Source: MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
FORAGE AND FIELD CROP PRODUCTION
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
REVISED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0013405
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
MONB00504
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2005
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2016
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Wichman, D. M.
Recipient Organization
MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
BOZEMAN,MT 59717
Performing Department
Central Agricultural Research Center
Non Technical Summary
Agriculture is the main economic industry in central Montana. Seeded forages, cereal grains and oilseed crops are economically important to central Montana and across the Northern Great Plains region. Maintaining and improving crop yield and quality is critical to the economic well being of central Montana and elsewhere. Seeded annual and perennial forages are a source of hay for winter feed and provide a grazing alternative to native range. Cereal forages provide for weed control in both annual crop systems and perennial forage systems, provide for excellent seed beds for perennial forage establishment and typically produce higher forage yields than perennial species. Seeded perennial forages provide high quality forage for strategic times of the year, provide an alternative to annual cropping on highly erodible soils, and are generally more productive than native species and more suitable for haying than native plant communities. Cereal grains and oilseed crops are widely used in food, feeds, fiber and sometimes as fuels. Oilseeds are also used in biodiesel production. This project is to identify improved and superior cultivars of cereal and perennial forages, cereal grains, and oilseeds, and contribute to the development of improved cereal forages and cereal grains, and identify herbicides that are effective the control of winter annuals in rainfed alfalfa stands. Field evaluation trials are established to compare the performance of new cultivars and development lines with the performance of commonly grown cultivars, checks, with known agronomic attributes. Development lines exhibiting one or more characters superior to those of the check cultivars are released as cultivars to seed growers who then market seed to crop and forage growers. Some new cultivars are developed elsewhere and it is determined if they are suitable for use in central Montana environments. Cultivar development involves cross pollinating two lines of differing genetic makeup from which a couple thousand unique individuals could result. During the cultivar development process, the array of genetically diverse off-spring of the cross are narrowed to a few or one superior line which may or may not result in a cultivar suitable for release. Weeds compete for water, soil nutrients, sunlight and space and their presence reduce crop yields and quality. Winter annual weeds are significant problem in rainfed alfalfa production in central Montana. Developing or identifying efficient ways of controlling winter annuals in alfalfa will increase alfalfa yields and quality, improving the economics of rainfed alfalfa production. Effective herbicides generally provide economical and efficient way of managing weeds. This research project is applied in nature so it has an immediate impact on Ag producers decision making. Producers sometimes adopt portions of the methods or technology prior to completion. USDA agencies involved in developing and providing farm policies and programs utilize information generated by this project.
Animal Health Component
90%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
90%
Developmental
10%
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2021540106020%
2021549106010%
2021550106010%
2021621106010%
2021639106020%
2021640106010%
2021649106010%
2021899106010%
Goals / Objectives
1. Evaluate annual and perennial forage species and cultivars for adaptation and performance in central Montana environments and contribute to the development of improved cultivars. This project is to identify improved cultivars of cereals, perennial legumes and perennial grasses. Select improved forage lines from segregating winter triticale populations. The improved cultivars will increase forage production and improve forage quality in central Montana rainfed environments. 2. Evaluate cereal grain cultivars for adaptation and use in central Montana crop environments. This project is to identify improved cereal grain cultivars for central Montana, resulting in increased yield, improved grain quality and increased resistance/tolerance to cereal crop pests. 3. Evaluate oilseed cultivars for adaptation and use in central Montana crop environments. This project is to identify improved oilseed cultivars for central Montana, increasing the potential of increasing annual cropping species diversity and contribute to biological and economic stability. 4. Evaluation of herbicides on rainfed alfalfa for control of annual forbs. This project is to identify methods of controlling winter annual weeds in rainfed alfalfa in central Montana. Controlling annual weeds will enhance forage yields and quality.
Project Methods
1. Evaluate annual and perennial forage species and cultivars for performance in central Montana environments and contribute to the development of improved cultivars. a. Cultivar and development line evaluation nurseries Spring and winter cereal forage (WCF), perennial legume, and perennial grass nurseries will be established to evaluate new genetic material in central Montana. The entries will be replicated four times in a randomized complete block design (RCB) and data analyzed using analysis of variance procedures (ANOV). Measurements will include heading/flowering date, plant height, and forage yield. The cereal forages trials will be analyzed for protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, nitrate content, and in citu dry matter disappearance. All winter cereal forage entries will be evaluated for facultative nature in mid-spring seeded single observation plots. Improved awnless winter triticale forage lines are being selected from seven segregating populations. Fourteen hundred heads were split and seeded in fall and mid- spring seeded paired hills in 2010. 400 Heads selected from the fall hill plots were seeded in head rows (Oct 2010). Forty head rows will be selected for entry into 2012 winter cereal forage preliminary (49 entry) yield trial. Thirty lines will advance to the 2013 advance yield trial (36). Four lines will advance to the elite trial (16) in 2014. The elite trial entries and selected advanced yield trial entries will be analyzed for quality. 2. Evaluate cereal grain cultivars for adaptation and use in central Montana crop environments. a. Cultivar and development line evaluation nurseries Spring and winter wheat, durum and barley evaluation trials will be established to evaluate new genetic material. Selected advanced lines, new cultivars and popular cultivars are included in on-farm evaluation trials. Measurements include heading date, plant height, disease infection, insect cutting/feeding, yield, test weight, and grain protein content. 3. Evaluate oilseed cultivars for adaptation and use in central Montana crop environments. a. Cultivar and development line evaluation nurseries Cultivar and development line evaluation trials will be established for camelina on fallow and continuous crop environments to evaluate new genetic material and determine the yield potential of camelina. Measurements include flower date, plant height, incidence of plant pests, yield, test weight, and grain oil content. The trials are established in four replications RCB and data ANOV. 4. Evaluation of herbicides on rainfed alfalfa for control of annual forbs. a. Herbicides efficacy and forage alfalfa tolerance evaluation nurseries. Herbicide evaluation trials will be established in mature rainfed alfalfa stands that are infested with winter annual broadleaf weeds. The trials are established in four replications RCB and data ANOV. Measurements will include weed control efficacy by species present two weeks post herbicide application, at forage harvest, and one year after herbicide application, visual assessment of alfalfa tolerance two weeks post application and at forage harvest, and yield forage yield response.

Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Development lines and cultivars of winter wheat, 205 lines, spring wheat, 144 lines, and barley, 172 lines, were evaluated for agronomic traits and yield under rain fed environments. Cultivars of winter wheat, 24, spring wheat, 20, and barley were evaluated in four on farm no till environments. Yellowstone winter wheat, Vida spring wheat and Haxby barley were high yielding cultivars in the dry 2012 crop year. Sixty four Safflower cultivars and development lines were evaluated for agronomic adaptation and yield under continuous crop systems at 4300 ft. elevation. Adapted early flowering spineless safflower lines seed yields were equal to slightly higher than the standard spined safflower in this cooler environment. Camelina was evaluated for yield response and leaf tissue sulfur content in response three sulfur sources and application rates. Brassica carinata, 9 lines, were evaluated for adaptation to continuous crop in central Montana. Preplant saflufencial glyphosate tank mixes in sequence with Imazamox provided good grass and broadleaf weed control in imazamox tolerant lentils. Imazamox paraquat tank mix provide good downy brome and pale alyssum control in rain fed alfalfa in semi-arid environment and in dryland alfalfa. Urea and polymer coated urea nitrogen sources were compared for late fall, winter and spring application to winter wheat. Layered nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur zinc fertilizer particles were compared with MAP, ammonium sulfate potassium chloride blend as starter fertilizer for spring wheat and barley. The layered blend particle fertilizer performed similar to the granular N, P, K and S to fertilizer mixes. Drought conditions severely limited the potential for yield responses. Forage yields were collected for 76 winter triticale lines, 36 hooded spring barley lines, 71 perennial grass species cultivars, 41 alfalfa cultivars, and 10 leafy peas lines grown in rain fed semiarid environments. Seed applied products were evaluated for wire worm control in continuous crop cereal grain production systems. PARTICIPANTS: David M. Wichman, principal investigator. Sally Dahlhausen, field and lab aid; Joe Vavrovsky field research tech; Benri Deanon, research associate for cereals; Anuar Morales-Rodrigez, Grad Student in entomology; Cory Deegan, seasonal student labor, Jordan Uhler, seasonal student labor; Ashton Jaymes, seasonal student labor; Trevor Ridgeway, season student labor; Cheyenne Hicks, seasonal student labor; Maria Holzer, seasonal student labor; Nick Metcalfe, seasonal student labor. Millers Coors Brewing, BASF Ag Products, Montana Wheat and Barley Committee, Mosaic Company, Monsanto-West Bred, Agri Pro Genetics, Montana Fertilizer Tax Committee, Montana Seed Trade, Montec Seeds, USDA NRCS Bridger Plant Material Center, Cropland Genetics. Crop production and damage assessment for National Crop Insurance Service crop adjuster training (about 100 participants) Forage and specialty crop field research tour and research review for 130 clientele. Cereal forage production methods junior level college class lecture for 64 students. TARGET AUDIENCES: Agricultural producers raising forages, cereal grains, pulse and oilseed crops. Extension specialist and county Ag extension agents. Seed and fertilizer industry development reps and sales reps, USDA NRCS field techs, crop insurance adjusters. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Providing information on the relative production of improved cereal grain, forage species, and oilseed species encourages the producer utilization of these improved cultivars. Total crop production is increased by producer utilization of improved cultivars. Providing yield response data to the application of various forms of fertilizer enables producers to determine the potential economic to investing in slow release or other attributes of a particular fertilizer formulation. Improved forage and pulse crop weed control improves yield and market quality and thus the economy of these of producing these crops. Twenty four hooded hulless barley lines selected from a land race, locally known as Goose Wheat, were evaluated for improved beta glucan content and grain yield.

Publications

  • Lanning,S. P., Hucl, P., Pumphrey, M., Carter, A. H., Lamb, P. F., Carlson, G. R., Wichman, D. M., Kephart, K. D., Spaner, D., Martin, J. M.,and Talbert, L. E. 2012. Agronomic Performance of Spring Wheat as Related to Planting Date and Photoperiod Response. Crop Science 52: 4: 1633-1639.
  • Westcott, M., D. Wichman, and R. Hybner. 2011. Evaluation of Nitrate Potential in Hay from Five Cereal Forage Species. Fertilizer Facts #57, Montana State University
  • Wichman, D.M., 2012. Central Montana Spring Wheat Cultivar Performance. Traders Dispatch Vol. XIII 1.
  • Wichman, D.M., 2012. Central Montana Barley Cultivar Evaluations. Traders Dispatch. Vol. XIII 1.
  • Wichman, D.M., 2012. Cover crops, a current hot topic. Traders Dispatch Vol XIII 2.
  • Wichman, D.M., 2012. Cereal forage crops provide good yields in Montana. Ag News At a Glance 8:7


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Cereal grain cultivars and development lines, winter wheat-49 cultivars and 1100 development lines, spring wheat-30 cultivars and 110 development lines, and barley 30 cultivars and 170 development lines, were evaluated in rainfed continuous crop and crop fallow systems at the CARC or in on farm evaluations in four central Montana counties. Grain yield, sawfly resistance, stem strength, resistance stripe rust, tan spot and crown rot were some of the evaluated characters. Ten safflower cultivars and 60 development lines were evaluated for seed and oil yield in short season higher, 4300ft, elevation. Seventeen of the development lines are spineless types selected for short season adaptation. Six camelina cultivars and 19 development lines were evaluated for seed and oil production in crop fallow and continuous crop rainfed environments. Thirty nine perennial grass cultivars, 25 alfalfa cultivars, four sainfoin cultivars, four birdfoot trefoil cultivars and four cicer milkvetch cultivars were evaluated for forage production in a 15 inch precipitation rainfed environment. Annual forages, winter triticale- 4 cultivars and 240 development lines and hooded barley, 5 cultivars and 65 development lines, were evaluated for forage production and quality in continuous crop and crop fallow systems. A layered pearl granular fertilizer, with a 12N+40P+10S+01Zn percent composition, placed with the seed, was evaluated for yield enhancementof barley, spring wheat and peas in continuous crop system. Saflufenacil, pendimetholin, imazamox and glyphosate alone and in combination were evaluated for preplant weed control efficacy and green lentil tolerance. Imazamox and pedimetholin alone and in combination were evaluated for broadleaf and grass weed control in first year alfalfa. Cultivars and development lines of winter wheat, barley and spring wheat were evaluated for post-harvest seed dormancy. PARTICIPANTS: Collaborators: Montana Agricultural Experiment Station field crop and forage researchers P. Lamb, J. Miller, J. Bergman, J. Eckhoff, M. Westcott, M. Knox, K. Kephart, K. McVay, and H. Mason. TARGET AUDIENCES: Montana Extension Service agricultural specialist and agents, agronomic and forage crop producers and agribusiness crop specialist, federal agricultural producer agencies. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Extremely wet and cool late winter through mid-spring weather retarded winter crop growth and delayed spring crop seedings. Below average precipitation was received in the mid-June through August period reducing crop yields and hindering the fall seeding of 2012 winter crops. The wet spring contributed wide spread stripe rust infestation on winter wheat and some spring wheat. Sawfly infestations were higher at Moccasin and moderate at other locations. The two grain yields of winter wheat, barley and spring wheat were below average at the more shallow soil sites Moccasin and Denton and near average at the deep soil Geraldine and Winifred sites. Yellowstone, Decade, Jagalene, WB Quake, Norris, Falcon and Pryor were top performing winter wheat cultivars. Yellowstone is the multiyear top yielder. Vida, Oneal, WB Gunnison, Reeder, Conan and Duclain were the high yield spring wheat cultivars with Vida having the multi-year high yield. Hockett, Haxby, Conrad, Pinnacle, Goldeneye, and Tradition were high performing grain barley. Cereal forage yields ranged from 1 to 3.5 tons per acre. Winter cereal yields were double those of spring type. Winter cultivar Trical 102 and development lines produced more forage than Willow Creek and other winter wheat entries. Haybet, Hays, Lavina and hooded barley development lines were high forage producing spring cereals. Oahe intermediate wheatgrass continues to have the high multi-year forage yields of perennial grasses evaluated. The relative yields of Shoshone and Delaney sainfoin continue to be similar to Ladak 65 and Shaw alfalfa. Forage yields four birdsfoot trefoil and three cicer milkvetch cultivars produced less than half the yield of the alfalfa. The layered pearled starter fertilizer produced barley yields less than 10+10+10+05 pounds NPKS check. It is suspected the lack of K inhibited layered pearl fertilizer performance. The imazamox tolerant lentils exhibited good imazamox tolerance. The preplant imazamox treatment provide fair to good control of Salsola tragus. Glyphosate, saflufenacil, pendimetholin and imazamox combinations reduced Lactuca serriola stand. Volt and Reeder spring wheat, Decade and Jerry winter wheat, and Goldeneye and Pinnacle were the slowest to germinate with spring wheat being to slowest species followed by winter wheat then barley.

Publications

  • Wichman, D.M. 2011. Changing crops requires preparation and timing. Prairie Star Vol.41 No.17. (in press).
  • Wichman, D.M. 2011.Camelina after seven years at the Central Agricultural Research Center (CARC). Trader's Dispatch Vol. VII No.3 (in press).
  • Riveland N. R., Berg ,J. E., Kephart, K. D., Wichman, D. M., Carlson, G. R., Kushnak, G. D., Stougaard, R. N., Eckhoff, J. L., Nash, D. L., Johnston, M., Grey, W. E., Jin, Y., Chen, X. and Bruckner, P.L. 2011. Registration of Decade Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 2011 5: 3: 345-34 (in press).
  • Lanning, S.P., Carlson, G.R., Lamb, P.F., Nash, D., Wichman, D.M., Kephart, K.D., Stougaard, R.N., Miller, J., Kushnak, G.D., Eckhoff, J.L., Grey, W.E., Blake, N.K. and Talbert, L.E. 2011. Registration of Duclair Hard Red Spring Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 2011 5:3:349-352 (in press).
  • Wichman, D.M. 2011. The relative forage yield potential of Lavina hooded barley. Traders Dispatch. Vol. VI No.12(in press).


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Winter wheat variety evaluation consists of USDA Northern Regional (36 entries), MAES intrastate (49), advanced yield (36), preliminary yield (64), five off-stations (24), and replicated trials were conducted. Variety development observation nurseries of 1,000 preliminary lines and 30 F4 to F7 populations were conducted. Spring wheat variety evaluations consisted of an advanced yield (64), preliminary evaluations (81), three off-stations (20), and one spring durum variety trial (20). Barley variety evaluations and development included intrastate (64), preliminary yield (64), and three on-farm trials (16). Winter cereal forage variety development and evaluations, consisting of awnless winter wheat and triticale, included three on-farm trials (16), two advanced yield (36), two preliminary yield (49), and 1,400 winter triticale head plots with paired facultative evaluation hills. Forge yields spring hooded barley and triticale three ten entry trials. Camelina variety development and evaluation trials (25) and (18) on continuous crop and crop-fallow. Safflower oil type (36) and spineless birdseed (32) were evaluated on continuous crop. Alfalfa cultivars evaluation trials established in 2006 (18), 2008 (9), and 2010 (11). Perennial grass species and varieties evaluated in trials established in 2006 (39), 2009 (20), and (10). Cool temperature and above average precipitation in 2010 growing season resulted above average forage and grain yields for all crops. Yellowstone winter wheat continued to be a high yielder along with Decade, Wahoo, Pryor, Jagalene, and CDC Falcon. Genou winter wheat performed well in heavy sawfly infestations. Vida hard red spring performed well in all environments along with Oneal, Corbin and Choteau. Oahe intermediate wheatgrass continues to be the yield standard for central Montana area. Camelina appears to be well adapted to the central Montana environment for both continuous crop and crop fallow systems. Safflower is a marginally adapted to the 4,200 ft elevation, but is viable crop at higher prices. PARTICIPANTS: Montana Wheat and Barley Committee was a supporting organization for the cereal grains research. Sustainable Oils was a supporting organization for camelina variety evaluations. The Natural Resource and Conservation Service has vested interest in the performance of various perennial grass and legume species with respect to providing suitable vegetation for protection against soil erosion and ground water contamination. TARGET AUDIENCES: Montana agricultural producers, including those in annual crop production, forage production, livestock grazing, and wildlife production, are the primary target audience of this project. Professional crop production and land use consultants utilize the information generated in advising their clientele. Federal agencies personnel who support land operators through the farm program and land use regulation are also beneficiaries of this research project. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
Cultivars with improved yield levels and quality are adapted by agricultural producers as a means of sustaining or improving economic well being. The relative yield and longevity of perennial forage species impact the species and variety selection for seeding hay land, pastures, reclaiming disturbed sites, wildlife habitat, and roadsides. The information is distributed to agriculture producers and land use managers through popular press articles, seminars, field research tours, phone calls and internet communications.

Publications

  • S. P. Lanning, K. Kephart, G. R. Carlson, J. E. Eckhoff, R. N. Stougaard, D. M. Wichman, J. M. Martin and L. E. Talbert. 2010. Climatic Change and Agronomic Performance of Hard Red Spring Wheat from 1950 to 2007. Crop Science 2010 50: 3: 835-841.
  • Carlson, G.R., K.D. Kephart, D.M. Wichman, J.L. Eckhoff, J.W. Bergman, R.N. Stougaard, G.D. Kushnak, G.D. Jackson, P.F. Lamb, G.B. Opena, J.H. Miller, P..L. Bruckner, L.E. Talbert, T.K. Blake, J.E. Berg, S.P. Lanning and S.Bates. 2011. Montana Wheat and Barley Committee Report from the MAES Agricultural Research Centers, 2010 www.sarc.montana.edu/mwbc/2010:
  • Dave Wichman. 2010 Feb. 2009. Performance of spring wheat varieties in central Montana trials.
  • Dave Wichman. 2010 Feb. 2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation.
  • Dave Wichman. 2010 May. Perennial Grass Species and Varieties Yield Evaluations at Moccasin.
  • Dave Wichman. 2010 Jul. Wild Buckwheat glyphosate tolerance levels.
  • Dave Wichman. 2010 Dec. 2010 Barley Performance in Central Montana.
  • Dave Wichman. 2010 Dec. 2010 Central Montana On-Farm Spring Wheat Trial Results.
  • Dave Wichman. 2010 Feb. Interview: Vida spring wheat producing high yield, good sawfly tolerance. By Terri Adams, The Prairie Star.
  • Dave Wichman. 2010 Feb. Interview: Willow Creek beardless winter wheat produces good forage. By Terri Adams, The Prairie Star.


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Oahe intermediate wheat grass produced a three year total dry matter of 6.19 tons per acre in a trial evaluating 39 entries across eight species groups. The intermediate and pubescent wheatgrasses three year average yield of 5.03, western wheatgrasses 3.26, crested wheatgrasses 4.34, Siberian wheatgrasses 4.3, bluebunch wheatgrasses 3.65, slender wheatgrasses 4.52, bluegrasses 4.27, and the squirreltail 2.22 t/a. Switchgrass did not survive in trials intended to compare its yield to tall and intermediate wheatgrass. Seven of 13 alfalfa varieties produced dryland three year mean yields greater than the check cultivars Shaw, 4.04 t/a, and Ladak 65, 4.03 t/a. Winter triticale line 111WCF57 produced an average of 2.97 t/a forage dry matter across three rainfed locations and produced more than Trical 102 winter triticale and Willow Creek, Newturk and Yellowstone winter wheat at all three locations. Lavina hooded barley produced a mean yield of 1.86 t/a forage dry matter across three locations compared to 2.07, 1.79 and 1.78 t/a standard hooded hay barley cultivars Haybet, Stockford, and Hays, respectively. Jagalene, Norris, and Yellowstone were top yielding cultivars at three on-farm winter wheat variety trials. Yellowstone was the high yielding cultivar in a 49 entry Montana intrastate trial. Vida and Oneal were high yielding spring wheat cultivars across three on-farm trials. Sawfly cutting was minor at all three locations. Craft and Champion were high grain producing cultivars at two on-farm locations. Both Craft and Champion exhibited an above average post harvest dormancy which reduces their utility in continuous grain cropping systems. Fifteen development camelina lines averaged 901 lbs per acre on continuous crop and 1327 lbs in a crop fallow system. Thirty-six spined safflower cultivars and lines averaged 878 lbs seed per acre at a 4290 ft. elevation site while 20 early maturing spineless lines averaged 1418 lbs/a. Actosol brand humic acid had no effect on spring wheat or alfalfa yields. Windham yellow winter pea, Granger Austrian winter pea and Morton winter lentils exhibited excellent winter hardiness in foundation seed fields. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Agricultural producers in Montana and Northern Great Plains. Crop and Agronomy scientist. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
Performance evaluations of winter wheat, spring wheat,and barley varieties influence the variety use on over 1 million acres in central Montana. Forage species and variety evaluations influence species and variety use on over 600,000 acres in central Montana. Camelina variety evaluations contribute to the emerging bio-diesel industry in Montana and elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest.

Publications

  • Berg, J. E., P. L. Bruckner, G. R. Carlson, A. Dyer, J. Eckhoff, K. D. Kephart, P. Lamb, J. H. Miller, G. Opena, N. Riveland, R. N. Stougaard, D. M. Wichman, W. Grey, D. Nash, and R. Larson. 2010. 2010 Winter Wheat Varieties (2009 Data). http//plantsciences.montana.edu/Crops/2010data/2010WW.pdf
  • S. D. Cash, P. L. Bruckner, D. M. Wichman, K. D. Kephart, J. E. Berg, R. Hybner, A. N. Hafla, L. M. M. Surber, D. L. Boss, G. R. Carlson, J. L. Eckhoff, R. N. Stougaard, G. D. Kushnak, and N. R. Riveland Registration of Willow Creek Forage Wheat Journal of Plant Registrations, May 2009; 3: 185 - 190


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: In evaluations of perennial grasses for forage and ground cover, varieties of intermediate and pubescent wheatgrasses averaged 4.5 tons per acre dry matter production, over two growing seasons, compared to slender wheatgrass 4.2, crested wheatgrass, 3.6, Siberian wheatgrass 3.5, Canada and big bluegrass 3.3, bluebunch 3.1, and western wheat 3.0 tons per acre. Lower yielding perennial grass species included Altai and Russian wildrye, Sandberg bluegrass, and squirreltail. In an 8 year evaluation of high rain fall species in a fifteen inch annual precipitation zone, varieties of smooth brome average total production was 9.8 tons per acre dry matter followed by meadow brome at 9.2 , big bluegrass 8.7, and timothy at 8.5 tons per acre. Species producing less than 6.6 tons per acre over 8 years included tall fescue, orchard grass, Alaskan brome, Kentucky bluegrass, meadow fescue and perennial ryegrass. The perennial ryegrass experienced greater than 90 percent mortality the winter of establishment. Average eight year total yields of sainfoin varieties, grown on a shallow soil dryland site, were similar to the total yield of alfalfa varieties. The eight year mean yield of cicer milkvetch and birdsfoot trefoil varieties were 48 and 62percent, respectively, of the sainfoin yield. A one time application of water absorbing polymers, at 1 to 4 lbs per acre with alfalfa seed, did not affect dryland alfalfa forage yields over four annual harvests. Over five years, dryland no-till recrop camelina average seed yield was 977 lbs per acre followed by safflower, canola then flax. Yellow mustard was included three years and was intermediate in yield to camelina and safflower. Imazamox tolerant Brassica juncea lines, exhibited good tolerance to 4 oz/acre of imazalox and yielded slightly less than yellow mustard over four seasons. Early April seedings of camelina, canola, yellow mustard and B.juncea generally produced higher seed yields then mid and late April seedings over four years of evaluation. Safflower showed little response to April seeding dates but yields declined with May seedings. Flax yields did respond to seeding date. However, in very early seedings, mid-March 2008, flax seedlings exhibited high mortality due sub-zero (F) temperatures in late April. Winter wheat grain yields were approximately double the yields of spring wheat, at two locations, due to late spring early summer drought conditions. Early June hail impacted spring wheat more than winter wheat. Sawfly caused extensive damage to spring wheat at the Denton and Geraldine locations with nil affect on winter wheat at the same sites. Norris, Pryor, Falcon, Yellowstone, Jagalene and Neeley were some of the top yield winter wheat. Vida, Oneil, Conan, Hank, and Corbin were high yield varieties. Winter triticale grain yields were similar to winter wheat and forage yields were generally greater than Willow Creek winter wheat. Mid-spring seeding with mid-July scoring has s been affective means of identifying and eliminating winter triticale lines with facultative reproductive nature. PARTICIPANTS: Not relevant to this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Agricultural producers, agronomic researchers and extension personnel of Montana, Norhtern Great Plains and inter-mountain regions of the Rocky Mountains. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
There are over 450,000 acres of seeded perennial forages in central Montana. Producers are continually renovating and re-establishing rundown seeded pastures and haylands, the variety and species yield performance information is highly instrumental in their variety and speices selection for these acres.Oilseed crops provide species diversity for dryland wheat production cropping systems. Camelina has exhibeted high potential as a reduce energy input crop with high potential for use in bio-diesel production. Cereal grain variety performance evaluation summaries are the number one tool used by producers in selecting the cereal variety they seed. Wheat is seeded on about 630,000 acres in central Montana and barley seeded on about 100,000 acres.

Publications

  • Berg, J.E., Bruckner, P.L., Carlson, G.R., Dyer, A., Eckhoff, J., Kushnak, G.D., Kephart, K.D., Riveland, N., Stougaard, R.N., Wichman, D.M., Grey, W., Nash, D., Johnston, R. and Larson, R. 2008. Winter Wheat Varieties Performance Summary in Montana. MSU Exten. Service Bul. No. 2B 1093, 30 pp. (revised February 2008)
  • Lanning, S.P.,Carlson, G R., Eckhoff, J., Kushnak,G.D., Kephart,K.D., Stougaard,R.N., Wichman, D.M., Nash,D. and Talbert, L.E. 2008. Spring Wheat Varieties Performance Summary in Montana. Montana Agricultural Experiment Station. MSU Extens Service Bul. No. 2B 1098, 33 pp. (Revised February, 2008)
  • Wena, G., Chen,C., Neill, K.N., Wichman, D.M. and Jackson, G.D. 2008. Yield response of pea, lentil and chickpea to phosphorus addition in a clay loam soil of central Montana. Arch. Agron. and Soil Sci. 54(1)69-82.
  • Chen, C., Neill, K.N., Wichman, D.M., and Westcott, M.P. 2008. Hard Red Spring Wheat Response to Row Spacing, Seeding Rate, and Nitrogen Agron. J. 100:1296-1302.
  • Miller, P., Wichman, D., and Engel, R. 2008. Nitrogen Cycling from Pea Forage to Wheat in No-Till Systems. Fertilizer Facts #51. February.


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Cereal species, varieties, and development lines were evaluated in 35 trials for grain production or forage production in crop-fallow or continuous crop systems on the Central Agricultural Research Center near Moccasin, Montana and in on farm trials across central Montana. Winter wheat, winter triticale, winter emmer, spring wheat, spring durum, spring barley, and spring hulless oats were evaluated for agronomic characters including heading date and pest tolerance or resistance, grain yield, test weight, and grain protein content. Winter wheat, winter triticale, winter spelt, spring barley, and spring hulless oats were evaluated for agronomic characters and forage yield and forage quality. Winter wheat lines were selected from 30 F5 to F7 populations improved yield potential and moderate height. Winter triticale lines were selected from seven F5 populations forage yields and awnless character. Annual oilseeds species, camelina, canola, flax, brown mustard, yellow mustard and safflower were evaluated for the effect of April through early May seeding date affect on seed yield and oil content in continuous cropping systems. Forty five camelina varieties were evaluated for seed yield under tilled crop-fallow system. Thirty-six oil type safflower varieties and 32 advanced spineless safflower lines, selected for forage and early maturing birdseed potential, were evaluated for seed yield in no-till continuous crop environments. Varieties of alfalfa, sainfoin, cicer milkvetch, and birdsfoot trefoil varieties were evaluated for annual and multi-years yields in six trials established between 2000 and 2006. Fifty perennial grass forage varieties were evaluated for forage production potential in three trials established between 1999 and 2007.Four early maturing grain sorghum germplasms have been develop through continuous selection for early maturity since 1989. Ten yield enhancing seed treatment products were evaluated on both spring and winter wheat. The results of theses trial were disseminated to agricultural production clientele via nine popular Ag press articles, one radio interview, 21 oral presentations at Ag producer seminars, research plot tours and a centennial field day to a total of 1130 individuals (359.65 contact hrs), posting on research center web page, and distribution to sixty three growers via electronic listserv mailing. PARTICIPANTS: Research individuals directly involved with this project at Central Agricultural Research Center include David M. Wichman, Assistant Professor of Agronomy, Principal Investigator; and Joe Vavrovsky, Research Technician in Agronomy, Project Assistant. Partner organizations include Montana State University Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northern Agricultural Research Center, Eastern Agricultural Research Center, Northwestern Agricultural Research Center, Southern Agricultural Research Center, Western Triangle Agricultural Research Center, Montana Cooperative Extension Service in Cascade, Chouteau, Fergus and Judith Basin Counties; Montana Department of Agriculture Wheat and Barley Committee; agricultural businesses including Agripro, Barkley Ag, The Camelina Company, Westbred, EMD Corp. and United Agri-Products, ; and commercial farms including Barber Seed Service, Judeman Grain, Udulhoven Farms and Heilig Farms. Collaborators and contacts include Montana Agricultural Research Center scientists G.R. Carlson, C. Chen, K.E. Neill, P.F. Lamb, J.W. Bergman, J.L. Eckhoff, R.N. Stougaard, K.D. Kephart, G.D. Kushnak and G.D. Jackson; Montana State University scientists P.L. Bruckner, L.E. Talbert, T.K. Blake and D. Weaver; B.P. Grey, J.E. Berg, S.P. Lanning and S. Bates. Limited formal training or professional development opportunities occasionally exist as a result of this project for MSU graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and county extension agents. Informal professional development opportunities exist for cooperating agricultural producers and anyone receiving information disseminated as a result of this project. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include agricultural producers, agribusiness and manufacturing entities, agricultural students, and the general public as well as the broader scientific community. Access to research information generated by this project is available to all without regard to racial or ethnic background and without regard to social, economic or educational status. Information delivery efforts include refereed journal articles, reviewed articles, popularized bulletins, technical reports, the Internet, compact disk distribution, mass media periodical articles, seminars, and field tours. On occasion, this project also delivers research information in the form of formal guest classroom lectures at various Montana institutions of higher education. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: No formal changes are being implemented or planned for implementation.

Impacts
The improved cereal genetic technology was transferred to seed growers in the Pacific Northwest through this project participating production and distribution of foundation class of seed of three winter wheat, two spring wheat, three barley, one oat, two triticale, one spring emmer, one camelina and one winter pea varieties by the Central Agricultural Research Center near Moccasin Montana. Twenty-two-thousand acres of camelina was produced in Montana in 2007 due inpart to efforts of this project evaluate the yield potential of camelina, develop production methods guidelines, and dissemination of these findings to Ag producers. The rapidly increasing popularity of recentley released cereal varieties ncluding:Genou and Yellowstone winter wheat, Choteau and Vida spring wheat,and Haxby barley contribute improved yields and reduced risk of pest damage. Feed pea production increased by over 4,000 acres in central Montana and included over 200 acres of fall seeded lentils.

Publications

  • Chen, C., Sharma-Shivappa, R., Chen, Y., Wichman,D., and Johnson, D. 2007. Potential of annual cereal crops to serve as fuel ethanol feedstock and livestock feed. p.47-55. In: J. Janick and A. Whipkey (ed.), Issues in New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
  • Chen, C., R. Sharma-Shivappa, Y. Chen, D. Wichman, and D. Johnson. 2007. A double cropping system for livestock feed and ethanol feedstock. Abstracts. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, November 4-8, 2007, New Orleans, LA.
  • Bergman, J.W., Riveland, N.R., Flynn, C.R., Carlson, G.R., Wichman, D.M. and Kephart, K.D. 2007. Registration of Nutrasaff Safflower. J. Plant Registrations. 1:129-130.
  • Bruckner, P.L., Berg, J.E., Riveland, N., Eckhoff, J.L., Wichman, D.M., Kephart, K.D., Carlson, G.R., Kushnak, G.D., Stougaard, R.N., Nash, D.L., Grey, W.E., Dyer, A.T, Jin, J. and Chen. X. 2007. Registration of Yellowstone Wheat. J. Plant Registrations. 1: 18-19.
  • Carlson, G.R., Berg, J.E., Stougaard, R.N., Kephart, K.D., Riveland, N., Kushnak, G.D., Wichman, D.M., Eckhoff, J.L., Nash, D.L., Davis, E.S., Grey, W.E. and Bruckner, P.L. 2007. Registration of Bynum Wheat. J. Plant Registrations. 1:16-17.
  • Kephart, K.D., Berg, J.E., Carlson, G.R., Stougaard, R.N., Eckhoff, J.L., Riveland, N., Kushnak, G.D., Wichman, D.M., Nash, D.L., Davis, E.S., Grey, W.E. and Bruckner, P.L. 2007. Registration of Hyalite Wheat. J. Plant Registrations. 1:14-15.
  • McPhee, K.E., Chen,C., Wichman, D.M. and Muehlbauer,F.J. 2007 Registration of Windham Winter Feed Pea. J Plant Registrations, 1: 117 - 118.
  • Stougaard, R.N., Berg, J.E., Kephart, K.D., Carlson, G.R., Wichman, D.M., Eckhoff, J.L., Riveland, N., Kushnak, G.D., Nash, D.L., Davis, E.S., Grey, W.E. and Bruckner, P.L. 2007. Registration of Norris Wheat. J. Plant Registrations. 1:12-13.
  • Berg, J.E., Bruckner, P.L., Carlson, G.R., Dyer, A., Eckhoff, J., Kushnak, G.D., Kephart, K.D., Riveland, N., Stougaard, R.N., Wichman, Grey, W., Nash, D., Johnston, R. and Larson, R. 2007. Winter Wheat Varieties: Performance Evaluation and Recommendations. Extension Bulletin 2B 1098 Revised.
  • Lanning, S.P., Carlson, G.R., Eckhoff, J., Kushnak, G.D., Kephart, K.D., Stougaard, R.N., Wichman, D.M., Nash, D., Dyer, A., Grey, W., Lamb, P. and Talbert, L.E. 2007. Spring Wheat Varieties: Performance Evaluation and Recommendations. Extension Bulletin 2B 1093 Revised.
  • Wichman, D. 2007. Montana spring cereal forage trials.3 Mar 07 Traders Dispatch.
  • Berg, J.E., Bruckner, P.L., Carlson, G.R., Dyer, A., Eckhoff, J., Kushnak, G.D., Kephart, K.D., Riveland, N., Stougaard, R.N., Wichman, D.M., Grey, W., Nash, D., Johnston, R. and Larson, R. 2007. Winter Wheat Variety Performance Summary in Montana. http://plantsciences.montana.edu/Crops/2006data/06WWBulletin.pdf
  • Lanning, S.P., Carlson, G.R., Eckhoff, J., Kushnak, G.D., Kephart, K.D., Stougaard, R.N., Wichman, D.M., Nash D. and Talbert, L.E. 2007. Spring Wheat Variety Performance Summary in Montana. http://plantsciences.montana.edu/Crops/2006data/springwhteditedtables .pdf
  • Carlson, G.R., Kephart, K.D., Wichman, D.M., Eckhoff, J.L., Bergman, J.W., Stougaard, R.N., Kushnak, G.D., Jackson, G.D., Lamb, P.F., Opena, G.B., Bruckner, P.L., Talbert, L.E., Blake, T.K., Berg, J.E., Lanning, S.P., Hensleigh, P.F. and Bates, S. 2007. Montana Wheat and Barley Committee Report from the MAES Agricultural Research Centers, 2006. http://www.sarc.montana.edu/mwbc/2006
  • Wichman,D. 2007 Camelina yields at the Central Ag Research Center 29 Jan 07 Traders Dispatch.
  • Wichman,D. 2007. 2006 Barley variety performance in Central Montana. 4 Feb 07 Traders Dispatch.
  • Wichman,D. 2007. 2006 Spring wheat variety performance in Central Montana. 4 Feb07 Traders Dispatch


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Improved lines of barley, oats, spring wheat,and winter wheat were evaluated for agronomic performance in crop fallow and continuous cropping systems. Haxby and Boulder barley varieities were leading grain producers and had the heaviest grain test weights at 54.8 and 54.1 lbs per bushel, respectively. Yellowstone,Jagalene,Pryor, Norris,Falcon and development line MT021213 were top producing winter wheat varieties in central Montana where winter wheat variety yield trials mean yields ranged from 45 to 90 bushels per acre. Winter wheat test weights were much above average, due in part to stressful conditions in the early spring, with four locations having mean test weights greater than 63.0 lbs per bushel. Jagalene had the heaviest test weight 65.5 lbs per bushel. Spring wheat yields were depressed by drought. Vida and Agawam were two varieties ranking near the top for yield. Spring wheat test weights were below average (53 lbs/bu)near Moore. Buff and Pennuda's yields, 1828 and 1787 lbs per acre, respectively, top the hulles oat performance nursery yields. Hulled oat line 87Ab5632 produced 2957 lbs of grain topping the yields of Otana, Monida, Maverick and Monico. KT941864-5002 winter triticaleline produced 3471 lbs of grain per acre, which was 901 lbs more than the hard red winter wheat yield check, Tiber. Yields of earlier maturing winter triticale varieties Laurel and Pompeys were hurt by May drought conditions. Early seeded camelina produced more grain than other oilseed species mustard, canola, safflower, flax, and crambe. However, the mustard and canola varieties were not the most adapted varieties for yield. Winter triticale and awnless wheat winter cereal forage varieties continued to produce outstanding dryland forage yields. Early maturing triticale variety, Laurel, experienced more yield loss due to the May drought than later varieties, Trical 102, Koldtana, Windrift and others that headed after receiving 2 inches of rain in late May. Hays hooded spring barley forage yield was reduced more by the summer drought conditions than the standard Haybet. This was the first year that Hays dryland forage yields were inferior to those of Haybet and Stockford. Dryland alfalfa yields, around 1.0 ton per acre remain below the long term average of 1.5 tons per acre. Shaw alfalfa continued to show promise as a solid replacement for decades old standard Ladak 65. After 2 harvest years, the use of 1, 2, and 4 lbs per acre of Stockobsorb water absorbing polymer with the alfalfa seed in 2004 seeding, showed no yield difference from an untreated check. On a 15 nche precipitation site, Joliette and Climax timothy have similar total for yields, after six harvest years, as Montana, MacBeth, and Regar meadow bromes with yields of both species exceeding the yield of several orchardgrass varieties.

Impacts
Yellowstone winter wheat will become one of the most popular varieties in the northern great plains. Camelina will see large surge in popularity in the short term. However, several off-farm factors will determine its persistence as a crop. Winter cereal forages will continue to increase in popularity due to time management, yields and increasing cost of feed corn. The increased crop diversity with the use of oilseeds like camelina will improve crop agronomics and directly and indirectly improve the economic well being of northern plains dryland agricultural producers.

Publications

  • Berg, J.E.,Stougaard,R.N., Cook,C.R., Kephart,K.D., Carlson,G.R., Wichman,D.M.,Eckhoff,J.L.,Riveland,N., Kushnak,G.D., Nash,D.L.,and Bruckner,P.L.2006. Registration of MT1159CL Wheat Crop Sci.46:1395-1396. Bergman,J.W.,Riveland,N.R.,C.R. Flynn,Carlson, G.R.,Wichman,D.M.,and Kephart,K.D. 2006. Registration of Montola 2004 Safflower. Crop Sci. 46: 1818-1819.
  • Bruckner,P.L.,Berg,J.E.,Carlson,G.R.,Riveland,N.,Wichman,D.M.,Kephart ,K.D.,Kushnak, G.D.,Stougaard,R.N.,Eckhoff,J.L.,Hockett,E.A.,and Nash,D.L. 2006. Registration of Paul Wheat.Crop Sci.46: 981-982.
  • Bruckner,P.L.,Berg,J.E.,Kushnak,G.D.,Stougaard, R.N.,Eckhoff,J.L., Carlson,G.R.,Wichman,D.M.,Kephart,K.D.,Riveland,N. and Nash,D.L. 2006. Registration of Genou Wheat Crop Sci.46: 982-983.
  • Chen, C.,Miller,P., Muehlbauer,F.,Neill,K.,Wichman,D. and McPhee,K. 2006. Winter Pea and Lentil Response to Seeding Date and Micro- and Macro-Environments Agron. J.98: 1655-1663.
  • Gray,F.A.,Shigaki,T.,Koch,D.W.,Delaney,R.D.,Hruby,F.,Gray,A.M.,Majeru s,M.E.,Cash,S.D., Ditterline,R.L. and Wichman,D.M. 2006. Registration of Shoshone Sainfoin. Crop Sci. 46: 988.
  • Lanning,S.P.,Carlson, G.R.,Nash,D.,Wichman,D.M.,Kephart,K.D., Stougaard,R.N.,Kushnak, G.D.,Eckhoff,J.L.,Grey,W.E.,Dyer,A.and Talbert, L.E. 2006. Registration of Vida Wheat Crop Sci. 46: 2315-2316.


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Winter cereal forages are producing high forage yields under both rainfed and irrigated production environments. Winter triticale varieties Windrift, Trical 102, Laurel and Koldtana produce yields greater than Willow Creek awnless winter wheat and Frank awnless winter spelt. However, the Willow Creek winter wheat and Frank spelt have larger leaves and generally a higher quality of forage. Early maturity, which was a goal successfully attained by triticale breeders, has some draw backs when triticale is produced for hay. The typical heading date of early maturing winter triticale, the suggested stage for forage harvest, in the northern plains is now occurring in early to mid June. This time period has a high probability of precipitation. Therefore, it can be difficult to put the winter triticale up as dry hay. Hays spring hooded barley continues to produce forage at a levels equal to other superior yielding hooded barley and produce grain (seed) at levels superior to other hooded barleys and similar to Harrington malt barley. September seeded winter peas are producing one to two tons of forage dry matter in early to mid-June harvests. Single applications of 24 lbs of sulfur, as ammonium sulfate fertilizer, are continuing to increase rainfed alfalfa yields after five and six harvest seasons, where natural sulfur levels result in 0.08 to 0.10% dry matter sulfur content. Annual and biennial applications of urea nitrogen result in similar dryland forage yield for cool season perennial grasses meadow brome, pubescent wheat grass and intermediate wheat grass. Application cost may make the biennial applications more cost effective.

Impacts
Winter cereals will become more widely utilized as a base forage species in many forage and livestock production systems. Fall seeded peas will become more common place in intermountain and plains areas of Montana where winter weather is more moderate to mild. Fertilizer use on perennia forages will continue expand, in spite of higher fertilizer prices, so long as livestock prices remain strong.

Publications

  • Chen,C.,Westcott,M.P.,Neill,K.E., Wichman,D.M.and Knox,M Martha Knox. 2005. Row Configuration and Nitrogen Application for Barley Pea Intercropping in Montana. Agron. J. 2004 96: 1730-1738


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
2004 Drought conditions severely reduced the yields of alfalf variety trials and alfalfa yield response to sulfur fertilizer. Even though total yields are reduced, dryland alfalfa on shallow calcarious soils have produced a positive forage yield response to the application of 20 to 30 lbs S as ammonium sulfate. Montana Ag Experiment Station alfalfa variety `Shaw' has been a perennial top forage prodcuer in dryland intra state alfalfa variety trials. Wyomming sainfoin lines, WY-PX2-94 and SF-Laramie-73, have out produced long time standards ReMont and Eski in variety x species trials established in 1998 and 2000. Alfalfa is the top producing perennial legume followed by sainfoin, then birdsfoot trefoil and cicer milkvetch varieties are lowest. The cicer milkvetch stands have not persisted well in the current cycle of drought years. Oahe intermediate wheatgrass produces more dry matter than meadow brome and orchardgrass varieties. Even in the absince of significant winter kill, the meadow brome varieties are more productive than the orchardgrass varieties. Sherman big bluegrass has exhibited robust early growth and rapid regrowth. Sherman Big Bluegrass first year stand was damaged by grass hoppers feeding on emerging seedlings. The Sherman has not filled in the open spaces after three drought stress growing seasons. Winter triticale lines produced more forage than winter wheat or winter spelt. Hays, Haybet and Stockford were top producing spring cereal forages. Oat varieties consistently have higher nitrate levels than the two and six row forage barley varieties. The six row hooded barley generally have higher nitrate levels than the hooded two row barley. Hays hay barley grain yields are consistently equal or superior to the standard dryland malt barley Harrington.

Impacts
2003/01 TO 2003/12 There will be an increase in seeding of winter cereals for forage as winter triticale varieties are developed and released. The increased use of fertilizer, particularly sulfur, on dryland alfalfa should push dryland alfalfa yield levels upward throughout areas with shallow or prorous soils as is typical of central Montana and northwest Montana. In cases where S is very deficient, the yield increases may be as much as a half ton or more . Increase the diveristy of perennial grass species used for seeded pastures.

Publications

  • Wichman*, D.M., P.F. Hensleigh, S.D. Cash, K.D Kephart, M.P. Westcott, D.L. Johnson, G.B. Opena, and M. Knox. 2004 Forage quality of spring cereal forage varieties in Montana. W. Soc. Crop Sci., Jun 13-17 Logan, Utah.
  • Cash*, S. Dennis, Lisa M.M. Surber, Alison L. Todd, David M. Wichman and Ray L. Ditterline. 2004. Production and forge quality of irrigated cereals in Montana. W. Soc. Crop Sci Jun. 13-17 Logan, Utah.
  • Chen, Chengci, Malvern Westcott, Karnes Neill, David Wichman, and Martha Knox. 2004. Row Configuration and Nitrogen Application for Barley Pea Intercropping in Montana. Agron. J. 96: 1730-1738.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
2003/01 TO 2003/12 Spring and winter cereal forages produced dry matter yields in the 1500-3000lbs per acre range. Awned `Logan',`Valier'and `Harrington' barley produced forage yields similar to `Haybet', `Westford', and `Hays' awnless barley. Sixteen winter triticale development lines at two locations produced a mean dry matter forage yield of 3.399 t/a compared to 3.518 t/a for FWW11 awnless winter wheat line and 2.743 t/a for `Frank' winter spelt. Resource Seed's Trical 102 , an awnless winter triticale, had the high two location mean dry matter yield. Trical 102 had the lowest winter survival of 20 winter triticale lines evaluated at a winter stress site. Dryland alfalfa yields, across four variety trials, averaged near 2.00 t/a dry matter in response to above average precipitation in April and early May. Over a seven year period, Oahe intermediate wheatgrass, Luna pubescent wheat grass and Regar meadow brome produce slightly more forage with biennial appications of 60 and 90 lbs of nitrogen per acre than with annual applications of 30 and 45 lbs of N/a. This is especially significant as perennial forage yields have generally been much below average due to the hotter dryer weather that was experienced over the six year period. Over three year stand life MacBeth meadow brome produced slightly higher dryland forage yields than Regar meadow brome, and yields much above three timothy and nine orchardgrass varieties. Ladak 65 and Shaw alfalfa produced more dry matter than five sainfoins, three milkvetches, and four trefoil varieties over three and four years. A one time application of 24 and 36 lbs of sulfur, as ammoninium sulfate, increased dryland alfalfa yields in each of six subsequent growing seasons. The same amount of S as elemental and livestock grade(90%) S did not significantly affect yields in any of the subsequent five seasons. Meadow brome entries seeded in 1999 on dryland continue to produce dry matter yields greater than orchardgrass and timothy.

Impacts
2003/01 TO 2003/12 There will be an increase in seeding of winter cereals for forage as winter triticale varieties are developed and released. The increased use of fertilizer, particularly sulfur, on dryland alfalfa should push upward dryland alfalfa yield levels throughout areas with shallow or prorous soils as is typical of central Montana and northwest Montana. In many cases the yield increases may be as much as a half ton or more where S is very deficient. Increase in diveristy of perennial grass species used for seeded pastures.

Publications

  • Wichman, D.M.*, S.D. Cash, P.F. Hensleigh, J.E. Berg, P.L. Bruckner, K.D. Kephart, P. Lamb, M.P. Westcott, and D.L. Johnson. 2003.Winter triticale (X Triticosecale Wttmack) potential for forage and grain production in the Northern Great Plains.


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
Spring and winter cereal forages produced dry matter yields in the 2000 - 4000 lbs per acre range. Awned Logan, Lewis and Valier barley produced forage yields similar to Haybet, Westford, and Hays awnless barley. Winter triticale development lines consistantly produce dry matter yields greater than those of either winter wheat and winter spelt. Several triticale lines have reduced awns making them more suitable for hay forage. Resource Seed's Trical 102 , an awnless winter triticale, has produced good forage yields. However, it has not been exposed to what would be considered standard winter kill conditions, so its winter hardiness level has not been determined. Dryland alfalfa yields were reduced by dry soils due to low precipitation and extended fall 2001 growing season. The extended growing seasons cause the plants to deplete soil moisture with little vegetative growth. Army cut worms fed extensively on the alfalfa through the mild winter and early spring. Established dryland alfalfa stands produced yields in the 0.500 to 0.800 tons per acre while the 2001 alfalfa variety trial average yield was 1.290 t/a. Several varieties produced yields similar to slightly higher than the long time standard Ladak 65. Shaw, a recent Montana alfalfa release, is consistantly producing dry matter yields greater than the yields of Ladak 65. Over a six year period, Oahe intermediate wheatgrass, Luna pubescent wheat grass and Regar meadow brome produce slightly more forage with biennial appications of 60 and 90 lbs of nitrogen per acre than with annual applications of 30 and 45 lbs of N/a. This is especially significant as perennial forage yields have generally been much below average due to the hotter dryer weather that was experienced over the six year period. Over three year stand life MacBeth meadow brome produced slightly higher dryland forage yields than Regar meadow brome, and yields much above three timothy and nine orchardgrass varieties. Ladak 65 and Shaw alfalfa produced more dry matter than five sainfoins, three milkvetches, and four trefoil varieties over two and three years. A one time application of 24 and 36 lbs of sulfur, as ammoninium sulfate, increased dryland alfalfa yields in each of four subsequent growing seasons. The same amount of S as elemental and livestock grade(90%) S did not significantly affect yields in any of the subsequent four seasons.

Impacts
There will be an increase in seeding of winter cereals for forage as winter triticale varieties are developed and released. The increased use of fertilizer, particularly sulfur, on dryland alfalfa should push upward dryland alfalfa yield levels throughout areas with shallow or prorous soils as is typical of central Montana and northwest Montana. In many cases the yield increases may be as much as a half ton or more where S is very deficient.

Publications

  • Wichman, D.M. and Vavrovsky,J. 2002. Evaluation of sulfur fertilizer use on dryland alfalfa. Abstract. West. Soc. Crop Sci. Honolulu, HI May 31-June 4.
  • Cash, S.D., Ditterline,R.L., Wichman,D.M. and Majerus, M.E. . 2002. Registration of 'Montana' meadow bromegrass. Crop Sci.42:2211-2212.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
The low plant available water conditions from 199-2000 persisted into 2001. The 2001 crop year began with a dry fall, a late fall freeze up, and a mild dry winter. Dry conditions persisted through May. June was above average at 11.3 cm. The evaporative demand was above average through the entire growing season. Pan evaporation exceeded 1.27 cm per 24 hrs on several occasions compared to the typical of just four or five days per year with pan evaporation levels greater than 1.02 cm. The consecutive dry years severely suppressed the yields of perennial species, especially alfalfa. The alfalfa yields were in the 627 to 1121 kg/ha compared to annual cereal forage yields of 3282 to 8318 kg/ha. Under annual cropping, the fallow periods often provide the opportunity to recharge, 4 to 6 inch water holding capacity, the shallow soils typical of the Judith Basin. Haybet and Lewis barley along with Otana oat produced the highest forage dry matter yields of 14 spring cereal entries under dryland continuous cropping conditions. Winter triticale development lines, KT98SRT 3 and Kolding B (has a facultative nature], produced the highest forage yields of 12 winter cereals seeded under dryland crop-fallow conditions. The forage yield of 22 winter spelt entries were generally equal to or better than Tiber hard red winter wheat in good crop-fallow conditions. In the harsher conditions, on two exposed tilled fallow sites, the winter spelt forage yields were lower than the forage yields of Tiber hard red winter wheat. Latar has the highest yield of the five orchardgrass species being evaluated. Orchardgrass winterkill has not been significant the past three winters. Alfalfa yields have been severely depressed in these dry years following long warm falls. Meadow bromes, MB1 and MB2, have slightly higher five year total forage yields than Greenar pubescent and Regar meadow brome checks. The forage yield levels of orchardgrass were generally inferior to, yields of meadow brome and pubescent wheatgrass. Latar has the highest forage yield of five orchardgrass entries. Pure stands of Haybet hay barley produced more forage than barley-pea mixtures, seeded in multiple configurations, and pure stands of peas. The tendency for pure stands of cereal forages to produce more than cereal-pea mixtures and pure stands has been observed on numerous occasions. Granger, Trapper and Arvika peas had good to excellent forage yields in recrop. Haybet barley alone produced more forage than in mixture with peas.

Impacts
The continuous reduction in livestock grazing on public lands increases the demand for increased forage production on private land. Investigating fertilizer use on perennial forages enhance forage production and value. Increased knowledge on cereal forage production and quality is increasing the use of cereal for forage and is enhancing the value of cereal forages on the cash market. Montana cereal forage acres have increased by over 30,000 ha (30%) over the last 10 years

Publications

  • Wichman, D.M., Welty, L.E., Strang, L.M., Bergman, J.W., Westcott, M.P., Stallknecht, G.F., Riveland, N.R. and Ditterline, R.L. 2001. Assessing the Forage Production Potential of Safflower in the Northern Great Plains and Inter-Mountain Regions. Proc. International Safflower. Conf. Williston, ND July 23-26.
  • Wichman, D. 2001 Fertilizer Facts. "Fertilizer Use on Dryland Perennial Forages".
  • Wichman, D.M., Cash, S.D., Kephart, K.D., Westcott, M.L. and Hybner, R.M. 2001 Winter Cereal Forages in the Northern Plains. Abstracts. West Soc. Crop Sci. Tucson AZ. June 11-12.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
Pubescent and intermediate wheatgrasses and meadow brome had similar response to the application of 34, 50, 67, and 100 kg/ha of nitrogen over a four-year period. The value of the yield response to N has exceeded the fertilizer and application costs in this period of below average precipitation. Oahe intermediate wheatgrass was more productive than Luna pubescent wheatgrass, which was more productive than Regar meadow brome. Two meadow brome development lines have four-year total dryland yields greater than Greenar pubescent wheatgrass and five orchardgrass varieties. Latar has the highest yield of the five orchardgrass species being evaluated. Orchardgrass winterkill has not been significant the past three winters. Alfalfa yields have been severely depressed in these dry years following long warm falls. The variety Shaw had the highest first year yields in the 2000 Montana Intrastate alfalfa yield trial. The Judith Basin's shallow loam soils over gravel are frequently deficient in sulfur. Dryland alfalfa yield respond the first growing season to the application of sulfur in ammonium sulfate. After two growing seasons elemental and pearled (0-0-0-90) sulfur had not affect alfalfa yields or alfalfa tissue sulfur content significantly. Alfalfa, sainfoin and cicer milkvetch, even with severe leaf loss, have significantly higher protein content for winter grazing than do several species of perennial grasses. The nitrate content of cereal forages was lowered with application of 22 kg/ha of S as ammonium sulfate. Winter spelt, winter triticale, and winter wheat were similar in nitrate content, ADF and NDF. The spelt frequently had higher protein content than the triticale and wheat. Granger, Trapper and Arvika peas had good to excellent forage yields in recrop. Haybet barley alone produced more forage than in mixture with peas.

Impacts
The continous reduction in livestock grazing on public lands increases the demand for increased forage production on private land. Investigating fertilizer use on perennial forages enhance forage production and value. Increased knowledge on cereal forage production and quality is increasing the use of cereal for forage and is enhancing the value of cereal forages on the cash market. Montana cereal forage acres have increased by over 30,000 ha (30%) over the last 10 years.

Publications

  • Wichman, D. 2001. Safflower and Canola. Chapters in Montana-Utah-Wyoming Weed Mngmnt Hndbk. Dewey, S.A., Whitson, T.D., Bussan, A.J., and Sheley, R. Editors.
  • Westcott, M.P and Wichman, D.M. 2001. Nitrogen and sulfur effects on yield and quality of cereal forages. Western Nutrient Management Conference. March.
  • Wichman, D.M. 2000. Annual and perennial forage crop opportunities. In New Opportunities in Dryland Systems Symp. Proceed. Holiday Inn Billings Feb 16-17.
  • Cash, D., Blunt, K., Ditterline, R., Welty, L., Prestbye, L., Wichman, D., Neill, K.,Kephart, K., Eckhoff, J., and Harper, G. 2000. 2000 Alfalfa varieties: Performance summaries of the 1999 Montana uniform intrastate alfalfa yield trials. MAES and MES research report.
  • Ditterline R.L., Dunn, R.L., Cash, S.D., Wichman, D.M., Welty, L.E., Bergman, J.L., Eckhoff, J.L., Majerus, M.E., Scheetz, J.G., Holzworth, L.K., Blunt, K.R., Strang L.S., and Vavrovsky, J. 2001. Registration of Shaw Alfalfa. Crop Sci. Crop Science Vol. 41 - page 264.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Meadow brome, intermediate and pubescent wheat grass had similar responses to the application of 30 to 90 lbs of fertilizer nitrogen. Over three years, two biennial application of 60 and 90 lbs/a of nitrogen to perennial grasses was more productive than three annual applications of 30 and 45 lbs/a of nitrogen, respectively. `Oahe' intermediate wheatgrass was more productive than `Luna' pubescent wheatgrass or `Regar' meadow brome. `Greenar' intermediate produced more forage than four meadow brome lines and five orchardgrass varieties. Napier orchargrass was more winter hardy, but `Latar' produced more forage, over three years, than `Napier', `Paiute', , `Potomac' and `Dawn' orchardgrasses. `Rush', `Oahe', `Reliant', Intermediate wheatgrasses and `Manska' pubescent wheatgrass were the top forage producers in a 10 species multi-variety perennial grass forage production study. Fifteen perennial forage species had more forage loss between July and October than between October and March. Fall and spring drought severely depressed the yields of 80 alfalfa varieties being evaluated for dryland production and winter hardiness. Awnless spring spelt and spelt/wheat 93-SF93-5 produced had yield similar to oats, barley, and triticale across five Montana locations. 4.9 tons/a, which was two tons/a more than Haybet barley a standard for spring cereal forages. Pronghorn triticale and Otana oat top a five species by two varieties species x fertilizer study, where the spelt and triticale had the lowest forage nitrate. Pure stand s of Haybet barley produced more forage than pure stands of peas or pea-barley mixtures.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Wichman, D.M., M.P. Westcott, L.E. Welty, P.F. Hensleigh, and R.M. Hybner. 1999. Nitrates in cereal forages: Species and nitrogen fertilizer rate interaction. Abstract Western Soc Crop Sci., Powell, WY June 27-29


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
Dryland alfalfa and alfalfa/grass forage yields continue to respond four and five years after one time phosphorus applications of 50 to 200 lbs/a. Pearled sulfur started to significantly influence alfalfa yield 3 years after application, while the affect of the 24 lbs/a ammonium sulfate is starting to decline. The nitrogen fertilizer threshold for accumulation of toxic levels of nitrate in spring cereal forages was between 45 and 60 lbs/a for spring wheat, oat and barley. Triticale and spelt were less susceptible to nitrate accumulation and there was significant variety differences within species for nitrate accumulation. Meadow brome, intermediate and pubescent wheat grass had similar responses to the application of 30 to 90 lbs of fertilizer nitrogen. Over two years, one time application of 60 and 90 lbs/a of nitrogen to perennial grasses was more productive than two 30 or 45 lbs/a nitrogen applications, respectively. `Oahe' intermediate was more productive than `Luna' pubescent or `Regar' meadow brome. Two year total forage production of three meadow brome development lines was superior to `Fleet', `Paddock' and `Regar'. `Greenar' intermediate produced more forage than four meadow brome lines and five orchardgrass varieties. Napier orchargrass was more winter hardy and slightly higher yielding than `Paiute', `Latar', `Potomac' and `Dawn' orchardgrasses. `Rush', `Oahe', and `Reliant' intermediate wheatgrasses and `Manska' pubescent wheatgrass were the top forage producers in a 10 species multi-variety perennial grass forage production study. Fifteen perennial forage species are being evaluated for winter forage quality and available winter forage. Eighty alfalfa varieties, being evaluated for dryland production and winter hardiness, had depressed yield levels due to severe spring drought. Several winter spelt accessions produced more forage than Tiber hard red winter wheat in both crop-fallow and recrop environments. Wintri triticale produced slightly more forage than Champ and several other winter spelt lines. Canadian awnless spring spelt and spelt/wheat 93-SF93-5 produced two tons/a more than Haybet barley, a standard for spring cereal forages. Pronghorn triticale and Otana oat top a five species by two varieties species x fertilizer study, where the spelt and triticale had the lowest forage nitrate. Trapper yellow pea, Montana's most popular spring pea for green manure and forage, topped one pea forage yield trial and was intermediate in a second trial. Results of an initial trial indicate fungicide seed treatments may significantly affect pea forage production.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Cash, S.D., M.E. Majerus, J.C. Scheetz, L.K. Holzworth, C.L. Murphy, D.M. Wichman, H.F. Bowman, and R.L. Ditterline. 1999. Registration of 'Trailhead' Basin Wildrye. Crop Sci. 38:278.


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
Cereal forage of barley and oats had higher protein and greater digestibility than triticale harvested at the same stage of growth. Triticale had lower levels of nitrate. When harvested at heading, the spring cereals have had crude protein levels as high as 18 %. Otana oat, Westford and Haybet barley have been the top forage producers over an array of dryland and irrigated environments. Several species and varieties are being evaluated for dryland forage production. Varieties of intermediate and pubescent wheatgrasses generally produce more forage than other grass species with crested wheatgrass ranking third. Rush intermediate, Hycrest crested, Fleet and Paddock meadow brome are new varieties with yield levels equal or greater than species standards. Russian and Basin wildrye planted wide spaced rows(2-3 ft) have more robust plants. However, the greated vigor has not always resulted in higher yields in the first four years of the stand. Dryland alfalfa and alfalfa grass stands have continue to exhibited a yield response four years after a one time application of 50, 100, and 200 lbs of P2O5. Application similar application of P2O5 to pure grass stands produced no response unless accompanied with nitrogen application.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
Evaluations of perennial and annual species for forage production under dryland(rainfed) were conducted in Central Montana. Varieties of intermediate, pubescent, slender, western wheat, thickspike, bluebunch and crested wheat grasses, basin wildrye, Russian wildrye, Altai wildrye, meadow brome, and orchard perennial grasses were evaluated for forage production in pure stands and in grass/alfalfa mixtures. Alfalfa varieties are evaluated for yield and winter survival in nurseries established annually and harvested for four years. The effect of row spacing on grass yield is being evaluated in pure grass stands and grass/alfalfa in alternate rows. Clopyralid+2,4-D and metsulfuron are being evaluated for removing established alfalfa stands. Varieties of the cereals triticale, barley, and oat were evaluated for forage production. Six field pea and six lentil vatieties were evaluated forage production under dryland recrop following spring wheat. Safflower is being evaluated as an annual forage and current efforts are directed at determining the best seeding date. Fertilizer rates and application methods for dryland alfalfa production are being evaluated in several nurseries in Central Montana.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Dunn, R., R.Ditterline, D.Cash, L.Welty, L.Prestbye, D.Wichman, G.Carlson, J. Bergman, J.Eckhoff, G.Stallknecht and K.Gilbertson. 1995. Summary of Montana Uniform Alfalfa Yield Trials. West. Alfalfa Improvement Conf. 11:41-71.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
Intermediate and pubescent wheatgrass yields were generally superior to meadow bromes, perennial ryegrass, wildrye species in both in young stands (2-3 y) and in stands of intermediate age (7-9 y). Crested wheat yields were similar to slightly more than intermediate yields. Fleet and Paddock meadow brome cultivars have slightly higher yield levels than Regar. Russian and Basin wildrye yields increased with increasing row space, while row spacing had little effect on intermediate wheatgrass yield. Dryland alfalfa response to N,P,K, and S fertilizer varied with location. Annual forage yields were enhanced with the cool wet conditions. Winter spelt produced 3.01 t/a on fallow. Spring cereals on recrop forage yields were oat 2.42 t/a, barley 2.42 t/a, and triticale 2.192 with Celsia oat being the top yielding entry at 2.66 t/a. Winter and spring pea forage yields ranged form 2.18 to 1.13 t/a. Pea and oat or barley mixtures produced more forage than either species alone. The application of N at 30 or 60 lbs/a increased yields of peas and pea/cereal mixtures.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

    Outputs
    A severe hailstorm May 27 hail storm and subsequent plant tissue freezing from piled ice followed by June-September drought reduced on station dryland alfalfa and grass production. Perennial grasses were damage less than the alfalfa. Intermediate, pubescent, slender wheatgrasses and orchardgrass have high two year yield totals in grass species trials across five central Montana locations. Zero Nui, Dairymaster and Greenstone perennial ryegrasses and Matua praire grass had poor wiinter survival and produced less than 120 dry matter per acre. Dryland alfalfa yield increased 0.13 to 0.5 t/a in response to spring broadcast and banded P across threee locations. Broadcast N, P, K, & S at 50, 100, 50 and 25 lbs/a, respectively, increased dryland alfalfa yields as much as 0.5 to 0.9 t/a. Significant yield response were produced one year after fertilizer applications. Dryland recrop oats, barley, and oats+peas dry matter yield responded to the application N at 30 and 60 lbs/a. Peas alone did not respond to N fertilizer. Stampede oats and Westford hay barley were top forage producers at high yield levels and Monida and Otana oats and Haybet barely were top producers at low and moderate yield levels across 20 Montana locations. Fall applied clopyralid+glyphosate kill established alfalfa and provided a excellent seedbed for no-till seeded spring barley.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

      Outputs
      PERENNIAL: Alfalfa variety trials seeded prior to July 92 had deficient yields ,means < 3767 kg/ha, for the amount of plant available water due to dry May weather, early June frost, and cool growing season. Alfalfa and some perennial grasses seeded the spring of 93 had extremely high dryland yields, 8878 and 5717 kg/ha, respectively. Perennial grasses with first season yields in excess of 4484 kg/ha included slender (Pryor) and pubescent (Luna) wheatgrasses, praire (Matua), perennial ryegrass (Zero Nui and Dairymaster) and meadow bromegrass (Fleet and Paddock). Alfalfa and alfalfa grass mixtures on randomly selected sites had significant yield responses to the application of N+P+K+S and P+K+S but not the application of P or P+K. The presence of S in the fertilizer mixture appeared to contribute to a sustained response which last at least two years. Fall application of picloram + glyphosate or (clopyralid+2,4-D)+ glyphosate provided good-excellent control of alfalfa and was compatible with spring establishment of barley. In cereal forage trials, Stampede and Westford were the highest yielding and latest maturing oat and barley, respectively. Yield of oats alone exceeded that of peas+oats and peas alone. Teff, millet and sorghum produced less than 2242 kg/ha due to the cool growing sason. The per ha dry matter production of barrel (7331 kg), snail (7107 kg) and black medics (3452 kg), field peas (6233 kg), lentils (5066 kg), vetches (6031 kg) and chickpeas (4305 kg) were all above long term aver.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

        Outputs
        Perennial forage dryland yields were reduced due to severe spring drought. PERENNIAL GRASS VARIETIES AND SPECIES. Perennial grass varieties/species with the highest yields (kg/ha) were ozoisky' Russian wildrye (1499), raireland' Altai wildrye (1439),ycrest' crested wheatgrass (999), PI-281863 rush whtgrs (1531),and hitmar' beardless whtgrs (1170). Perennial grass varieties/species established in 1987 with high average yields ycrest' crested whtgrs.(2705), ryor' slender whtgrs.(2536), T27395 bluebunch/quackgrass (3126), T2950 bluebunch whtgrs.(2775), and Oahe intermediate whtgrs.(3066). SIMULATED GRAZING. The effect of harvesting frequency and intensity on the yield of three perennial grass species, intermediate and pubescent whtgrss and meadow brome was diminished by the spring drought stress. Over a three yr duration, harvesting at light (33%) to moderate (50%) intensity at 14 d intervals produced a significantly higher yields than harvesting at 7 d intervals. A graduated clipping treatment, increasing intensity (30-65%) and decreasing frequency (7-28d) as the growing season progresses, resulted in yields similar to the 14 d interval. ALFALFA VARIETY TRIALS. Forage yields of alfalfa seeded in 1992 exceeded the yields of older nurseries due to the spring drought and high late-season moisture. The average yield of the 1992, 1991, 1990, and 1989 Montana Intra-State Alfalfa Variety Trials were 3946, 2399, 1591, and 1591 kg/ha, respectively.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

          Outputs
          Several perennial grass nurseries were established at Moccasin in 1987. The cultivars with the highest multi-year production average and yield (kg/ha) are: 'Hycrest'crested wheatgrass (3047), 'Regar' meadow bromegrass (2967), 'Pryor' slender wheatgrass (2892), 'Trailhead' basin wildrye (2680), PI-313965 mammoth wildrye (2687), T2735 bluebunch wheatgrass x quackgrass cross (3663), and selection #27-43 green needlegrass(3181). 'Paiute' orchardgrass, which has been a relative low forage producer, suffered severe winter kill in the winter of 1990-91 apparently due to the very dry conditions the fall of 1990. Several plots in the 1986 Intrastate Alfalfa Variety Trial nursery had winter kill apparently due to the dry 1990 fall. Alfalfa variety trial yields generally decreased with increasing age. Simulated grazing of intermediate wheatgrass, meadow bromegrass, and pubescent wheatgrass on dryland at 14d harvest intervals, 33% and 50% forage removal, produced significantly higher yields than 7d harvest intervals over the first two harvest years. Several annual forages had good to excellent yield levels at Moccasin in spite of a severe midsummer hailstorm including (cultivars/species): 'Bigbee' berseem clover, 'Jemalong' barrel medic, 'Trapper' fieldpea, 'Miranda' yellow fieldpea, 'Cahaba' white vetch and Line SD 100 teff. Tolbin spring canola, recropped on barley stubble, had postive dry matter yield response to application of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and sulfur.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

            Outputs
            Yields of perennial and annual forages were reduced by low June precipitation. Varieties of Altai, basin, mammoth, and Russian wildryes, bluebunch, crested, and slender wheatgrasses established in 1987 are being evaluated for dryland forage production. Varieties with high three harvest average yields are: PI-313965 and Bozoisky wildryes; and Oahe, Luna, T27395, Hycrest, and Pryor wheatgrasses. Nine wheatgrass polycrosses, established in 1989, are being evaluated for dryland production relative to Oahe intermediate wheatgrass. None had first harvest yields significantly greater than Oahe. Grazing practices for intermediate and pubescent wheatgrasses and meadow bromegrass are being evaluated using a forage harvester to simulate livestock grazing. Alfalfa varieties are being evaluated for dryland forage production in Montana Intrastate Variety Trials established in 1986, 1988, 1989, and 1990. The 1984 Montana Intrastate Alfalfa Variety Trial is being maintained to evaluate alfalfa stand longevity. Twenty-four annual legumes are being evaluated for potential as green manure or annual forage species. High dry matter producers in 1990 were Sirius semi-si feed pea, Jemalong barrel medic, Melrose winter pea,and Robinson snail medic with yield of 4287, 2932, 2592, and 2466 kg/ha dry matter, respectively. These four annual legumes have the highest three year average dry matter production, also. Six teff lines had an average dry matter production of 3927 kg/ha.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

              Outputs
              Annual and perennial forage yields were above normal due to high fall and growing season precipitation. In four perennial grass trials established in 1987: Bozoisky was high yielding Russian wildrye at 2350 kg/ha; Magnar topped the basin and mammoth wildryes at 2389 kg/ha; Oahe intermediate and Luna pubescent wheatgrasses yield of 4380 kg/ha exceeded the that of seven bluebunch varieties and Whitmar beardless wheatgrass; and Pryor slender wheatgrass and Regar meadow brome yields, 4902 and 4840 kg/ha, respectively, were high over six crested wheatgrasses, two slender wheatgrasses, and Paiute orchardgrass. Paiute orchardgrass had the lowest yield at 2263 kg/ha. Kenmont tall fescue seed yield, 953 kg/ha, was high of ten perennial grass species planted in 1985. The nursery seed yield average was 337 kg/ha . The mean production of four intra-state alfalfa variety trials were: 1984 trial - 3991 kg/ha; 1986 trial - 5325 kg/ha; 1988 trial - 6849 kg/ha; and 1989 trial - 2915 kg/ha. Bigbee and Multicut berseem clovers averaged 2855 kg/ha compared to 2124 kg/ha for Nitro annual alfalfa across five planting dates. The first date of planting emerged May 1 and was exposed to freezing temperatures on seven dates the last being -1 C on May 29. Bigbee and Multicut averaged 182 and 115 kg/ha seed, respectively. SD100 line of teff appeared to be superior in both forage and seed production to six other lines. However, poor stand establishment made it impossible to accurately access the teff's performance.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

                Outputs
                Dryland perennial forage harvest was about ten days earlier due to the hot weather. Forage yields of perennial grasses were near long term averages while alfalfa yields were below normal. The overall mean yield of alfalfa was 2838 kg/ha with no significant yield differences between alfalfa varieties for the 1984 or 1986 nurseries. Bluebunch wheatgrass and green needlegrass forage yields were higher than normal relative to other cool season perennial grasses. The average forage yield of the dryland cool season perennials grasses in kg/ha by nursery were: Russian wildrye 1009, basin-mammoth wildryes 1971, bluebunch-beardless wheatgrasses 2304, crested-slender wheatgrasses 1749,and green needlegrass 2755. Establishment year forage yields of an irrigated grass nursery were low because of early season competition from volunteer winter wheat. Latar orchardgrass had high yield in the irrigated nursery at 2530 kg/ha. Sweet clover was severly damaged by sweet clover weevil. Second year growth produced an average of 4653 kg/ha. New sweet clover seedings were destroyed by sweet clover weevil. Berseem clover produced an average of 438 kg/ha of dry forage in a seeding rate study on dryland recrop where seedling emergence was inhibited by severe soil crusting. In a herbicide screening trial on dryland fallow, Berseem clover averaged of 1060 kg/ha. Dryland sorghum x sudangrass forage yield (2631 kg/ha) was reduced more than corn forage yield (5198 kg/ha) by the dry hot weather.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                  Outputs
                  Perennial and annual forage yields were higher than average due in part to idealdistribution of spring and summer precipitation. Dryland alfalfa forage yields averaged 7621 and 3587 kg/ha for the 1986 and 1984 Montana intrastate alfalfa variety yield trials, respectively. Forage yield of three slender wheatgrasses averaged 1479 kg/ha in the year of seeding on dryland compared to 953 kg/ha for four crested wheatgrass varieties. Second harvest seed yields of ten perennial grass species, planted late summer of 1985, averaged 298 kg/ha, with Kenmont tall fescue producing the highest yield at 1114 kg/ha. Gallatin and Lewis barleys produced the higest grain and forage yields in the spring cereal forage nursery with 4385 and 4225 kg/ha of grain, respectively, and both yielded 8361 kg/ha of forage. Six sweet clover varieties produced an average of 8361 kg/ha of forage one year after planting. Corn and sorghum x sudangrass crosses averaged 8742 kg/ha forage yield. Black medic produced an average of 1390 kg/ha dry matter including seed and 242 kg/ha of seed in the year of seeding.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                    Outputs
                    Excellent fall moisture contributed to high perennial forage yields. Ladak 65'syield, 4794 KG/H dry matter, was the highest of 26 entries in the 1984 intrastate alfalfa nursery. Covar sheep fescue's yield, 4708 KG/H, was significantly greater than the yield of the 19 other entries in the 1982 perennial grass species/varieties nursery. Oahe intermediate and PI1432403 slender wheatgrasses have the highest 4 yr. ave. production at 2807 and 2716 KG/H, respectively. Luna pubescent wheatgrass was top seed and forage producer with 193 and 4779 KG/H, respectively, in the 1985 late summer establishment grass seed production nursery. Fortuna spring wheat - 3633 KG/H, Garfield fieldpea - 3833 KG/H, Cargill H550 field corn - 7023 KG/H, and Canadian #1 Common Yellow - 5257 KG/H were top yielders in their respective forage nurseries; cereal grains, fieldpeas, warm season cereals, and sweet clover.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 10/01/84 to 09/30/85

                      Outputs
                      Severe drought conditions produced low and highly variable results. First harvest yield of twenty six varieties of alfalfa planted in 1984 on dryland, had no significant differences. Mean yield and protein was 1415Kg/H and 17.1%. Oahe Intermediate wheatgrass has the highest three year average yield of 19 varieties/species of grasses in the third of a five year trial. However, Oahe's yield was not significantly higher than PI432403, Slender wheatgrass and Greenleaf Pubescent wheatgrass. Due to severe drought average grass yields were 66% lower than 83-84 average yield. Annual cereal forages including varieties of oats, barley and spring wheat showed no significant results with mean yield of 2241Kg/H.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/84 to 09/30/84

                        Outputs
                        Thirteen new varieties of alfalfa grown for three years resulted in none of the varieties yielding higher than the recommended variety Ladak 65. Nineteen varieties of grasses tested for two years resulted in Oahe intermediate wheatgrass producing the highest forage yield but not significantly higher than PI432403 slender wheatgrass and Greenleaf pubes-cent wheatgrass. Russian wildrye varieties and spike fescue had the lowest yield. Otana oats produced the most forage over a five year period when compared to Stepford, Horsford and Ridawn barley triticale and spring spelt. Otanaoats also produced the most amount of grain in the hay.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                          Outputs
                          Yields of no-till small grains were equal to yields obtained from wheat (winter and spring) and barley seeded into stubble which had first been disked and worked once with a field cultivator. Yields of small grains seeded into fallow soil showed a 2.3 bushel decrease where the soil had been chemicaly fallowed as compared to tillage type fallow when all treatments received equal rates of broadcast nitrogen and banded phosphate. This appears to be a responce to the amount of accumulated nitrogen which, soil tests indicates, varies only in the upper 2-3 inches of the soil profile. The volume of stubble is an additional limiting factor in the use of no-till. Straw volumes of less than 2500 pounds are easily seeded through with conventional drills with spacings greater than 7 inches. Above 2500 pounds of straw requires wider spacings or the addition of coulters. Research is indicating that the straw type of the variety used may be a significant factor in the success of no-till seeding. Because of the high pH character of Montana soils, the residual life of soil active herbicides generally tends to be prolonged. Contact herbicides such as glyphosate, paraquat, and HOE-661 have proven to be effective in providing short term weed control under fallow conditions.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 07/01/80 to 06/30/81

                            Outputs
                            Seeding of barley using conventional, reduced tillage and no-till seedbed preparation was studied using conventional drills. Under no-till conditions, penetration of soil openers was very difficult using both double disk openers and narrow hoe type openers. Four inch shovel openers penetrated firm surface soil under no-till but covering of the seed once the furrow was opened was very poor due to lack of pulverized soil in the seed zone. Yield and quality characteristics were the same regardless of seedbed preparation or seeding implement. Chlorosis of barley plants occurred early in the growing season while plants were in the five leaf stage only in the soil treatment which had first had the stubble burned and soil tilled. Plant analysis indicated that no macro-nutrient was missing. Soil treatments which dit not destroy stubble did not produce chlorotic symptoms.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                              Outputs
                              No-till vs tillage continuous cropping and chemical fallow vs tillage fallow in 2 year rotations with barley and winter wheat were conducted for the 6th year. After harvest this aspect of this project was terminated, due to grassy weed problems. No significant reduction in yield or yield components was observed in no-till vs tillage seeding of small grains. Compaction from machinery was a problem in no-till plots. Nineteen-Eighty witnessed severe carryover from 1979 applied residual hexazinone. Chemical residues accounted for a 33% reduction in barley yields and a 15% reduction in spring wheat yields. Soil temperatures maintained a more constant level under chemical fallow residue in the spring than in tillage fallow plots. While warming slower, this more constant temperature provided a better environment for seedling germination and growth.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                Outputs
                                No-till vs tillage continuous cropping and chemical fallow vs tillage fallow allin 2 year rotations with barley and winter wheat were continued for the 5th year. There has been no difference in test weights and only very little difference in protein and yield (3.6 bu increase from tillage fallow). Compaction in the wheel tracks is becoming a problem in the no-till plots. Hexazinone at 1.0# a.i. plus glyphosate at 0.38# a.e. was applied on 5-12-79 and controlled all vegetation until 9-12-79 when a bioassay indicated it was safe to plant. It was observed that glyphosate was rendered inactive by hexazinone. This treatment allows russian thistle (Salsola kali) to escape, thus allowing an ecological shift which makes russian thistle a more severe problem in succeeding crops. Spear point seed openers function well in the moderately heavy stubble, moving very little soil and, therefore, reducing volunteer problems in continuous cropping rotations. A legume-small grain rotation trial was initiated in 1979. The annual legumes; faba beans, woolypod vetch, winter peas, and cowpeas were placed in rotations with barley and spring wheat. Comparisons are to be made with three year rotations of alfalfa and red clover. All crops established well except cowpeas which do not appear to be well adapted to Central Montana's climate. Forage and grain yields from annual legumes were low resulting from dry weather during July and August.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                                  Outputs
                                  The no-till vs tillage continuous cropping, chemical fallow vs tillage fallow and cropping sequence rotations with grains and forages were destroyed by hail on July 2, 1978.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                    Outputs
                                    No-till vs tillage continuous cropping and chemical fallow vs tillage fallow allin 2 year rotations using barley and winter wheat were continued for the 3rd. year. During this period there has been no difference in yield, test weight or % protein due to no-till vs tillage or chemical vs tillage fallow. Spear point seed openers on a 14 ft. IHC press drill has worked very satisfactory when seeding no-till. Bladex (3.5#a.i.) plus Roundup (1 pt./a) controlled all vegetation for chemical fallow until July when another pint of Roundup was needed to control vegetation until September. Velpar (1.5#a.i.) was applied 4-29-77 and controlled all vegetation until 9-5-77. This chemical rate is as cheap or cheaper than tillage fallow. The cropping sequence rotations will be discontinued after 5 cropping years. Six crops were grown on the stubble of each crop plus fallow. Crops grown were Spring wheat, barley, oats, winter wheat, varley for forage, and corn for forage. Weed problems in continuous cropping was wild oats, pigeon grass, cheatgrass and volunteer grain. Barley and oats produced the highest amount of volunteer and spring wheat should not be grown on these stubble. Winter wheat was the most competitive crop to weeds and volunteer while spring wheat was the least competitive. Winter wheat should not be planted after corn because of dry soil at seeding. Barley hay yields were equal regardless of stubble crop or fallow seeding.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/76 to 12/30/76

                                      Outputs
                                      Three trials concerning crop rotation on dryland are being conducted. The oldesttrial was completed in 1976 after 15 years and all rotations, except continuous cropping (CC), will be converted to no-till vs tillage (split plot) with 10 rotations. Significant findings after 15 years were 1. Wild oats is the most serious problem under CC, 2. Cephlosporium root rot and cheatgrass are problemsafter 3 crop years in the winter wheat-fallow rotation but were not present in the 3 year rotation of winter wheat-barley- fallow, 3. Volunteer grain is a problem, especially winter wheat & barley & 4. barley recrop yields has averaged76% of fallow, spring wheat 81% (7 yrs. data), oats 92% (4 yrs.). Trial 2 (No-till vs tillage and chemical vs tillage fallow) with barley and winter wheat. After 2 years there has been no difference in yield between treatments. Bladex (3.5#/A) and Roundup (.5#/A) active will control vegetation for chemical fallow but 2 treatments of Roundup is needed which makes the cost factor considerable higher than tillage fallow. Velpar will be substituted for Bladex in 1977. Roundup is used on no-till plots before seeding for volunteer grain and weed control and has given complete control. Trial 3 (Cropping sequence rotations) 6 crops grown on stubble of each other. After 3 crop years, crops (Spring wheat, barley, winter wheat, oats) have averaged the lowest yield when grown on winter wheat stubble and highest on fallow. Crop planted on partial fallow (barley

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/75 to 12/30/75

                                        Outputs
                                        Three crop rotations and one tillage trial are being conducted. Significant findings are as follows; 1. Wild Oats is the most serious weed problem in continuous cropping. 2. Winter Wheatfallow rotation becomes heavily infested with cheatgrass after 3 crop years also cephlosporium root rot becomes about 75%infected in 8 years. The winter wheat-barley-fallow rotation is not affected byeither factors, 3. Grain crops grown on recrop land will be about 1 lb. per bu. higher in test weight, 1% lower in protein and barley kernels 10% plumper, 4. Recrop grain yields will average about 75 to 85% of fallow, 5. Yields of winter wht. after corn is low due to dry soil created by corn growth to time of seedingwinter wht., 6. volunteer winter wheat and barley is a problem in recropping. Volunteer winter wht. was easily removed by the chemical Roundup, 7. Pigeon grass is a problem in continuous corn but not in other rotations where grain is grown, 8. Forage yields of barley for annual hay was not affected when seeded on6 stubble crops, 9. Corn for forage has produced a higher tonnage than any other forage, grass and legume, 10. the chemical Roundup used as a fallow substitute as compared to machinery fallow resulted in equal yields of winter wht., 11. Winter wht.-spring wheat appears to be the best rotation for continuous cropping. Fall tillage that left the stubble standing conserved as much moisture as no tillage. When the stubble was knocked down 20% of the moisture was lost by spring.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                          Outputs
                                          A severe hail storm on July 7 destroyed all crop rotation trials and yields fromgrain crops were not taken. Corn in the cropping sequence rotation yielded approx. 3 ton of dry matter when cut on Sept. 1. Corn grown continuously yielded significantly less than when grown on stubble of Sp. wht., barley, peas+ oats for hay, oats, winter wheat and on fallow. A heavy stand of pigeon grassis now present in the continuous corn plots after 3 years but is not present in any other plots in the rotation trial. In the small grain rotations, wild oats are just becoming a problem in the continuous barley plots after 11 years. The stand of wild oats is heavier in the low fertility portion of the plot than in the portion fertilized for maximum yield. No other rotations in the trial contains wild oats to date. Various tillage methods are being tested to determine the affects of fall and spring tillage to winter wheat stubble for recropping barley. Mulboard plowing, onewaying and disking in the fall has resulted in storing only 25% of the precipitation received during the fall and winter while shovels and spikes (stubble left standing) and not working stubble stored nearly 50%. During the past 3 years there has been no correlation between tillage method, spring soil moisture, and yield.

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/73 to 12/30/73

                                            Outputs
                                            In the small grain rotations there was only 2 to 5 bu. difference between continuous cropping and fallow yields with barley, spring wheat, and oats in 1973. Barley after winter wheat had a higher yield response from N than when grown continuously. Winter wheat in a 3 year rotation (W.W.-barley-fallow) yielded 75% higher than when grown in a 2 year rotation (W.W.-fallow) due to a heavy infestation of cheatgrass. In the cropping sequence rotations, crops grown on the stubble of peas + oats cut for hay and corn for silage yielded lessthan when planted on stubble of w.wht., sp. wht., barley, and oats. These loweryields were caused mainly by an excess nitrate accumulation in the soil and a lower rate of N is required than other stubble crops. Corn also causes a complete drying of the soil caused by late August growth which makes it difficult to prepare a seedbed for recropping winter wheat. Various tillage methods were tested to prepare a seedbed on winter wheat stubble for recropping barley. Highest yields were from melboard plowing, onewaying, and stubble burning. These treatments resulted in no volunteer winter wheat. Treatments that left the stubble standing for snow trapping resulted in the highest spring soil moisture content; however, there was no correlation between yield and spring soil moisture content because of good precipitation during the spring. Only 24% of the moisture received during the winter was saved in the soil in plots where the stubble was not fall tilled and 13% where stubble was worked butleft standing.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/72 to 12/30/72

                                              Outputs
                                              Various tillage methods were used to prepare a seedbed for recropping barley on winter wheat stubble. Twelve methods of tillage were employed. It was necessary to have at least two tillage operation to eliminate approximently 90% of the volunteer winter wheat. One fall plus one spring operation, regardless of the implement used, was the best tillage treatment. There was significant barley yield differences between treatments, however, when total plot yield was computed, barley plus volunteer winter wheat, there was no yield difference between treatments. A new trial designated as Cropping Sequence Rotations was initiated in 1972. Crops are grown in the stubble of 4 other crops plus their own and fallow. Two crops are grown for forage, oats plus peas and corn. Grainyields of spring wheat, barley, oats and winter wheat were significantly less when planted on peas plus oats and corn stubble probably due to a high accumulation of soil nitrates. Due to frequent summer showers and adequate fertility grain yield on stubble were equal to fallow. Dry matter forage yield of oats plus peas and corn were not significantly different due to the previous crop land. The small grain rotations showed that continuous cropped barley and oats yielded significantly lower, even when fertilized, than when planted on unfertilized fallow, while unfertilized spring wheat on fallow was equal in yield to fertilized continuous spring wheat. Fertilized barley planted on winter wheat stubble was equal in yield to unfertilized barley on fallow. Winter wheat grown in a three year rotation (w.w.-barley-fallow) yielded significantly higher than winter wheat grown on fallow. This was due to a cheatgrass infestation which is present in the fallow rotation and not in the 3

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                                Outputs
                                                The small grain rotation showed that continuous barley and spring wheat with fertilizers produced about 90% of the same crop without fertilizer on fallow. Winter wheat in a fallow rotation soon become infested with cheatgrass and yields are reduced. This is not a problem in a winter wheat, barley, fallow rotation. After 10 years, the continuous barley plots have shown no increase inweed population and appear to require less nitrogen. 3 #/A of N plus 100 #/A P(2)O(5) applied in 12 inch spacing on rangeland has produced the highest incomeper acre ($19.64) per year during a four year period when pastured. This is after the cost of fertilizer had been removed. The check without fertilizer produced an income of $7.18 per acre during this four year period. Fertilizer rates of N and P were applied to an old stand of a mixture of crested wheatgrassand alfalfa on dryland. The purpose is to determine the most economical rate which will maintain the alfalfa and crested. Fertilizer was applied in May and because of dry soil and hot weather only a small forage yield increase was received. Residual fertilizer response will be determined in 1972 and 1973 seasons and its effect on the stand of alfalfa. Various tillage methods were used to prepare a seed bed for recropping barley on winter wheat stubble. Sevenmethods were used including shovels, Noble blade, disc and harrows. There was no significant yield difference between the methods used including no tillage.

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications


                                                  Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                                  Outputs
                                                  Three projects are listed under this title: (1) Small grain rotation (2) Fertilizer on rangeland and beef production evaluation (3) Fertilizer on "old" crested wheat stand. Small grain rotations was reported in the past. Continuous barley cropping with fertilizers was 65-75% in grain production of barley-fallow with fertilizer. Wheat-fallow rotation encouraged root rot and "cheatgrass" infestations. Wheat stubble burning did not significantly reduce yield in nine years. (Stubble burn only once in three years). Continuous cropping not feasible without nitrogen. (2) Response was still visible from one time application of 600 N lb/a in 1966. However, forage yield was lower than anticipated indicating near exhaustion of nitrogen. Beef production from calves in pasture study was 65, 290 and 353 lbs/a from 0, 300 and 600 N lb/a respectively in three years. Banding of nitrogen (12 inch) to reduce cost per acre resulted in 316 lb/a. Addition of phosphorous to nitrogen resulted in higher forage and beef production. Wider banding of nitrogen (36 inch) produced203 P lbs/a (will continue project). (3) Residual N following a dry year still significant in old crested wheatgrass production. Very little residual N following of 75 N lb/a following a productive year.

                                                  Impacts
                                                  (N/A)

                                                  Publications


                                                    Progress 01/01/69 to 12/30/69

                                                    Outputs
                                                    Results from the small grain rotation studies obtained in 1969 were similar to those previously discussed. Another rate of nitrogen (80N lb/A) was added in 1969 for all the barley plots. Rates remained the same for winter wheat. Growing season for 1969 was not favorable for grass production however residual nitrogen from one application of 600 N lbs/A in 1966, resulted in 2-3 times increase in forage production in 4 locations. Beef production from calves in pasture study resulted in 6 fold increase in 1968 and 1969 with 600 N lb/A applied in 12 inch wide band alternated with 0 N lb/A 12 inches wide. Beef produced in 2 years from the treatment was 237 lbs/A with 300 N lbs/A. Exhaustion of residual nitrogen needs to be evaluated and this study will be continued. Nitrate level in the soil will be evaluated to a depth of 10 feet ifpossible. Nitrate level of plant sample indicates possible danger only with Stipa viridula when harvested early (flag leaf). Agropyron Smithii, Stipa comata, June grass and Blue grama were below the critical level of nitrate poisoning.

                                                    Impacts
                                                    (N/A)

                                                    Publications