There were 8,380 recorded inquiries by visitors, emails, mailed in specimens, and phone during this reporting period. There were 658 categories of inquiry including insects, arachnids, animals, use of pesticides, insect damage, general entomology, and horticulture. Of these 2,682 (32%) were related to man and medical issues, 251 undetermined/general inquiries (3%), 5,112 (61%) as natural resources, and 335 (4%) food related. Bed bug.bat bug inquiries remain the leading inquiry 1.088 (13%) of the identifications performed by the office; webpage activity was high for this insect with nearly 0ver 13,000 visitors. In order of numbers, the second highest inquiry were ticks, followed by the carpenter ant, hemlock woolly adelgid, white grubs, carpenter bees, Indian meal moth, carpet beetles, yellow jackets, squash vine borers, and cicada killer wasps. Termite activity rose from last year's 60 inquiries to 103. Most of the inquiries to the office were from phone/cell phone (75% of total) followed by visitors (17%), mail (5%), and e-mail (3%), The insect inquiry office encourages the education and training of students in science and Entomology. Numerous student groups visited the office during the year. In the winter of 2011, a student from Oberlin College, Ohio, Rosie Eck visited the office and trained in biological science illustration with Dr. Ridge. It also leads in outreach and with public awareness programs, for example, alerting and training citizens on the Asian longhorn beetle and Emerald ash borer. In response to a resurgence of the human bed bug, the Connecticut Coalition Against Bed Bugs (CCABB) was established under the leadership of The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station to promote public and professional education through training forums, printed materials, and a listserv for professionals and private citizens and recently produced several bed bug guides and a training video. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Gale E. Ridge is the principal scientist who oversees the daily functions of the insect inquiry office. Dr. Kirby C. Stafford III is responsible for the overall operations of the insect inquiry office. Ms. Rose Hiskes is a technician who also provides diagnostic services. They also attend national meetings, and workshops to enhance skills and knowledge. Dr. Ridge, who initiated CCABB, and Dr. Stafford represent The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station on the board. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences were professional groups, pest management professionals, the real estate industry, nurseries, growers, arborists, land care business, extension services, health departments and other medical professionals and institutions, museums, municipalities, housing authorities, libraries, hospitality industry, educational institutions, state government, private citizens, and the media. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Stakeholder concerns about arthropods, and other life forms were addresses. Identifications were screened to determine which arthropods were considered pests, beneficial or of no importance. Correct identification and, when needed, information on appropriate control measures were provided. This included an emphasis on reducing the use of chemical; pesticides through the use of biocontrol, cultural and behavioral practices, baits, and within buildings, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches such as cleaning, heat treatment, non-chemical dusts, and baits etc. Identification by trained staff is also important for the interception of potential new pests. The training and education of citizens and professionals was also provided through conferences, meetings, forums, seminars, lectures, and printed literature. Both Ms. Hiskes and Dr. Ridge presented numerous talks, workshops, training programs, and lectures throughout the year to professional groups, conferences, educational institutions, and club/societies. These were well received by all stakeholders.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Connecticut residents annually request information on the identification and control of insects, arachnids, and other pest problems. There were 7,590 inquiries by visitors, emails, mailed in specimens, and phone during this reporting period. There were 856 categories of inquiry including insects, arachnids, animals, use of pesticides, insect damage, general entomology, and horticulture. Of these 1,927 (25%) were related to man and medical issues, 496 undetermined/general inquiries (7%), 4,719 (62%) as natural resources, and 448 (6%) food related. Bed bug inquiries were high with 934 (12%) of the identifications performed by the office; webpage activity was high for this insect with nearly 16,000 visitors. In order of numbers, the second highest query was the western conifer seed bug, followed by the carpenter ant, hemlock woolly adelgid, Indian meal moth, multi-colored Asian lady beetle, springtail, carpenter bee, cicada killer, euonymus scale, elongate hemlock scale, and delusory parasitosis. Termite activity was very low, with only 60 inquiries. Most of the inquiries to the office were from visitors (59% of total) followed by telephone calls (28%), e-mail (7%), and mail (6%). The office identified several exotic insects and all were intercepted. They were Stomatium sp. (Cerambycidae) imported in a bookcase from India, the spiraling whitefly imported on Hawaiian orchids, and the Ligurian/Mint leafhopper found on Rosemary imported from California. The insect inquiry office encourages the education and training of students in science and Entomology. Numerous student groups visited the office during the year. In the winter of 2010, a student from the New Haven Schools was mentored by Dr. Ridge and a junior in Beth Chana Academy High School, Orange CT spent the summer of 2010 volunteering in the office. It also assists in outreach and with public awareness programs, for example, alerting and training citizens on the Asian longhorn beetle and Emerald ash borer. In response to a resurgence of the human bed bug, the Connecticut Coalition Against Bed Bugs (CCABB) was established under the leadership of The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station to promote public and professional education through training forums, printed materials, and a listserv for professionals and private citizens. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Gale E. Ridge is the principal scientist who oversees the daily functions of the insect inquiry office. Dr. Kirby C. Stafford III is responsible for the overall operations of the insect inquiry office. Ms. Rose Hiskes is a technician who also provides diagnostic services. They also attend national meetings and workshops to enhance skills and knowledge. Dr. Ridge, who initiated CCABB, and Dr. Stafford represent The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station on the board. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences were professional groups, pest management professionals, the real estate industry, nurseries, growers, arborists, land care business, extension services, health departments and other medical professionals and institutions, museums, municipalities, housing authorities, libraries, hospitality industry, educational institutions, state government, private citizens, and the media. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project

Impacts
Stakeholder concerns about arthropods, and other life forms were addressed. Identifications were screened to determine which arthropods were considered pests, beneficial or of no importance. Correct identification and, when needed, information on appropriate control measures were provided. This included an emphasis on reducing the use of chemical pesticides through the use of biocontrol, cultural and behavioral practices, baits, and within buildings, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches such as cleaning, heat treatment, non-chemical dusts, and baits, etc. Identification by trained staff is also important for the interception of potential new pests. The training and education of citizens and professionals was also provided through conferences, meetings, forums, seminars, lectures, and printed literature. Both Ms. Hiskes and Dr. Ridge presented numerous talks, workshops, training programs, and lectures throughout the year to professional groups, conferences, educational institutions, and club/societies. These were well received by all stakeholders.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Connecticut residents annually request information on the identification and control of insects, arachnids and other pest problems. There were ~5,914 inquiries by visitors, e-mails, mailed in specimens, and phone calls during this reporting period. The range of inquiries was diverse; these included leeches, flatworms, snails, animals, and numerous arthropods. Among the total office inquiries, 337 (5.7%) were food related, 1,354 (22.9%) were pests of humans or dwellings, and 4,223 (71.4%) related to natural resources. The leading inquiries were bed bugs (n=687), carpenter ants (n=127), eastern subterranean termite (n=99), hemlock wooly adelgid (n=84), and white grubs (n=80), followed by carpenter bee, Indian meal moth, wasps and delusions of parasitosis. Internet activity was strong. The two leading internet download areas were ticks (n=15,315) and bed bugs (n=11,329). Website visits for these two arthropods were; ticks, 31,840 and bed bugs, 13,672. Other leading website visit totals were:- cat flea 3,813; carpenter ant 3,429; carpenter bee 2,947; flea beetle 2,931; hemlock woolly adelgid 2,865; moth fly 2,275; cluster fly 1,864; Mexican bean beetle 1,752; Indian meal moth 1,729; western conifer seed bug 1,500; followed by pepper maggot, Japanese beetle, imported cabbage worm, armyworm, Colorado potato beetle, cucumber beetle, pepper maggot, and aphids. In 2009, the insect inquiry office had four first state records; Crytotermes brevis, Anomis commode, Eupteryx decemnotata, and Hylastes opacus; and two interceptions; Bostrychoplites cornutus, and Aleurodicus disperses. This affirms the value of the insect inquiry office as an agency of detection for exotic arthropods. The office also managed two successful outreach public education training programs on the Asian Longhorn beetle and the human bed bug. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Gale E. Ridge is the principal scientist who overseas the daily functions of the insect inquiry office and identification of samples submitted for identification. Dr. Kirby C. Stafford is responsible for the overall operation of the insect inquiry office. Ms. Rose Hiskes is a technician who also provides diagnostic services to growers and citizens in the state. Both Ms. Hiskes and Dr. Ridge presented numerous talks, workshops and lectures throughout the year to clubs/societies, conferences, educational institutions, and professional groups. They also attended training workshops and national meetings to enhance skills and knowledge. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences were private citizens, pest control and real estate industries, nurseries, growers, arborists, extension personnel, health departments and other medical professionals, museums, municipalities, libraries, state government, and the media. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Stakeholders' concerns about a variety of insects, arachnids, and other life forms were addressed. Identifications were made to determine which of the various arthropods were considered pest, beneficial or of no importance. Correct identification and, when needed, information on appropriate control measures were provided. This included an emphasis on reducing the dependence on chemical pesticides by the use of biocontrol, cultural practices, baits, and within buildings non chemical approaches such as cleaning, drying out breeding sites, baits, use of non-chemical powders etc. These were well received by stakeholders. Correct identification was important for the interception of potential new pests.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Connecticut residents request information on the identification and control of insects, arachnids and other pest problems, including animals, through our Insect Inquiry Office. There were 5,828 inquiries by visitors, e-mail, mail, and telephone during this reporting period. The variety of problem areas and range of subjects in the inquiries was diverse. Among the these inquiries, 287 (5%) were questions on food crop insects, 1,149 (19%) were on pests of humans or person's dwellings, and 4,392 (76%) were related to natural resources. Inquiries involved nurseries, health departments, private pest control companies, residential landscapes and gardens, both public and private, structural pest issues, and arthropods of medical importance (mainly ticks). Arthropods and animals of particular concern were voles and mice, scale insects, yellowjackets, cicada killers, ground nesting bees, carpenter bees, white grubs, Eastern subterranean termites (where inquiries significantly dropped), boxwood leafminer, Indian meal moth and other pantry pests, carpet beetles,and carpenter ants. Bed bugs continue to be a significant problem and inquiries in 2008 were considerably higher than 2007. Delusions of parasitosis inquiries were also significantly higher, due in part, to physician referrals. New fact sheets were produced and two were translated into Spanish and one was also translated into Mandarin Chinese. Visits to the website remain active with the bed bug fact sheet (available in English, Mandarin, and Spanish), Carpenter ant fact sheet (available in English and Spanish), and Carpenter bees having the most downloads. Several exotic species (the Marmorated Stink Bug, Brown-banded Land Snail, and the False Meyer Scale) were detected by the office either as new to the country or new to the state of Connecticut, which affirms the value of the insect inquiry office as a agency of detection for exotic arthropods. PARTICIPANTS: Dr. Gale E. Ridge is the main scientist who oversees the daily functions of the insect inquiry office and identification of samples submitted for identification. Dr. Kirby C. Stafford is responsible for overall operation of the insect inquiry office. Ms. Rose Hiskes is a technician who also provides diagnostic services to growers and citizens in the state. In addition, numerous talks, workshops and lectures are presented throughout the year to clubs/societies, educational institutions, and professional groups. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences were private citizens, the pest control and real estate industries, nurseries, growers, arborists, extension personnel, USDA-APHIS-PPQ, health departments and other medical professionals, museums, municipalities, libraries, state government, and the news media. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Stakeholders concerns about a variety of insects, arachnids and other arthropods were addressed. Identifications were made to determine which of the various arthropods were considered pests, beneficial or of no importance. Proper identification and when needed, correct control measures were provided to stakeholders to reduce concerns and improve the quality of their lives. The option of an integrated pest management approach, which include cultural practices, biocontrol, and baits as an alternative to pesticides in many cases, was well received by many stakeholders. Correct identification also provided an opportunity for intercepting potential new pests.

Publications

  • Ridge, G. 2008. Bed bug fact sheet. (translated into Spanish by Marisa Gillio and Mandarin by DeWei Li)
  • Ridge, G. 2008. Carpenter ant fact sheet. (translated into Spanish by Marisa Gillio)
  • Stafford, K. C. 2008. Fly Management Handbook: A Guide to Biology, Dispersal, and Management of the House Fly and Related Flies for Farmers, Municipalities, and Public health Officials. CAES Bull. No. 1013, 36 pp.
  • Ridge, G. 2008. Adult Heteropteran Thoracic Endoskeleton (Insecta: Hemiptera)A Family-Level Study. PhD.Dissertation, 950 pp.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Connecticut residents annually request information on the identification and control of insects, arachnids and other pest problems. There were 6,849 inquiries by visitors, e-mail, mail, and phone during this reporting period. The range of subjects including animals in the inquiries was diverse. Most prevalent inquiries were in nursery, health departments, residential landscapes, gardens, structural pests and arthropods of medical importance. Specific arthropods and animals of concern were orange striped oakworm, craneflies, mites, yellowjackets, voles, cicada killers, ground nesting bees, white grubs, European pine sawfly, Eastern subterranean termites, numerous species of scale, boxwood leafminer, gypsy moth, Indian meal moth and other pantry pests, carpet beetle,and carpenter ants. Bed bugs continue to be a significant problem and inquiries in 2007 were higher than 2006. Expected massive gypsy moth defoliation did not happen because wet cold spring time weather allowed fungal pathogens to kill the caterpillars and so gypsy moth inquiries dropped. Among the 6,849 inquiries, 266 (3.9%) were questions on food crop insects, 1,435 (21%) were on pests of humans or person's dwellings, and 5,147 (75.1%) were related to natural resources. Visits to the website remain active with the fact sheets, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Western conifer seed bug, and Carpenter bee having most downloads. Several exotic species of insects were detected by the office either as new to the country or new to the state of Connecticut, which affirms the value of the insect inquiry office as a agency of detection for exotic arthropods. PARTICIPANTS: Gale E. Ridge is the principal scientist who oversees the daily functions of the insect inquiry office and identification of samples submitted for identification. Dr. Kirby C. Stafford is responsible for overall operation of the insect inquiry office. Ms. Rose Hiskes is a technician who also provides diagnostic services to growers and citizens in the state. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences were private citizens, the pest control and real estate industries, nurseries, growers, arborists, extension personnel, health departments and other medical professionals, museums, municipalities, libraries, state government, and the news media.

Impacts
Stakeholders concerns about a variety of insects, arachnids and other arthropods were addressed. Identifications were made to determine which of the various arthropods were considered pest, beneficial or of no importance. Proper identification and when needed, correct control measures were provided to stakeholders to reduce concerns and improve the quality of their lives. The option of an integrated pest management approach, which include cultural practices, biocontrol, and baits as an alternative to pesticides in many cases, was well received by many stakeholders. Correct identification also provided an opportunity for intercepting potential new pests, four of which were discovered and identified in this office.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Connecticut residents annually request information on the identification and control of insects, arachnids and other pest problems. There were 4,809 inquiries from visitors or by telephone during this reporting period, an increase from the 4,185 inquiries in 2005. The range of subjects including animals in the inquiries was diverse. Most prevalent inquiries were in nursery, residential landscapes, gardens, structural pests and arthropods of medical importance. Specific arthropods and animals of concern were, white pine weevil, Hemlock woolly adelgid, pine bark adelgid, numerous scale species including cottony taxus scale and cottony maple leaf scale, mites, Gypsy moth, European pine sawfly, boxwood leaf miner, white grubs, cicada killer, Asiatic garden beetle, Oriental beetle, voles, yellowjackets, carpenter ant, carpenter bee, Eastern subterranean termite, western conifer seed bug, bird mites, ticks, spiders, mosquitoes, larder beetle, cigarette beetle, Indian meal moth, and millipedes. Bed bugs continued to be a significant problem and inquiries in 2006 were similar to the previous year when inquiries increased. Inquiries and sample submissions related to cases of delusory parasitosis (DP) have increased, doubling from 2005 levels with 148 inquiries to 280 inquiries in 2006. DP inquiries typically require more time to address than most other issues. There were over 114,000 internet visits and/or downloads of entomological fact sheets, handbooks, and other entomologically related material from the Experiment Station's website in 2006.

Impacts
Stakeholder concerns about a variety of insects, arachnids and other arthropods were addressed. Identifications were made to determine which of the various arthropods were considered pests. Proper identification and when needed, correct control measures were provided to stakeholders to reduce concerns and improve the quality of their lives. The option of an integrated pest management approach, which included cultural practices, biocontrol, and baits as an alternative to pesticides in many cases, was well received by many stakeholders. Correct identification also provided an opportunity for intercepting potential new pests, three of which were discovered and identified in the office.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Connecticut residents annually request information on the identification and control of insects, arachnids and other pest problems. There were 4185 inquires during this reporting period. Of these, 1590 (38 %) were from persons who visited the Department of Entomology. Questions on trees, ornamentals and turf insects, pantry pests, wasps and hornets, termites, carpenter ants and bed bugs were among the most prevalent. As a result of a localized gypsy moth outbreak in 2005, the number of inquiries on the moth increased from 11 inquires in 2004 to 136 in 2005. Bed bugs have become a pest of greater concern. Prior to 1996, there were only occasional bed bug inquires. The number of inquiries increased from 6 in 1996 to 36 in 2005.

Impacts
Stakeholder concerns about a variety of insects, spiders and other arthropods were addressed. Identifications were made to determine which of the various arthropods presented were considered pests. Proper identification provided residents with a guideline as to which arthropods required control and reduced stakeholder concerns about the "pest". Information was given on chemical and non-chemical control measures. In some cases, applications of pesticides could be reduced or eliminated. Correct identification also provided an opportunity for intercepting potential new pests.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
Scientists at The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station identify insects, examine plant damage, and offer suggestions for control when residents of the state request assistance. During this reporting period, there were 4,302 inquiries from the public, including 1,331 (31%) requests from people who visited the Department of Entomology. Questions on mosquitoes, wasps and hornets, termites, carpenter ants, turf insects, caterpillars, and garden pests were most prevalent.

Impacts
Stakeholders received direct services to help solve insect problems. People who visited the laboratories met scientists and had opportunities to see research facilities. There was a short-term environmental impact. With properly timed control measures or, in some cases, no need for pesticide spraying, there was a cleaner environment, reduced exposure of humans and domesticated animals to insecticides, and less impact on non-target beneficial insects.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
Citizens in Connecticut can call upon Station scientists to identify insects and obtain information on control. There were 4,718 inquiries during this reporting period. Of these, 1,212 (27%) were from persons who visited the Department of Entomology. Questions on hemlock woolly adelgids, mosquitoes, ticks, carpenter ants, wasps and hornets, termites, and lawn and garden pests were common. In addition, wooden baskets imported from China showed evidence of active insects. Live larvae and dead adults of a wood-boring beetle, Hesperophanes campestris, were recovered from 3 of 100 baskets or shipping boxes containing the baskets, respectively. A quarantine was placed on unsold baskets being held in a warehouse.

Impacts
Stakeholders received answers to their questions and information on how to remedy problems. The direct interactions with scientists provided opportunities for people to see research facilities and to learn about programs being supported by state and federal funds. The discovery of H. campestris resulted in the destruction of unsold baskets and a nationwide notification that a potential forest pest had entered the United States. These actions reduced the risks of an exotic insect pest being released into the environment and decreased the chances of economic losses to homeowners, nurseries, and the forest product industry.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
During this reporting period, there were 6,088 inquiries from citizens regarding insect identification and control. Of these, 1,520 (25%) requests for information came from people who visited the department. Questions on natural resources (75%) greatly exceeded those on pests of humans or persons' dwellings (23%) and questions on food crops (2%). Stakeholders were especially concerned about mosquitoes and West Nile encephalitis, hemlock woolly adelgids, carpenter ants, wasps and hornets, termites, and garden and lawn pests.

Impacts
Stakeholders had direct contact with scientists and received information on the identification of insect pests and methods of control. Scientific input helped ensure public safety, preserve trees and ornamental shrubs, and eliminate insect infestations of buildings.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Citizens requested information on the identification and control of insects and on wildlife problems. During 2001, there were 6,595 inquiries. Of these, 1,443 (22%) were from persons who visited the Department of Entomology. Although the majority of requests (80%) were about natural resources, there also were questions on pests of humans or persons' dwellings (16%), or on food crop insects (4%). Topics of particular public interest included armyworms, carpenter ants, hemlock woolly adelgids, termites, yellowjackets and wasps, and wildlife problems associated with homes and shrubs.

Impacts
Results of various research projects, such as examinations of armyworms for pathogens and parasites, were given to citizens who inquired about the damage caused by this insect on lawns and hayfields during an outbreak. Stakeholder interactions with scientists facilitated control of the insect pest.

Publications

  • Ridge-O'Connor, G.E. 2001. Distribution of the western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Connecticut and parasitism by a tachinid fly, Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 103:364-366.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/30/00

Outputs
Stakeholders received information on identification and control of a variety of insect pest problems that needed attention. During 2000, staff members answered 7,341 public inquiries from citizens and diagnosed damage to plants or wooden structures. Of these inquiries, 88% were about natural resources, while 9% and 3% were on pests of humans or their dwellings and food crops, respectively. There was continued public concern about an exotic wood-boring beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne, that infests arborvitae and other cedar trees. Other problems of particular public interest include hemlock woolly adelgids, termites, and household pantry pests.

Impacts
Daily interaction between scientists and stakeholders is encouraged so that research results and general information on the biology and control of insects can be shared with a broad base of citizens. Public inquiries also provide important information on emerging insect problems. Citizens who visited laboratories were able to see research in progress and had opportunities to discuss experiments with scientists.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Citizens request information on insect pests and how to control them. This interaction between stakeholders and scientists provides a service to the public and yields important information on emerging pest problems. During 1999, reports from citizens were helpful in locating arborvitae plants and cedar trees infested with an exotic wood-boring beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne. Infested plants were quarantined and destroyed, per state regulations, to prevent further spread of the pest. During the past year, 7,554 inquiries were answered on a wide range of insect problems. Of these, 1,889 (25%) were from persons who visited department personnel. Most inquiries concerned natural resources (87%), but there also were questions on pests of humans or persons' dwellings (10%) and on food crop insects (3%). Hemlock woolly adelgids, carpenter ants, termites, and Indian meal moths were of most concern to the public.

Impacts
Daily interaction with stakeholders allows for input on research programs and provides opportunities to solve insect problems. During the past year, citizens played an important role in locating arborvitae and cedar trees infested with an exotic wood-boring beetle. This greatly assisted control efforts. Public inquiries also revealed other insect pests that were commonly affecting plants or human dwellings.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
The insect identification service provides citizens with an opportunity to submit insect and damaged plant specimens for examination and to receive current information on control. This interaction between scientists and stakeholders also serves as a mechanism to detect new problems. During 1998, a damaged arborvitae plant was brought in for examination. An exotic woodboring beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne, was discovered. This insect is Asian in origin but probably came to Connecticut in plants imported from British Columbia, Canada. The beetle is being treated as quarantine significant. During the past year, personnel in the Department of Entomology answered 6,461 inquiries. The majority (71%) of these questions were about insects that attack trees, shrubs, and lawns. There were other inquiries on ticks or insects that affect human health or persons' dwellings (25%) or on insects that cause damage to food crops (4%). The hemlock woolly adelgid, termites, carpenter ants, stinging insects, multicolored Asian lady beetles (when in homes), western conifer-seed bug (when in homes) and turf insects continue to be of greatest concern to the public.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
Citizens in Connecticut submit insects for identification and request information on control. Results of this effort have enabled scientists to monitor the spread of hemlock woolly adelgids and to record the status of insect species that have high economic importance, such as termites, carpenter ants, and Japanese beetles. During the past year, personnel in the Department of Entomology answered 6,777 public inquiries. The majority (82%) of these questions were about insects that attack trees, shrubs, and lawns. The remaining inquiries were on ticks or insects that affect human health or persons' dwellings (16%) or on insects that cause damage to food crops (2%). The hemlock woolly adelgid, termites, carpenter ants, stinging insects, ticks, multicolored Asian lady beetles (when in homes), and turf insects continue to be of greatest concern to the public.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
Insects can cause damage to trees, crops, lawns, and human dwellings. Consequently, numerous citizens request information on insect identification and control methods. During the past year, the Department of Entomology received 6,773 inquires from the public; 1,770 persons brought specimens to the department. there were 5,431 (80%) inquires about trees, ornamentals, and natural resources. The remaining 1,342 requests were for information on insect pests of human dwellings (17%) or on food crops (3%). Hemlock woolly adelgids, 17-year periodical cicadas, carpenter ants, termites, carpenter bees, yellowjackets, and turf insects are of most concern to the public.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

    Outputs
    Numerous inquires have been received by personnel in the Department of Entomology on insect problems and methods of control. Citizens visit entomologists and bring specimens for identification or submit samples by mail and call for results. During the past year, there were 6,217 inquiries. Of these, 4,165 (67%) were from citizens who needed information on pests of ornamentals, trees, and other natural resources. The remaining 2,052 inquiries were on insect pests of humans or persons' dwellings (29%) or of food crops (4%). Carpenter ants, hemlock woolly adelgids, yellowjackets, carpenter bees, pantry pests, termites, and turf insects continue to be of most frequent public concern.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

      Outputs
      The Department of Entomology receives citizens' inquiries regarding insect problems. Specimens are often submitted for identification, and insect damage is assessed. Information is given on the life histories and control of pest species. There were 6,432 inquiries. Of these, 1,415 (22%) were from citizens who visited the department and requested information or presented a specimen for identification. There were questions on food crop insects (4%), pests of humans or persons' dwellings (29%), and on natural resources (67%). The following pests were of most frequent concern: carpenter ants, hemlock woolly adelgids, yellowjackets, carpenter bees, pantry pests, termites, and turf insects.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

        Outputs
        Insect specimens were submitted for identification, and information was given onthe life histories and control of pest species. There were 6,148 inquiries from citizens regarding pest problems. There were questions on insects attacking trees and ornamental plants (67%), pests of humans, domesticted animals, or persons' dwellings (29%), and on food crop insects (4%). The following insects were of greatest concern to the public: Hemlock woolly adelgids, wasps and hornets, carpenter ants, termites, Indian meal moths, ticks, and soil-inhabiting insects (Japanese beetles and Black vine weevils).

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

          Outputs
          Insect and tick specimens were identified for the public so that effective treatments can be given to protect plants, animals, and human dwellings. The following pests were of greatest concern to citizens: Hemlock woolly adelgids, stinging insects, carpenter ants, termites, Indian meal moths, and ticks (Ixodes dammini and Dermacentor variabilis) which carry pathogens that cause Lyme disease, babesiosis, or Rocky Mountain spotted fever. There were 7,043 public inquiries. The number of questions on trees and ornamental plants (n = 4,225) exceeded those regarding human health or human dwellings (n = 2,536) and food crops (n = 282).

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

            Outputs
            To help solve insect and other pest problems for the public, specimens were identified and information on the biology and control of pests was given for 6,596 inquiries. Requests for information referred to arthropods, mammals, birds, and snakes. The number of questions on trees and ornamental plants (n=3,303) exceeded those on humans or persons' dwellings (n=2,943) and food crops (n=350). The following arthropod pests were of greatest concern to citizens: Hemlock woolly adelgids, yellowjackets/baldfaced hornets, carpenter ants, millipedes, ticks, and Indian meal moths.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

              Outputs
              Citizens requested information on insect identification, damage, and control. There were 6,808 inquiries on arthropods, mammals, birds, and snakes. Of these, 1,646 were by citizens who visited laboratories with specimens. Requests for information were about arthropod pests of human beings (3,050), natural resources (3,181), or food crops (577). There was increased concern about ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Tick specimens of Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick), Ixodes dammini, Ixodes cookei, nd Amblyomma americanum (Lone star tick) were identified.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

                Outputs
                Rhododendron gall midge caused extensive damage in Connecticut nurseries. Overwintering pupae were found in the top 4 cm of soil and were highly susceptible to dursban treatments. Pear thrips caused damage to apple blossoms and maple foliage and flowers in at least 18 towns during 1989. Adults of this univoltine species emerged from the soil in apple orchards and maple groves from late March to April. Eggs were deposited in flower stems and in leaf petioles and veins during April and May. Immatures hatched from eggs in May, fed for 2 to 3 weeks and then entered the soil to overwinter. Gypsy moth caterpillars defoliated 65,735 hectares of woodlands in towns within 4 counties (Fairfield, Hartford, Middlesex, and New Haven). More than 90% of the defoliation occurred in Fairfield County (southwestern Connecticut). Samples of honey bees were collected from 64 apiaries in all 8 counties. Examinations of 6,925 bees revealed no tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi. Tests for Varroa jacobsoni likewise were negative for the 37,270 bees examined. A. woodi was found in imported bees. There were 6,118 inquiries on arthropods, mammals, birds and snakes. Inquires were about pests of human beings (2,955), natural resources (2,915), or food crops (248).

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

                  Outputs
                  During 1988, 217,201 hectares of woodlands, within 23 municipalities, were surveyed for gypsy moth egg masses. Infestations were found in the following towns of eastern Connecticut: Pomfret, Brooklyn, Canterbury, Scotland, and Sprague. An aerial survey conducted during July revealed that 5,145 hectares (0.7%) of the state's total woodlands (728,450 hectares) had noticeable defoliation. Pear thrip, apparently a new forest pest in Connecticut, damaged leaf buds of sugar maple trees during the spring. This resulted in deformed leaves and defoliation. Pear thrip infestations have been confirmed in the towns of Bethel, Branford, North Haven, and Lyme. Samples of honey bees were collected from 109 apairies in all 8 counties in Connecticut. Examinations of 10,395 bees revealed no tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi. An additional 43,573 specimens were screened for Varroa jacobsoni, and all samples were free of this external ectoparasite. The histopathology of Ovavesicula popilliae, a microsporidian parasite, was investigated in Japanese beetles. Malpighian tubules, larval fat body, epidermal tissues, pericardial cells, oenocytes, and tracheal epithelial cells were infected. Beetle larvae exhibited an intense inflammatory response. There were 5,756 inquires on arthropods, mammals, birds, and snakes, and of these, 82% were arthropod related.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                    Outputs
                    Surveys were conducted for gypsy moth egg masses in 21 towns/cities during 1987. Of the 394,520 acres of woodlands inspected, 68,407 acres (17.3%) had egg masses. Statewide defoliation due to gypsy moth infestations was about 50% lower in 1987 (127,452 acres) than in 1986 (268,242 acres) and occurred primarily in eastern Connecticut. There was on noticeable defoliation in western Connecticut. Collapsing populations of caterpillars are due to a naturally occurring virus and predators. A microsporidian parasite, Ovavesicula popilliae was found in Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica, in 1987. Infection begins in the Malpighian tubules and may spread to the fat body of heavily infected beetles. Larvae, pupae, and adult Japanese beetles can be infected, but O. popilliae has not been found in any associated turf feeding insects. During a statewide survey, O. popilliae was found in grubs from 34 of 49 sampling sites; 25.4% of the Japanese beetles were infected. Heavily infected adults laid fewer eggs and emerged later than healthy ones. This parasite may be important in regulating Japanese beetle populations. Examinations of honey bees, from 52 locations in all 8 counties in Connecticut, revealed no mite parasites of Varroa Jacobsoni (n = 7,697 bees examined) or Acarapis woodi (n = 5,238 examined). There were 5,360 inquiries on arthropods, mammals, birds, and snakes, and of these, 765 were arthropod related.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                      Outputs
                      A new genus and species of microsporidia, Ovavesicula popilliae, was described from the Malpighian tubules of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, larva collected from Hamden, Connecticut. Meronts have diplokaryotic nuclei, develop in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm, and divide by binary fission. Sporonts have unpaired nuclei, develop within a thick sporophorous vesicle, and undergo synchronous nuclear divisions producing plasmodia with 2,4,8,16, and 32 nuclei. Cytokinesis of sporogonial plasmodia does not occur until karyokinesis is complete with 32 nuclei. Intact sporophorous vesicles are ovoid, containing numerous secretory products, and are surrounded by a persistent two-layered wall. The uninucleate spores are regularly formed in groups of 32, and the polar tube in each has six coils. Subsequent investigations have shown that O. popilliae infects both adults and larvae of the Japanese beetle but it has not been found in any associated Scarabaeidae larvae. O. popilliae is a common parasite in larval populations around the state with infection rates ranging from zero to 95 percent. Infected Malpighian tubules are usually swollen and opaque. Severe infection may result in the formation of black crystaline structures in and around the tubules. Gypsy moth defoliation in summer of 1986 occurred primarily in eastern Connecticut and totalled 268,242 acres. There was 4,423 inquiries of which 3601 were insect related.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/85 to 01/30/86

                        Outputs
                        Gypsy moth defoliation in summer of 1985 occurred primarily in eastern Connecticut and totalled 153,621 acres. Small emergences of the 17-year periodical cicada, Magicicada septendecim (L.), occurred in central Connecticut during 1983. Evidence obtained in 1983 and 1932 (51 years earlier) suggests collectively that Brood VI is not a self-reproducing brood in Connecticut. It is proposed that emergences of Brood VI may be attributed to a few adults of Brood II, which underwent a 4-year deceleration in nymphal development. T Two to four different pesticides were simultaneously present in dead honey bees or broodnest comb in 28 of 55 poisoned apiaries in Connecticut in 1983-1985. Methyl parathion (Penncap-M registered trademark), carbaryl, and endosulfan were each detected in 34,33 and 13 of the apiaries, respectively. Less frequently detected pesticides were methomyl, chlordane, diazinon, captan and malathion. The frequent finding of more than one pesticide in a single sample of dead bees emphasizes the need to analyze for several pesticides when attempting to identify the chemical cause of death of bees. The health of colonies poisoned with methyl parathion only or methyl parathion in combination with other insecticides was often severely affected (141 of 168 poisoned colonies were either killed or weakened), whereas colonies affected by carbaryl only or carbaryl plus insecticides other than methyl parathion often recovered (16 of 79 poisoned colonies were either killed or weakened).

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 12/01/84 to 12/30/85

                          Outputs
                          Oftanol 5G at 0.9 and 1.8 kg per 0.4 ha suppressed but did not elimnate Japanesebeetle larvae feeding on the roots of hemlock. Forest land defoliated by the gypsy moth totalled 7,782 acres in 3 eastern counties in 1984. Myiasis caused by Phaenicia sericata was documented in a women who had undergone open heart surgery in a Connecticut hospital. A live leafminer (Gracillaridae) was removed from an ulcer of a diabetic patient. This is the first reported case of a caterpillar developing in a wound of a human. Sticky traps and Malaise traps placed in New England forests effectively captured snow scorpionflies (Boreus spp.) and earwig scorpionflies (Merope tuber), respectively. Extensive new biological information obtained with these sampling methods suggests that the two types of traps may be useful for sampling other insects in natural or agricultural habitats. Inquiries for information concerning insects and other pests totalled 4,645 of which 87% were insect related.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 12/01/82 to 12/30/83

                            Outputs
                            Insecticieds were evaluated by R.E. Moore and G.S. Taylor for control of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Acephate, thiodan and malathion were effective. The pine needle scale, Phenacaspis pinifoliae was susceptible to Temik, Pounce and diazinon. Gypsy moth defoliation in summer 1983 occurred in eastern Connecticut, and totalled 153,239 acres. Inquiries for information concerning insects and other pests totalled 5,300 of which 84% were insect related. The remaining queries primarily concerned mammals, birds and snakes.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/82 to 01/30/83

                              Outputs
                              Spirochetes were observed in the midguts of 35% of 147 motile Ixodes dammini from three locations in Lyme and East Haddam, Connecticut. Positive ticks were removed from eastern chipmunks, raccoons, white-footed mice and a red squirrel. Spirochetes were isolated in Kelly's medium from 9 questing or partially engorged I. dammini adults and nymphs and from the bloods of a raccoon and a white-footed mouse. Connecticut isolates from ticks and mammals were serologically indistinguishable from the original Shelter Island, New York strain. Sera from patients diagnosed as having Lyme disease contained antibodies to spirochetes isolated from ticks and mammals. Indirect immunofluorescence tests detected antibodies to spirochetes in 197 of the 961 wild and domestic mammal sera analyzed from Southeastern Connecticut. Seropositivity rates for gray squirrels, deer, dogs and raccoon (23.1%-50%) exceeded those of chipmunks, opossums and white-footed mice (10.3%-17.4%). Samples of an additional 442 mammalian sera, representative of areas in Western Connecticut where I. dammini is rare, were negative.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                                Outputs
                                Gypsy moth defoliation in Summer 1981 occurred throughout much of Connecticut and totaled 1,482,216 acres. B. Moore performed insecticide tests on gypsy moth larvae in the field. Ground applications of malathion, methoxychlor, malathion-methoxychlor mixtures, Orthene and Sevin provided excellent control. Bacillus thuringiensis provided good control. Imidan was relatively ineffective. Inquiries for information concerning insects and other pests totaled 7,426 of which 96% were insect related. The remaining queries primarily concerned mammals, birds and snakes. L. A. Magnarelli and T. G. Andreadis reported on four persons who had furuncular, traumatic, or nasal myasis in Connecticut, third-stage Sarcophaga and Musca domestica larvae were removed from wounds, a second-stage Cuterebra species larva was dislodged from cutaneous tissue and third-stage larvae of Phaenicia sericata were extracted from nasal membranes. Studies by J. F. Anderson, L. A. Magnarelli, and A. Spandorf showed that the feed-through insecticide, Larvadex, mixed with chicken feed at the rate of 1 lb per ton of feed significantly reduced numbers of house flies in two of three modern poultry houses containing 20,000 or more birds.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                                  Outputs
                                  Gypsy moth defoliation covered 372,216 acres in 127 towns, an increase of 363,627 acres from 1979. It was recorded from all 8 counties in the state, but was most extensive in the western counties of Fairfield, Litchfield, Hartford and New Haven. Intensity of defoliation of 76-100% totalled 108,057 acres, the largest annual acreage affected to such a degree. An additional 115,167 acres were defoliated 51-75%. Two formulations of the insecticide Amaze were shown by Bob Moore to be highly effective (100% mortality) in controlling Japanese beetle grubs. A serious housefly problem has arisen in caged-layer poultry houses. Experiments to control houseflies have been initiated by Drs. Magnarelli and Anderson. Inquiries for information concerning insects and other pests totalled 6,598 of which 95% were arthropod related. The remaining queries concerned mammals, birds and snakes.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/79 to 01/30/80

                                    Outputs
                                    Gypsy moth defoliation in Summer 1979 occurred in Northeastern Connecticut and totaled 7,692 acres. B. Moore performed insecticide tests on 2 insects. On Fletcher scale, temik provided excellent control while Orthene and Ethion provided adequate control. Oftanol and Dasonit gave excellent control of Japanese beetle grubs. Phytotoxicity tests on Azalea showed no foliar injury by aldicarb, asphate or bendiocarb. Inquiries for information concerning insects and other pests totaled 6028 of which 86.6% were insect related. The remaining queries primarily concerned mammals, birds and snakes.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/78 to 01/30/79

                                      Outputs
                                      Studies on ticks were conducted with L.A. Magnarelli. A domestic Connecticut dog suffered a fatal febrile illness due to a Babesia infection. Morphology of the intraerythrocitic protozoa and experimental host-range suggested that the parasite was B. gibsoni. This tick-borne veterinary disease is enzootic in wild and domestic canines in Africa and Asia, but appears to be new to the Americas. An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test was developed for the Connecticut isolate of B. gibsoni. This test appears to have application in the diagnosis of B. gibsoni infections. IFA tests revealed Babesia microti antibodies in sera of nine Peromycus leucopus collected from four sites in Connecticut. Rickettsia rickettsii was isolated from the blood of one patient in 1978. Microscopic examination of stained tick tissues revealed the presence of rickettsia-like organisms in 48 of the 1,260 Dermacentor variabilis examined. Eleven of the infected D. variabilis had organisms of the spotted fever-group while the remaining specimens harbored unidentified bacilli. Isolation attempts have identified Rickettsia montana in two ticks. Forest defoliation caused by gypsy moths and oak leaf tiers totaled 2,150 hectares. Inquiries for information concerning insects and other pests totaled 5,919 of which 76% were insect related. The remaining queries concerned mammals, birds and snakes.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/77 to 01/30/78

                                        Outputs
                                        The joint study on ticks with Dr. Magnarelli continued. The following ten species have been collected in Connecticut: Ixodes scapularis, I. cookei, I. dentatus, I. texanus, I. marxi, Amblyomma americanum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris, Dermacentor variabilis, D. albipictus. They were collected from 15 different species of mammals. More than 3,000 ticks were examined for spotted fever-like organisms. Less than 1% of the ticks were positive. Six hundred and twenty-eight blood samples were taken from wild mammals. Each sample was examined for antibodies against spotted fever antigen in microaglutination test. Antibodies were detected om grey squirrel, raccoon, whitefooted mice and deer. Sixteen percent of the raccoons and less then 2% of the deer and mice tested were found to have antibodies to spotted fever-like organisms. Rodents were examined for the blood parasites, Babesia and Grahamella. Mammals were examined for the 2 parasites by (1) examination of blood smears obtained from feral animals and (2) examination of blood smears from splenectomized feral animals. In addition, rodents were screened for Babesia by inoculation of whole blood into hamsters and by a microimmunofluorescence test for Babesia antibodies. No rodents were found infeBabesia. None of over 400 rodent sera examined had Babesia antibodies. As many as 45% of the rodents collected at one site were found infected with Grahamella following splenectomy.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/76 to 01/30/77

                                          Outputs
                                          INQUIRIES FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS INCREASED FROM THE PREVIOUS YEAR. TOTAL CONTACTS WITH THE PUBLIC WERE 6,980. THE MOST COMMON INQUIRIES CONCERNED STORED PRODUCT PESTS, WASPS AND HORNETS, TERMITES, CARPENTERANTS, JAPANESE BEETLES AND MAMMALIAN PESTS. GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION TOTALED 9,809 ACRES. A BOOK ENTITLED "PERSPECTIVES IN FOREST ENTOMOLOGY" WAS COMPLETED AND PUBLISHED. A JOINT STUDY WITH DR. LOUIS MAGNARELLI WAS INITIATED ON THE BIOLOGY OF AND DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY TICKS. NINE SPECIES OF TICKS WERE COLLECTED FROM OVER 1,000 MAMMALS IN CONNECTICUT. DERMACENTOR VARIABILIS WAS FOUND INFECTED WITH RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII AND BACILLARY BODIES. BABESIA MICROTIWAS APPARENTLY FOUND IN WHITE-FOOTED MICE. TICKS AND ORGANS OF FIELD CAUGHT RODENTS ARE BEING INJECTED INTO LABORATORY MICE FOR VIRUS ISOLATION. BLOOD SERAOF VARIOUS MAMMALS ARE BEING ANALYZED FOR THE PRESENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII AND ARBOVIRUSES. ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS WAS DETECTED IN SERA FROM WHITE-TAILED DEER.

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/75 to 01/30/76

                                            Outputs
                                            Inquiries for information concerning insects and other pests increased from the previous year. Total contacts with the public were 6,297. The most common queries concerned stored product pests, wasps and hornets, carpenter ants, termites and Japanese beetles. Heavy infestations of fall webworm continued along roadsides and fields. The infestation is continuing to spread westward. Gypsy moth defoliation totaled 63,400 acres of woodland. A survey for foulbroodin Connecticut bee colonies conducted in 1974 revealed that disease incidence was less than 1%.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                              Outputs
                                              Inquiries for information concerning insects and other pests was increased from last year. Total contacts with the public were 4,699, compared with 4,100 for 1973. Requests for information concerning Japanese and Oriental beetles were upfrom the year before. There were also many inquiries about termites, carpenter ants and stored products pests. The population of red-humped oakworms collapsedand no defoliation occurred in 1974. Surveys for fall webworm again revealed heavy infestations along roadsides and fields in northeastern Connecticut. Gypsy moths defoliated 129,980 acres of woodland.

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/73 to 01/30/74

                                                Outputs
                                                The total number of inquiries for information on insects and insect control was again down from the year before. There were 4,100 contacts with the public. Information was most frequently requested for termites, gypsy moth, carpenter ants and stored product pests. Surveys for fall webworm revealed heavy infestations along roadsides and field in northeastern Connecticut. The red-humped oakworm reached outbreak numbers on large acreages of land for the first time in Connecticut. More than 42,5000 acres were noticeably defoliated. Gypsy moths defoliated 333,215 acres of woodland. The majority of the defoliation was west of the Connecticut River.

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications


                                                  Progress 01/01/72 to 12/30/72

                                                  Outputs
                                                  The total number of enquiries for information on insects and insect control was down from last year, reflecting the reduced incidence of defoliating caterpillars. There were about 5,000 contacts with the public. Identificationsfor state and municipal bodies, chiefly public health departments, ranged from 6to 13 per month. Each year, I find an increasing number of people are using us as a means of access to other government or information sources, e.g. migratory bird laws, licensing, etc.

                                                  Impacts
                                                  (N/A)

                                                  Publications


                                                    Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                                    Outputs
                                                    The number of requests for information by letter, telephone, or personal visit increased about 20% this year. Slightly under 6,000 requests were recorded. The largest increase occurred in May and June during an outbreak of the gypsy moth and elm spanworm. Ticks and fleas were apparently more abundant also.

                                                    Impacts
                                                    (N/A)

                                                    Publications


                                                      Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                                      Outputs
                                                      From January through December, there were a minumum of 4,900 requests for information by letter, telephone, or in person, including 57 identifications of insects for the consumer protection division and state and municipal health departments.

                                                      Impacts
                                                      (N/A)

                                                      Publications


                                                        Progress 01/01/69 to 12/30/69

                                                        Outputs
                                                        During 1969, there were considerably more than 3200 phone calls or visits by persons wishing to have information on the identification or control of insects and mites. Many other people submitted specimens by mail. Most of the requestsconcerned household pests, with termites, wasps, fleas, and ants causing the most inquiries. Numerous identifications were also made for the State Department of Public Health and the Department of Analytical Chemistry.

                                                        Impacts
                                                        (N/A)

                                                        Publications


                                                          Progress 01/01/68 to 12/30/68

                                                          Outputs
                                                          A new pest, the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897) was found in the state during 1968. This is an allergen producing speciesbeing associated with bronchial asthma. Requests for identification and information regarding Termites were received throughout the year. Food storage pest identifications also were numerous throughout the year both for the generalpublic, the State Consumer Protection Department and the Department of Health. Because of the increase in numbers of urban homeowners, there is a constant request for examination of injured plant material possibly infested with insect pests. There were more requests for identification of maggots injuring vegetable roots than usual. Most home gardeners had not had injury prior to 1968. The Fruit Tree leafroller, an omnivorous feeder on many plants, was more abundant than usual.

                                                          Impacts
                                                          (N/A)

                                                          Publications