Source: SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY submitted to
SEED TESTING
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
EXTENDED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0007964
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
SD00992
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Jul 1, 1963
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2019
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
Turnipseed, E. B.
Recipient Organization
SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY
PO BOX 2275A
BROOKINGS,SD 57007
Performing Department
PLANT SCIENCE
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
2022410106060%
2022410114040%
Goals / Objectives
Analyze for planting quality agricultural vegetable, tree and flower seed samples for purity, germination, and noxious weed seeds.
Project Methods
Take samples of all kinds of crop plants and determine purity (pure seed) by separating out the inert matter, weed seeds and other crop seeds. Any noxious weed seeds present are removed and recorded. Plantings are made in the precisely controlled environments provided by the different laboratory germinators.

Progress 01/01/12 to 12/31/12

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed over 7000 samples in 2012. Breakdown of samples: Service samples (includes Seed Certification and variety identification)-5790; Department of Agriculture Regulatory-262; Research>1000. Approximately 16678 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, disease analysis, test weights, seed counts, seed and/or plant identification, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consisted of five permanent and 6-8 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN, and MI Crop Improvement Associations. The SDSU Seed Lab continues to be recognized as one of three official testing labs for the Minnesota Crop Improvement Association and as an official lab for the California Crop Improvement. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at eight meetings, workshops, or trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects (electrophoresis testing, weed seed research, wheat breeding and color testing, rice dormancy studies, pH exudate studies, HRS germination-temperature interactions.), and provided seed and plant identification assistance to anyone upon request. It also provided training and assistance to several projects (graduate students, project technicians, and private clients) on seed conditioning. The lab also provided more than 300 samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service for wheat variety training, and 900 seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Two external (AOSA/SCST) referee projects on seed testing (native species germination/purity/tetrazolium, Kentucky bluegrass germination/tetrazolium) and one internal referee (blotter paper vs. germination paper efficacy). The lab also participated in analyst proficiency testing from the SCST association. Lab research included: development and refinement of electrophoresis testing techniques, an undergraduate student research on a spring wheat variety by temperature germination interaction, an undergraduate student research study on the pH exudate test on soybean, rice dormancy and longevity studies (with Xingyou Gu), KOH studies on wheat color determination, salt cedar germination studies (Michelle Ohrtman), graduate MS research work on spring wheat variety by temperature germination interaction (Shawn Jenkins). The lab also provided seed photographs on both seed identification and seed sample issues to clients on request. The lab continues to publish and sell a seed identification book and a flash card set on seeds in the high school FFAcrops contests to high school FFA programs on demand. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 15 tours to various groups and individuals. The lab continues hiring students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in the field of seed testing. PARTICIPANTS: The following individuals worked in the SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory in 2012. Brent Turnipseed, Manager Ronny Parmely, Assistant Manager Dennis Ruhlman, Germination Supervisor Mary Thompson, Research Associate II (retired, July 2011) Keri Skroch, Research Associate II (hired July 2011) Sharon Clasen, Secretary Floyd Wiesner, Part-time Seed Analyst TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers, Seed Certification Agencies, seed growers, SD Department of Agriculture, and seed companies are the primary target audience for the laboratory as they all need seed testing services. The lab also serves the university faculty and graduate students with research support, and provides training opportunities for students, faculty and other professionals in the field of seed testing and research. Both K12 teachers and University Professors are provided seed and germination supplies for educational purposes upon request. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides vital, fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 2042 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI, MT), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Results provided by the lab were used in labeling of seed, purchasing and selling of seed lots, definitely impacting well over $10 million worth of seed. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty. The lab also plays a key role in the Seed Technology Lab at South Dakota State University. All lab employees collaborate with faculty, graduate students and other outside collaborators on seed research in the area of seed dormancy, native seed germination, etc. The laboratory is a member lab of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, and has member analysts in the Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. The laboratory hires and trains undergraduate students (6 to 8) in the field of seed testing and related areas, as well as providing hands on training upon request. The lab manager and assistant manager have traveled numerous times to meetings to provide seed testing lectures or training in various settings.

Publications

  • TURNIPSEED, B. 2012. Wheat Seed Testing, Pure Live Seed, and Seedling Rates, Chapter 8 In Clay, D.E., C.G. Carlson, and K. Dalsted (eds). iGrow Wheat: Best Management Practices for Wheat Production in South Dakota. South Dakota State University, SDSU ABS, Brookings, SD.
  • ROEMMICH, A. R., BUTLER, J. L., LARSON, G. E., and TURNIPSEED, E. B. 2012. Effect of cold stratification and temperature on seed germination of two Black Hills, SD species. The Prairie Naturalist 44(1):30-38
  • OHRTMAN, M. K., CLAY, S. A., CLAY, D. E., and SMART, A. J. 2012. Fire as a Tool for Controlling Tamarix spp. Seedlings. Invasive Plant Science and Management. Vol. 5:139-147
  • TURNIPSEED, B. 2012. The Clorox Soak Test. Publication: QR-03-1000-2012. SDSU iGrow.


Progress 01/01/11 to 12/31/11

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed an approximate total of 6929 samples in 2011, an increase of 10% over 2010 samples. Breakdown of samples: Service samples (includes Seed Certification and variety identification)-6098; Department of Agriculture Regulatory-331; Research>500. Approximately 16283 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, disease analysis, test weights, seed counts, seed and/or plant identification, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consisted of five permanent and 8-10 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN, and MI Crop Improvement Associations. The SDSU Seed Lab continues to be recognized as one of four official testing labs for the Minnesota Crop Improvement Association. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at eight meetings, workshops, or trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects (electrophoresis testing, weed seed research, native seed research in the Biology Dept.), and provided seed and plant identification assistance to anyone upon request. It also provided training and assistance to several projects (graduate students, project technicians, and private clients) on seed conditioning. The lab also provided over 300 samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service for wheat variety training, and 800 seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Four external (AOSA/SCST) referee projects on seed testing (sideoats grama and blue grama purity methods, a camelina germination, and a native species germination) and two internal referees (both on blotter paper efficacy). The lab also participated in analyst proficiency testing from the SCST association. Ongoing lab research includes: germination studies on prairie cordgrass, a tetrazolium statistical study on replication evaluation, development and refinement of electrophoresis testing techniques, and undergraduate student research on prairie cordgrass germination and a spring wheat variety by temperature germination study. The lab participated in the AOSA/SCST Seed Forum providing small-seeded legume identification pictures and seed samples. The lab also provided seed photographs on both seed identification and seed sample issues to clients on request. The lab also continues to publish and sell a seed identification book on seeds in the high school FFA/4H crops contests to high school FFA programs on demand. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 25 tours to various groups and individuals, and hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing. The lab continues to develop and improve its' website that has been widely used by clientele. PARTICIPANTS: The following individuals worked in the SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory in 2011. Brent Turnipseed, Manager; Ronny Parmely, Assistant Manager; Dennis Ruhlman, Germination Supervisor; Mary Thompson, Research Associate II (retired, July 2011); Keri Skroch, Research Associate II (hired July 2011); Sharon Clasen, Secretary; Floyd Wiesner, Part-time Seed Analyst; Michelle Ohrtman, Post-doc under Dr. Sharon Clay, conducted her lab germination studies on saltcedar in the SDSU Seed Testing Lab TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers, Seed Certification Agencies, seed growers, SD Department of Agriculture, and seed companies are the primary target audience for the laboratory as they all need seed testing services. The lab also serves the university faculty and graduate students with research support, and provides training opportunities for students, faculty and other professionals in the field of seed testing and research. K12 teachers are also provided seed and germination supplies for K12 education upon requests. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides vital, fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 2042 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI, MT), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Results provided by the lab were used in labeling of seed, purchasing and selling of seed lots, definitely impacting well over $10 million worth of seed. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty. The lab will also play a key role in the Seed Technology Lab under development at South Dakota State University. All lab employees collaborate with faculty, graduate students and other outside collaborators on seed research in the area of seed dormancy, native seed germination, seed soilbank studies, wildlife fecal seed identification, etc. The laboratory is a member lab of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, and has member analysts in the Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. The laboratory hires and trains undergraduate students (8 to 10) in the field of seed testing and related areas, as well as providing hands on training upon request. The lab manager and assistant manager have traveled numerous times to meetings to provide seed testing lectures or training in various settings.

Publications

  • TURNIPSEED, B. 2011. Wheat Seed Testing, Pure Live Seed, and Seedling Rates, Chapter 8 In Clay, D.E., C.G. Carlson, and K. Dalsted (eds). iGrow Wheat: Best Management Practices for Wheat Production in South Dakota. South Dakota State University, SDSU Extension, Brookings, SD.
  • ROEMMICH, A. R., BUTLER, J. L., LARSON, G. E., and TURNIPSEED, E. B. 2011. Effect of cold stratification and temperature on seed germination of two Black Hills, SD species. The Prairie Naturalist (Accepted)
  • OHRTMAN, M. K., CLAY, S. A., CLAY, D. E., MOUSEL, E. M. and SMART, A. J. 2011. Preventing Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) Seedling Establishment in the Northern Prairie Pothole Region. Invasive Plant Science and Management. Vol. 4:427-436


Progress 01/01/10 to 12/31/10

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed an approximate total of 6298 samples in 2010: Service samples (includes Seed Certification and variety identification)-5473; Department of Agriculture Regulatory-325; Research>500. Approximately 14,800 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, disease analysis, seed and/or plant identification, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consisted of five permanent and 6-10 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN and MI Crop Improvement Associations. The SDSU Seed Lab is recognized as one of four official testing labs for the Minnesota Crop Improvement Association. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at ten meetings, workshops, or trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects (electrophoresis testing, weed seed research, seed id from wildlife, native seed research in the Biology Dept.), and provided seed and plant identification assistance to anyone upon request. The lab also provided over 200 samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service for wheat variety training, and 800 seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Two external (AOSA/SCST) referee projects on seed testing (Sideoats grama, and blue grama purity methods) and two internal referees (efficacy of germination blotter paper, prechill vs. non-prechill of intermediate/pubescent wheatgrass) were initiated and completed in 2010. Ongoing lab research includes: germination studies on prairie cordgrass under various salt regimes, an ongoing tetrazolium statistical study on replication evaluation, continued development and refinement of electrophoresis testing techniques, and undergraduate student studies on prairie cordgrass germination and a spring wheat variety thermogradient germination temperature study. The lab participated in the AOSA/SCST Seed Forum at the annual meeting, providing cereal seed identification pictures and seed. The lab also provided seed photographs on wheatgrass species identification. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 20 tours to various groups and individuals, and hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing. The lab also developed a new and expanded website that has been widely used by clientele. PARTICIPANTS: The following individuals worked in the SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory in 2010. Brent Turnipseed, Manager Ronny Parmely, Assistant Manager Dennis Ruhlman, Germination Supervisor Mary Thompson, Research Associate II Sharon Clasen, Secretary Floyd Wiesner, Part-time Seed Analyst TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers, Seed Certification Agencies, seed growers, SD Department of Agriculture, and seed companies are the primary target audience for the laboratory as they all need seed testing services. The lab also serves the university faculty and graduate students with research support, and provides training opportunities for students and other professionals in the field of seed testing and research. K12 teachers are also provided seed and germination supplies for K12 education upon requests. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides vital, fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 2042 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI, MT), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Results provided by the lab were used in labeling of seed, purchasing and selling of seed lots, definitely impacting well over $10 million worth of seed. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty. The lab will also play a key role in the Seed Technology program under development at South Dakota State University. All lab employees collaborate with faculty, graduate students and other outside collaborators on seed research in the area of seed dormancy, native seed germination, seed soilbank studies, wildlife fecal seed identification, etc. The laboratory is a member lab of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, and has member analysts in the Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. The laboratory hires and trains undergraduate students (8 to 10) in the field of seed testing and related areas, as well as providing hands on training upon request. The lab manager and assistant manager have traveled numerous times to meetings to provide seed testing lectures or training in various settings.

Publications

  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2010. SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory Testing and Fee Schedule. Revised Bulletin.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2010. SDSU Seed Testing Lab Update. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 18(3):1
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2010. Scab Again Ergot in the wheat Lab moving to the new Seed Tech facility. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 18(2):2
  • USDA-NRCS Plant Materials Center. 2010. Sideoats Grama Performance Trials. (Seed photo credit, Brent Turnipseed)


Progress 01/01/09 to 12/31/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed an approximate total of 6314 samples in 2009: Service samples (includes Seed Certification and variety identification)-5914; Department of Agriculture Regulatory-332; Research>400. Approximately 14,800 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, disease analysis, seed and/or plant identification, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consisted of five permanent and 6-10 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN and MI Crop Improvement Associations. The SDSU Seed Lab is recognized as one of three official testing labs for the Minnesota Crop Improvement Association. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at thirteen meetings, workshops, or trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects (electrophoresis testing, seed id from wildlife, native seed research in the Biology Dept.), and provided seed and plant identification assistance to anyone upon request. The lab also provided over 200 samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service for wheat variety training, and 800 seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Two external (AOSA/SCST) referee projects on seed testing and one set of proficiency samples (SCST) were initiated and completed in 2009. Ongoing lab research includes: germination studies on prairie cordgrass and under various salt regimes, an ongoing tetrazolium statistical study on replication evaluation, continued development and refinement of electrophoresis testing techniques, and graduate student studies on prairie cordgrass germination. The lab continues to provide numerous presentations and supplies on seed identification, over 10 labs participated. The lab manager also taught and presented topics at two other major workshops, one at a local private seed testing lab, and the other at a weeklong workshop on genetic testing hosted by the Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 10 tours to various groups and individuals, and hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing. PARTICIPANTS: The following individuals worked in the SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory in 2009. Brent Turnipseed, Manager Ronny Parmely, Assistant Manager Cindy Silva, Purity Supervisor Dennis Ruhlman, Germination Supervisor Mary Thompson, Research Associate II Greta Schanning, Graduate Student Sharon Clasen, Secretary Floyd Wiesner, Part-time Seed Analyst TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers, Seed Certification Agencies, seed growers, SD Department of Agriculture, and seed companies are the primary target audience for the laboratory as they all need seed testing services. The lab also serves the university faculty and graduate students with research support, and provides training opportunities for students and other professionals in the field of seed testing and research. K12 teachers are also provided seed and germination supplies for K12 education upon requests. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provided vital, fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 1881 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI, MT), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Results provided by the lab were used in labeling of seed, purchasing and selling of seed lots, definitely impacting well over $10 million worth of seed. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty. The lab will also play a key role in the Seed Technology program under development at South Dakota State University. All lab employees collaborate with faculty, graduate students and other outside collaborators on seed research in the area of seed dormancy, native seed germination, seed soilbank studies, wildlife fecal seed identification, etc. The laboratory is a member lab of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, and has member analysts in the Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. The laboratory hires and trains undergraduate students (8 to 10) in the field of seed testing and related areas, as well as providing hands on training upon request. The lab manager and assistant manager have traveled numerous times to meetings to provide seed testing lectures or training in various settings. The lab manager finished a 2.5 year term in June as President of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, and definitely had an impact on seed testing issues in the United States, bringing greater focus on the SDSU Seed Testing Lab.

Publications

  • Xu, Lan., E.B. Turnipseed, R.N. Gates, P.S. Johnson, and N.H. Troelstrup Jr. 2009. Abstract. Effects of Different Management Practices on Soil Seed Bank Composition in a Mixed-Grass Prairie of the Northern Great Plains. 62nd Society for Range Management Annual Meeting. Paper No. 1030-16.
  • Korman, B.L., G.E. Larson, J.L. Butler, and E.B. Turnipseed. 2009. Abstract. Germination Characteristics of Sickleweed (Falcaria vulgaris) from the Fort Pierre National Grassland of South Dakota. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science. Vol. 88: 181.
  • Schanning, G.L. 2009. Identifying the Optimal Laboratory Germination Testing Regime Needed for Prairie Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata L.). 2009. A research paper submitted to the Plant Science Department of South Dakota State University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in the Plant Science Department
  • Turnipseed, B. and A. Hall. 2009. Building Strategic Partnerships. Seed Today Vol. 13(2):42


Progress 01/01/08 to 12/31/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed an approximate total of 6181 samples in 2007: Service samples (includes Seed Certification and variety identification)-5367; Department of Agriculture Regulatory-314; Research>500. Approximately 14,500 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, disease analysis, seed and/or plant identification, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consists of five permanent and 6-10 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN and MI Crop Improvement Associations. The SDSU Seed Lab is recognized as one of three official testing labs for the MCIA following the complete closure of their lab. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at eighteen meetings, workshops, or trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects (electrophoresis testing, seed id from wildlife), and provided seed and plant identification assistance to anyone upon request. The lab also provided over 200 samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service for wheat variety training, and 800 seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Three external (AOSA/SCST) referee projects on seed testing and one set of proficiency samples (SCST) were initiated and completed in 2008. Ongoing lab research includes: field emergence on herbicide injured wheat seed versus standard laboratory germination, an ongoing tetrazolium statistical study on replication evaluation, continued development and refinement of electrophoresis testing techniques, and graduate student studies on prairie cordgrass germination. The lab hosted a Seed Analysts of the Midwest workshop and provided numerous presentations and supplies on seed identification, over 10 labs participated. The lab manager also taught and presented topics at two other major workshops, one at a local private seed testing lab, and the other at a weeklong workshop on genetic testing hosted by the Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 10 tours to various groups and individuals, and hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing. PARTICIPANTS: Brent Turnipseed, Manager Ronny Parmely, Assistant Manager Cindy Silva, Purity Supervisor Dennis Ruhlman, Germination Supervisor Mary Thompson, Research Associate II Greta Schanning, Graduate Student Sharon Clasen, Secretary TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers, Seed Certification Agencies, seed growers, SD Department of Agriculture, and seed companies are the primary target audience for the laboratory as they all need unbiased seed testing. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Not relevant to this project.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provided vital, fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 1400 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Results provided by the lab were used in labeling of seed, purchasing and selling of seed lots, definitely impacting well over $10 million worth of seed. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty. The lab will also play a key role in the Seed Technology program under development at South Dakota State University. All lab employees collaborate with faculty, graduate students and other outside collaborators on seed research in the area of seed dormancy, seed soilbank studies, wildlife fecal seed identification, etc. The laboratory is a member lab of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, and has member analysts in the Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. The laboratory hires and trains undergraduate students (8 to 10) in the field of seed testing and related areas, as well as providing hands on training upon request. The lab manager and assistant manager have traveled numerous times to meetings to provide seed testing lectures or training in various settings. The lab manager is currently President of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, and definitely has an impact on seed testing issues in the United States, bringing greater focus on the SDSU Seed Testing Lab.

Publications

  • Gu, X.-Y., E. B. Turnipseed, and M.E. Foley. 2008. The qSD12 locus controls offspring tissue-imposed seed dormancy in rice. Genetics 179:2263-2273.
  • Cho, Y., E.B. Turnipseed, D.A. Lightfoot and A.J. Wood. 2008. Trigonelline in mature seeds and developing seedlings of Glycine max Biologia Plantarum 52 (2): 370-372
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2008. 2008 AOSA/SCST Annual meeting: An Ovation to Mutual Purpose. Seed Today Vol. 12(2). p. 26
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2008. 2008 Proposed Amendments to AOSA Rules for Testing Seeds. Seed Today Vol. 12(1). p. 30
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2008. Seed Vigor Testing - Germination vs. Vigor. Seed Today Vol. 12(3). p. 24
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2008. Harmonization of Seed Testing Methods. Seed Today Vol. 12(4). p. 34


Progress 01/01/07 to 12/31/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 5961 samples in 2007: Service samples (includes Seed Certification and variety identification)-5112; Department of Agriculture Regulatory-302; Research>500. Approximately 14,000 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, disease analysis, seed and/or plant identification, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consists of five permanent and 6-10 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN and MI Crop Improvement Associations. MCIA also tested all their native species and most of their perennial ryegrass through the SDSU Lab in 2007. In December the SDSU lab was recognized as one of three official testing labs for the MCIA upon the closure of their lab. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at nineteen meetings, workshops, or trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects, and provides seed identification assistance to anyone upon request. The lab also provided over 200 samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service. Eight hundred seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Three external (AOSA/SCST) referee projects on seed testing and one set of proficiency samples (SCST) were initiated and completed in 2007. Ongoing lab research includes: vigor testing methods on scabby wheat seed versus standard germination and field emergence rates; an ongoing seed treatment efficacy study on corn, soybean and wheat; continued development/refinement of electrophoresis testing techniques, graduate student work on prairie cordgrass germination, and a study on intermediate and pubescent wheatgrass germination regimes. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 10 tours to various groups and individuals, and hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing. The lab implemented email and internet reporting of results in December providing quicker response times to clients. PARTICIPANTS: The following individuals work in the SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory. Brent Turnipseed, Manager Ronny Parmely, Assistant Manager Cindy Silva, Purity Supervisor Dennis Ruhlman, Germination Supervisor Mary Thompson, Research Associate II Greta Schanning, Graduate Student Sharon Clasen, Secretary All lab employees collaborate with faculty, graduate students and other outside collaborators on seed research in the area of seed dormancy, seed soilbank studies, wildlife fecal seed identification, etc. The laboratory is a member lab of the Association of Official Seed Analysts, and has member analysts in the Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. The laboratory hires and trains undergraduate students (8 to 10) in the field of seed testing and related areas, as well as providing hands on training upon request. The lab manager and assistant manager have traveled numerous times to meetings to provide seed testing lectures or training in various settings. TARGET AUDIENCES: Farmers, Seed Certification Agencies, seed growers, SD Department of Agriculture, and seed companies are the primary target audience for the laboratory as they all need seed testing services. The lab also serves the university faculty and graduate students with research support, and provides training opportunities for students and other professionals in the field of seed testing and research.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provided fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 1400 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Results provided by the lab were used in labeling of seed, purchasing and selling of seed lots. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty. The lab will also play a key role in the Seed Technology program under development at South Dakota State University.

Publications

  • Turnipseed, E.B. 2007. Wild vs. Cultivated vs. Fatuoid Oat Seeds (8.5 x 14 inch color seed identification poster). SDSU Seed Testing Lab. Available from SDSU Seed Testing Lab.
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2007. Rules Season Now Open. Seed Today Vol. 11(1). p. 30
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2007. 2007 Annual Joint AOSA SCST Meeting. Seed Today Vol. 11(2). p. 24
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2007. Testing for the Presence of RR Alfalfa Seed. Seed Today Vol. 11(3). p. 24
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2007. How End Use Affects Laboratory Seed Testing. Seed Today Vol. 11(4). p. 18
  • USDA-NRCS Plant Materials Center. 2006. Origins of Native Grass and Forb Releases. NRCS Phamplet. (Photo credit Brent Turnipseed)


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 6761 samples in 2006: Service samples (includes Seed Certification and variety identification)-5980; Department of Agriculture Regulatory-281; Research-500. Approximately 14,165 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consists of five permanent and 6-10 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN and MI Crop Improvement Associations. MCIA also tested all their native species and most of their perennial ryegrass through the SDSU Lab in 2006. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at twelve meetings/trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects, and provides seed identification assistance to anyone upon request. The lab also provided samples to the Federal Trueness to Variety program, and 100+ variety wheat samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service. Eight hundred seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Five internal and external (AOSA/SAM/SCST) referee projects on seed testing were completed or initiated in 2005. Ongoing lab research includes: vigor testing methods on scabby wheat seed versus standard germination and field emergence rates; an ongoing seed treatment efficacy study on corn, soybean and wheat; and continued development/refinement of electrophoresis testing techniques. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 15 tours to various groups and individuals, and hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing. The lab also implemented a new computer program with the capability for email and internet reporting of results.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provided fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 1200 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. Results provided by the lab were used in labeling of seed, purchasing and selling of seed lots. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty. The lab will also play a key role in the Seed Technology program under development at South Dakota State University.

Publications

  • Turnipseed, E.B. 2006. Selected Weedy and Cultivated Millet Type Seeds (11 x 17 inch double-sided poster). SDSU Seed Testing Lab. Available from SDSU Seed Testing Lab.
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2006. The Importance of Rules, In one word: standardization. Seed Today Vol. 10(1). p. 14
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2006. The Importance of Seed Analyst Accreditation. Seed Today Vol. 10(2). p. 18
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2006. Seed Testing: From Report to the Label. Seed Today Vol. 10(3). p. 22
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2006. Standardized Methods vs. Proprietary Innovation. Seed Today Vol. 10(4). p. 30


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 6188 samples in 2005: Service samples-3613; Department of Agriculture Regulatory-309; Variety Identification-462; Seed Certification-1304; Research-500. Approximately 14,000 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consists of five permanent and 10-15 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN and MI Crop Improvement Associations. MCIA also tested all their native species through the SDSU Lab in 2005. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at twelve meetings/trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects, and provides seed identification assistance to anyone upon request. The lab also provided 100+ samples to the Federal Trueness to Variety program, and 100+ variety wheat samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service. Eight hundred seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Five internal and external (AOSA/SAM/SCST) referee projects on seed testing were completed or initiated in 2005. Ongoing lab research includes: fungicide seed treatments and their efficacy on scabby wheat seed germination and a joint Ph.D. student studying wheat vigor testing and scab infection physiology (cooperatively with Dr. Marty Draper); an ongoing seed treatment efficacy study on corn, soybean and wheat; and continued development/refinement of electrophoresis testing techniques. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 15 tours to various groups and individuals, and hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing. In August of 2005 the lab hosted a Federal Seed School for 4 days. Analysts from over 10 laboratories participated in the seed school.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provided fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 1200 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture last year. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty. The lab will also play a key role in the Seed Technology program under development at South Dakota State University.

Publications

  • Larson, G.E., T.A. Wittig, K.F. Higgins, E.B. Turnipseed, and D.M. Sulzbach. 2005. Influence of Biocontrol Insects on Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Seed Production, Germinability and Viability. The Prairie Naturalist 37(2):85-100.
  • Turnipseed, E.B. 2005. Agropyron Seed Identification (11 x 17 inch double-sided poster). SDSU Seed Testing Lab. Available from AOSA.
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2005. Who is Testing Your Seed and How Are We Doing It? Seed Today Vol. 9(1):14
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2005. Test Result Variability-Why do results vary? Seed Today Vol. 9(2):18
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2005. AOSA/SCST Annual Meeting-Agenda filled with purpose. Seed Today Vol. 9(3):28
  • Hall, A. and B. Turnipseed. 2005. Tetrazolium Testing-The quick viability test. Seed Today Vol. 9(4):32


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 5966 samples in 2004: 3519 service samples; 309 Department of Agriculture Regulatory samples; 382 variety identification samples; 1306 Seed Certification samples; 500 research samples. Approximately 13,847 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consists of five permanent and 10-15 part-time analysts. The lab also provided electrophoresis testing to the MN and MI Crop Improvement Associations. MCIA also tested all their native species through the SDSU Lab in 2004. SDSU Seed Lab employees attended or represented the Lab at seven meetings/trade shows. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty seed research projects, and provides seed identification assistance to anyone upon request. The lab also provided 50+ samples to the Federal Trueness to Variety program, and 100+ variety wheat samples to the Federal Grain Inspection Service. Nine hundred seed analysis samples were prepared and provided to the National Chicago and Kansas City Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Six internal and external (AOSA/SAM/SCST) referee projects on seed testing were completed or initiated in 2004. Ongoing lab research includes: fungicide seed treatments and their efficacy on scabby wheat seed germination (cooperatively with Dr. Marty Draper); an ongoing seed treatment efficacy study on corn, soybean and wheat; and ongoing development/refinement of varietal testing techniques. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed and crop information, germination materials, seed samples for faculty research/teaching, Ag Instructors, and school teachers. The lab also provided more than 15 tours to various groups and individuals, and hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 4400 farmers, seed companies, crop improvements (SD, MN, MI), and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture. The lab also provides training, assistance and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty.

Publications

  • Turnipseed, E.B. and Pollmann, R. J. Editors. 2004. SDSU Seed News. Vol. 12(1), Brookings, SD.
  • Turnipseed, E.B. and Olson, D. Editors. 2004. SDSU Seed News. Vol. 12(2); Vol. 12(3), Brookings, SD.
  • Turnipseed, E.B. 2004. SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory, Testing and Fee Schedule. Revised Bulletin. Brookings, SD.


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 7070 samples in 2003: Service Samples - 3891; Department of Agriculture Regulatory - 280; Variety Identification - 946; Seed Certification - 1,353; Research - 600. Approximately 15000 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consisted of five permanent and 10-20 part-time analysts. The lab continued electrophoretic testing for the Minnesota Crop Improvement Association as in the past. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty research projects and has provided testing and seed identification assistance to numerous other faculty/clients/students upon requests. One permanent staff member attended the AOSA/SCST convention held in Seattle, WA, and the August meeting of the Seed Analysts of the Midwest. The SDSU Seed Lab prepared over 900 seed analysis samples for the Chicago and Kansas City National Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Three AOSA and SAM referee tests were participated in 2002. On-going lab research includes: development of electrophoresis testing protocols, determining optimum germination test conditions for native species; coleorhizal characteristics of Poaceae species (jointly with Dr. Arvid Boe), and germination testing of Euphorbia esula (jointly with Biology graduate student. The lab provided numerous handouts on seed information, seed samples for faculty research, or to Ag and school teachers, and provided over 15 tours for various groups and individuals.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 4,000 farmers, and over 350 seed companies, the SDCIA, MNCIA, MICIA, and the South Dakota Department of Ag. The lab also provides training, assistance, and resources to students, graduate students, faculty, and clients.

Publications

  • Turnipseed, E.B. and R.J. Pollmann, Editors. 2003. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 11(1); Vol. 11(2); Vol. 11(3).
  • Turnipseed, E.B. 2003. SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory-Varietal Verification or Identification using Electrophoresis Testing. Revised Bulletin.
  • Turnipseed, E.B. 2003. SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory-Testing and Fee Schedule. Revised Bulletin.
  • Turnipseed, E.B. 2003. A Pictorial Guide to Selected Crop and Weed Seeds. Published by SDSU Seed Testing Lab. (41 page book)


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 8,591 samples in 2002: Service Samples - 4,741; Department of Agriculture Regulatory - 306; Variety Identification - 1,380; Seed Certification - 1,464; Research - 700. Approximately 18,398 tests of purity analyses, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, and electrophoresis were conducted. Staff consisted of five permanent and 10-20 part-time analysts. The lab continued electrophoresis testing for the Minnesota Crop Improvement Association as in the past. The lab has and continues to assist with several undergraduate/graduate/faculty research projects and has provided testing and seed identification assistance to numerous other faculty/clients/students upon requests. Four permanent staff members and one part-time analyst attended the AOSA/SCST convention held in Sioux Falls, SD. One graduate student specializing in seed testing/research graduated in May, and now manages the Wisconsin Crop Improvement Testing Lab. The SDSU Seed Lab prepared over 900 seed analysis samples for the Chicago and Kansas City National Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Three AOSA and SAM referee tests were participated in 2002. On-going lab research includes: development of electrophoresis testing protocols, determining optimum germination test conditions for native species; coleorhizal characteristics of Poa species (jointly with Dr. Arvid Boe), germination testing of Euphorbia esula (jointly with Biology graduate student), and development of a Roundup Ready protocol for wheat. The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed information, seed samples for faculty research, or to Ag and schoolteachers, and provided over 15 tours for various groups. The lab also hires students (part-time) and provides hand-on training in seed testing.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 4,000 farmers, and over 350 seed companies, the SDCIA, MNCIA, WSCIA, and the South Dakota Department of Ag. The lab also provides training, assistance, and resources to students, graduate students and other faculty.

Publications

  • Turnipseed, E.B., and Pollmann, R.J. Editors. 2002. SDSU Seed News. Vol. 10(1); Vol. 10(2); Vol. 10(3); Vol. 10(4).
  • Boe, A. and Turnipseed, E.B. 2002. Comparative Morphology of the Coleorhizas of Sideoats and Blue Grama. Abstract. The Seed Technologist Newsletter. Vol. 76(2):21.


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 9778 samples in 2001: Service Samples - 6156; SD Dept. of Ag. Regulatory - 274; Variety identification - 1194; Seed Certification - 1654; Research - 500. Approximately 20,940 tests were conducted including purity, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, and electrophoresis analyses. Staff consisted of 5 permanent and 10-20 part-time analysts. The lab continued electrophoretic testing for the MN Crop Improvement Association as in the past. The lab has and continues to assist with several graduate student research projects, and has provided testing and seed identification assistance to numerous other faculty/clients/students upon requests. Two lab employees attended and became Registered Seed Technologists at the national AOSA/SCST annual convention held in NM. Two employees attended a one-week Federal Seed School held in MN. One employee/grad. student attended a weeklong TZ workshop/SAM meeting, held in MN. The SDSU lab prepared over 900 seed analysis samples for the Chicago and Kansas City National Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Three AOSA and SAM referee tests were participated on in 1999. On-going lab research includes: development of electrophoresis testing protocols for varietal identification/verification in grass seed species, barley, and soybeans; determining optimum germination test conditions for native species; coleorhizal characteristics of Poa species (jointly with Dr. Arvid Boe); and work on methods to break dormancy in cereals and selected native grasses (graduate student - Heidi Larson). The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed identification, samples of seeds to Ag and schoolteachers, and provided over 15 tours for various groups.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides fast, reliable, unbiased seed testing results to over 3500 farmers, over 300 seed companies, the SDCIA and The SD Dept. of Ag. The lab also provides training, assistance, and resources to students, graduate students, and other faculty.

Publications

  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2001. Portion of Appendix - "Seed Testing Vendors". Seed Technologist Training Manual. Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. pp. A11 - 14
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B., Editor. 2001. Seed Analysts of the Midwest (SAM) Newsletter. April, 2001 Issue.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2001. SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory - Varietal Verification or Identification Using Electrophoresis Testing. Revised Bulletin.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2001. SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory Testing and Fee Bulletin. Revised Bulletin.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2001. Seed Testing Lab. Farm and Home Research. Vol. 52, No. 1
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2001. Soybean Seed Quality. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 9(1): 7-8
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2001. Two Registered Seed Technologists in SDSU Seed Lab. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol.9(2): 6
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. and R.J. POLLMANN, Editors. 2001. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 9(1); Vol. 9(2); Vol. 9(3).
  • McDONALD, M.B., T. GUTORMSON, and B. TURNIPSEED. 2001. Seed Technologist Training Manual. Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. 435 pages.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2001. Portion of Chapter 14 - "Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE), Isoelectric Focusing and Blotting Following Electrophoresis". Seed Technologist Training Manual. Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. pp. 14-47 to 14-62
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2001. Portion of Chapter 1 - "Lab Safety". Seed Technologist Training Manual. Society of Commercial Seed Technologists. pp. 1-12 to 1-14


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 10,182 samples in 2000: Service samples - 6647; SD Dept. of Ag. Regulatory - 251; Variety Identification - 944; Seed Certification - 1540; Research - 800. Approximately 21,805 tests were conducted including purity, noxious, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor and electrophoresis tests. Staff consisted of 5 permanent and 10-20 part-time student analysts. The lab continued electrophoretic testing for the MN Crop Improv. Assn. as in the past. The lab continues to assist with several graduate student research projects, and has provided testing and seed identification assistance to faculty/clients/students upon request. The lab manager attended the annual AOSA/SCST Convention, chairing the AOSA Education Committee. The SDSU Seed Lab hosted the August Seed Analysts of the Midwest (SAM) meeting, with 20 attendees. The lab prepared 900 seed analysis samples for the Chicago and Kansas City National Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Four AOSA and SAM referee tests were participated on in 2000. On-going lab research includes continued development of electrophoresis testing protocols, determination of optimum germination test conditions for native species, coleorhizal studies (jointly with Dr. A. Boe), and work on breaking cereal and native grass seed dormancy (graduate student - H. Larson). The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed identification to clients and SAM participants, sent seed samples/germination paper to K1-12 students and schoolteacher, and provided over 15 tours for groups and individuals.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides fast, reliable, unbiased seed test results to over 3500 farmers, over 300 companies, the SDCIA, and the SD Dept. of Agriculture. The Lab is one of the few in the country to hire and extensively train college student analysts in seed testing.

Publications

  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. and R.J. POLLMANN, Editors. 2000. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 8(1); Vol.8(2); Vol. 8(3).
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2000. SDSU Seed Testing Lab Testing and Fee Bulletin. Revised Bulletin.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 2000. Seed Analysts of the Midwest (SAM) Newsletter. July, 2000 Issue.
  • MCDONALD, M.B., T.J. GUTORMSON, E.B. TURNIPSEED, Editors. 2000. Draft, SCST Seed Technologist Training Manual. Expected print date - 2001.
  • HAKIZIMANA,F., S.D. HALEY, E.B. TURNIPSEED. 2000. Repeatability and genotype x environment interaction of coleoptile length measurements in winter wheat. Crop Sci. 40:1223-1237.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 9944 samples in 1999: Service Samples - 6300; SD Dept. of Ag. Regulatory - 228; Variety identification - 1241; Seed Certification - 1675; Research - 500. Approximately 21,295 tests were conducted including purity, noxious exams, germination, tetrazolium, herbicide trait, vigor tests, and electrophoresis analyses. Staff consisted of 5 permanent and 10-20 part-time analysts. The lab continued electrophoretic testing for the MN Crop Improvement Association as in the past. The lab has and continues to assist with several graduate student research projects, and has provided testing and seed identification assistance to numerous other faculty/clients/students upon requests. Two lab employees attended and presented a poster paper and talk at the national Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA) annual convention held in NE. Two employees attended a one-week Federal Seed School held in MN. Two employees also attended and presented hands-on training at the Seed Analysts of the Midwest (SAM) meeting, also held in MN. The SDSU lab prepared over 800 seed analysis samples for the Chicago and Kansas City National Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Five AOSA and SAM referee tests were participated on in 1999. On-going lab research includes: development of electrophoresis testing protocols for varietal identification/verification in grass seed species, barley, and soybeans; determining optimum germination test conditions for native species; coleorhizal characteristics of Poa species (jointly with Dr. Arvid Boe); and work on methods to break dormancy in cereals and selected native grasses (graduate student - Heidi Larson). The lab also provided numerous handouts on seed identification, samples of seeds to Ag and schoolteachers, and provided over 15 tours for various groups.

Impacts
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab provides fast, reliable, unbiased seed test results to over 3500 farmers, 300 seed companies, the SDCIA, and the SD Department of Agriculture.

Publications

  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. and R.J. POLLMANN, Editors. 1999. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 7(1); Vol. 7(2); Vol. 7(3).
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1999. SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory - Varietal Verification or Identification Using Electrophoresis Testing. Revised Bulletin.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B., Editor. 1999. Seed Analysts of the Midwest (SAM) Newsletter. July, 1999 Issue.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1999. Chapter - "Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)". Draft, SCST Seed Technologist Training Manual.
  • BOE, A., and E.B. TURNIPSEED. 1999. Abstract - "Morphology of the Coleorhiza". AOSA/SCST - The Seed Technologist Newsletter. Vol. 73(2):30.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 9452 samples in 1998: Service samples - 5658; SD Dept. of Ag. - 264; Electrophoresis samples - 1302; Seed Certification samples - 1828; Research samples - 400. Approximately 20,241 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weed exams tetrazolium tests, soybean, sunflower and corn vigor tests, and electrophoretic analyses. Seed lab staff consisted of 4.5 permanent and 16 part-time student employees. The agreement with the MN Crop Improvement Association for the SDSU lab to perform electrophoretic testing on their seed lots continued during 1998 and into 1999. The lab has assisted with several graduate student research projects which are still on going and has provided testing and seed identification assistance to numerous other faculty/students upon requests. Two lab employees attended and participated in the national Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA) annual convention in Bosie, Idaho. Two Seed Analysts of the Midwest (SAM) meetings were attended by lab personnel, and the lab manager provided expertise and seminars at a one-week seed analyst training school in Brookings, SD. The SDSU lab made over 800 seed analysis samples for the Chicago and Kansas City National Collegiate Crops Judging Contests. Five AOSA and SAM referee tests were participated on in 1998. Technical and training assistance was provided to the Albanian National Seed Institute, Tirana, Albania, on electrophoresis testing. On-going lab research includes: development of electrophoresis testing protocols for varietal identification/verification in grass seed species, barley, and soybeans; determining optimum germination test conditions on native grass species; and selected grass seedling structure characterization and descriptions.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Owens, V., and Turnipseed, E.B. 1998. Planting Grasses and Small Seeded Legumes - Seedbed Preparation, Planting Depths, Seed Rates. Informational Bulletin (at present).
  • Turnipseed, E.B. 1998. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. SDSU Seed Lab Paper - Prepared and utilized in the Summer Seed Analysts Training Workshop.
  • Turnipseed, E.B. 1998. SDSU Seed Testing Laboratory - Varietal Verification or Identification Using Electrophoresis. SDSU Seed Lab Informational/Fee Schedule.
  • Turnipseed, E.B. and Pollmann, R.J., Editors. 1998. SDSU Seed News. Vol. 6(1); Vol. 6(2); Vol. 6(3); Vol. 6(4) (November).
  • Turnipseed, E.B. 1998. Setup, Calibration, and Operation of the Albanian Electrophoresis Program for Crop Varietal Identification/Verification and Cataloguing of Germplasm - Phase II. A report submitted to MSU/USAID/IFDC. 55 pages.
  • Turnipseed, E.B., Owens, V., and Pollmann, R.J. 1998. Pure Live Seed - Calculation and Costs. Informational Bulletin (at present).


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 9223 samples in 1997: Service samples - 5357; SD Dept. of Ag. - 218; Varietal identification - 1230; Seed Certification - 1918; Research - 500. Approximately 19,751 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weed exams, TZ tests, soybean and corn vigor tests, and electrophoretic analyses. Staff consists of 4.5 permanent and 16 part-time staff. The agreement with MN Crop Improvement for the lab to perform electrophoretic varietal id/verification on their registered and certified seed lots continued during the 1997-98 testing season. The Lab has assisted with several graduate student research projects which are still ongoing and has provided testing assistance to numerous other faculty/students upon request. Development of color photo sets of SD 4-H and FFA contest seed lists were started, with completion to be in 1998. The lab also made up >900 seed analysis samples for The Chicago and Kansas City National Crops Judging Contests. Five AOSA and SAM referee tests were completed. Technical and training assistance was provided to the Albanian National Seed Institute, Tirana, Albania, on electrophoresis testing.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. and POLLMANN, R.J., Editors. 1997. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 5(1); Vol. 5(2); Vol. 5(3); Vol. 5(4).
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1997. Setup, Calibration and Operation of the Albanian Electrophoresis Program for Crop Varietal Identification/Verification and Cataloguing of Germplasm - Phase I. Report to Miss. State Univ./IFDC/USAID. 50p.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1997. White Mold (Sclerotinia) in Soybeans. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 5(4):2.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1997. Seed Counts in Cereals and Soybeans. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 5(4):6.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1997. Timely Tips - Test Winter Wheat Samples Now. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 5(3):3.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1997. Sclerotinia (White Mold) in Soybeans. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 5(2):7.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1997. 1997 Planting Seed Quality. SDSU SEED NEWS.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B., Editor. 1997. Seed Analysts of the Midwest (SAM) Newsletter. Spring 1997, and August 1997 Issues.


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 8600 samples in 1996: Service samples - 5476; SD Dept. of Ag - 227; Varietal identification - 664; Seed Certification - 1733; Research - 500. Approximately 18,417 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weed exams, TZ tests, soybean and corn vigor tests, and electrophoretic analyses. Staff consists of 4 permanent and 12 part-time staff. The agreement with MN Crop Improvement for the lab to perform electrophoretic varietal id/verification on their registered and certified seed lots continued during the 1996-97 testing season. The Lab has assisted with 6 graduate student research projects which are still ongoing and has provided testing assistance to numerous other faculty/students upon requests. Color photo sets of surrounding states' noxious weed seed list were developed. The lab also made up 900 seed analysis samples for the Chicago and Kansas City National Crops Judging Contests. Five AOSA and SAM sanctioned referees were completed.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. and POLLMANN, R.J. 1996. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 4(1); Vol. 4(2); Vol. 4(3); Vol. 4(4).
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1996. Soybean Seed Quality. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 4(3):7.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1996. Test Winter Wheat Samples Now. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 4(3):2.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1996. Soybean Seed Quality. Nebraska Seed Focus (Newsletter). page 3.
  • TURNIPSEED, E.B. 1996. Frost Damage in Soybeans - How will it affect your seed quality. SDSU SEED NEWS. Vol. 4(2):3.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
The SDSU Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 8142 samples in 1995: Service samples - 5496; SD Dept. of Ag - 79; Varietal identification - 332; Seed Certification - 1885; Research - 350. Approximately 17,436 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weed exams, TZ tests, soybean and corn vigor tests, and electrophoretic analyses. Staff consists of 4 permanent and 14 part-time staff. The SDSU Seed Testing Lab hosted the May meeting of the SAM group, presenting 5 talks/workshops on using electrophoresis in varietal id, and on seed identification. An agreement was reached with MN Crop Improvement for the Lab to perform electrophoretic varietal id/ verification on their registered and certified seed lots during the 1995-96 testing season. A final report on the two-year project "Preventing the distribution of viable noxious weed seeds from grain screen screenings" was submitted to the SD Dept. of Ag - Weed and Pest control in Feb. The Lab has assisted with 4 graduate student research projects which are still ongoing and has provided testing assistance to numerous other faculty/students upon request. A workshop on electrophoresis for a high school Vo-Ag teacher and student was conducted. A workshop on detecting mechanical damage in soybeans was provided for one seed company. A color photo set of SD noxious weed seeds was developed by request for sale to interested parties. Four AOSA sanctioned referees were completed.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

    Outputs
    The Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 9626 samples in 1994: Service samples -6383; SD Dept of Ag - 227; Varietal identification - 598; Seed Certification - 1918; SDSU research samples - 500. Approximately 20,614 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weed exams, TZ tests, soybean and corn vigor tests, and electrophoretic analyses. Staff consists of 5 permanent and 13 part-time staff. Three staff attended the May meeting of SAM in St. Paul, MN, presenting talks and workshops on noxious weed seed identification of the SAM states, and Solanum seed identification. Two staff members attended the AOSA/SCST National Convention in Portland, OR, in June. One staff member traveled to Canada for the August meeting of SAM to learn more about Canadian testing procedures. A variety trial of 19 millet varieties was planted and harvested (1994) to evaluate seed yield, forage yield, and protein content of forage (coop with E. Twidwell, ext. forage specialist). A two year research project (coop with S.A. Clay, weed scientist) on Grain Screenings/Weed Seed Viability ended in July. Writing of the final report is still underway. Four AOSA sanctioned referees were completed. In-house research on breaking dormancy in foxtail millet varieties, germination of bulrush seed, testing procedures for scabby wheatgrass seed, and assistance with two graduate student research projects has been completed or on-going.

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

      Outputs
      The Seed Testing Lab analyzed a total of 9749 samples in 1993: Service samples -6465, SD Dept of Ag - 342, Varietal identification - 157, Seed Certification - 2275, SDSU Research samples - 500. Approximately 21,487 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weed exams, tetrazolium, corn cold tests, soybean accelerated aging, and electrophoresis analyses. Lab currently employs 4 permanent and 15 part-time staff. Three staff attended the May meeting of SAM in St Paul, MN, presenting talks on Don Oat Dormancy and Seed Photography. Two staff attended the AOSA/SCST National Convention in Ft Collins, CO, in June. A variety trial of 18 millet varieties was planted and harvested (1993) to evaluate seed yield, forage yield and protein content of forage (coop with E. Twidwell, extension forage specialist). A two year coop research project (with S. Clay, weed scientist) on Grain Screenings/Weed Seed Viability has progressed significantly, funded by the SD Dept. of Ag - Weed and Pest Commission. Grain screenings have been analyzed for weed content and counts; optimum germination temperatures have been identified for many weeds of concern. Three AOSA sanctioned referees were completed. In-house research projects on best methods of germinating scabby wheat seed lots have been completed and ways to reduce Fusarium growth and better evaluate results have been identified. The Seed Lab now offers treated (Vitavax 200) germinations on cereal crops to provide potential treated germination results.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

        Outputs
        The Seed Testing Laboratory analyzed the following number of samples during 1992: Service samples - 5831, Seed Certification samples - 2197, State Dept. of Ag samples - 330, SDSU Research samples - 500 and Varietal Identification samples - 90, for a total of 8948. Approximately 19,722 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weed exams, tetrazolium, cold tests, soybean accelerated aging, and electrophoresis analysis. A total of 4 permanent and 15 part-time staff are presently employed by the lab. Three staff members attended the May meeting of SAM, in Prescott, WI, presenting a talk on Silene/Lychnis seed identification. A variety trial plot of 17 millet varieties (8 proso, 8 foxtail, and 1 pearl) was planted and harvested (summer 1992) to evaluate seed yield, forage yield and protein content of forage (in cooperation with forage specialist, Ed Twidwell); evaluation in progress. A two year research project on "Grain Screenings - Weed Seed Viability" was jointly undertaken with Sharon Clay (weed scientist) and financed by the S. D. Department of Ag - Weed and Pest Commission. Five AOSA-sanctioned referees were completed. A complete set of hand testing screens were purchased for teaching, lab use, research, and extension use.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

          Outputs
          Approximately 19,308 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxiousweed exams, tetrazolium, cold tests, soybean accelerated aging, and electrophoresis analysis. Total sample numbers decreased by 10% from 1990. A total of 6 permanent and 12 part-time persons are presently employed at the lab. Varietal testing continues to expand its services with millet varietal identification commercially performed as of January 2. Soybean varietal identification is under procedural improvements. Alfalfa, ryegrass, and tall fescue are under investigation to ascertain if varietal separation can be accomplished using current equipment and procedures. Two staff members from the laboratory attended the May meeting of SAM in St. Paul, MN, the Federal Seed School (May) in Manhattan, KS, and the annual AOSA-SCST meeting in Lexington, KY. The SDSU Seed Lab hosted and gave 5 presentations at the August SAM meeting. A field plot growout of "Strain R" and "Golden" German foxtail millet varieties were planted and evaluated. Five AOSA-sanctioned referees were completed. No new pieces of equipment were brought on line in 1991.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

            Outputs
            The Seed Testing Laboratory analyzed the following number of samples during 1990: Service samples 6,211; Seed Certification samples 2,084; State Dept. of Agriculture samples 24; Foundation Seed samples 154; SDSU Research samples 866; Varietal Identification samples 165; TOTAL 9,725. Approximately 21,454 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weeds, tetrazolium, cold test, soybean accelerated aging, and electrophoresis analysis. Total sample numbers decreased by 25% from 1989. A total of 6 permanent and 17 part-time persons are presently employed at the lab. Varietal testing is continuing to expand. Soybean varietal identification is commercially performed as of November 1 and has expanded our identification potential. Millet; alfalfa, barley, and durum wheat are being investigated to ascertain if varietal separation can be accomplished. Three staff members from the laboratory attended the May meeting of SAM in Bemidji, MN. Two staff members attended the annual AOSA-SCST meeting in Annapolis, MD. Three staff members attended and gave presentations at the August meeting of SAM in St. Paul, MN. One staff member attended the International Electrophoresis Symposium held at Iowa State University in August. Two staff members received their certificatio as Official Seed Analysts (one germination, one purity) by the AOSA. Three AOSA-sanctioned referees were completed. No new pieces of equipment were brought on line in 1990.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/89 to 12/30/89

              Outputs
              The Seed Testing Laboratory analyzed samples during the calendar year 1989. Approximately 32,908 tests were conducted including purity, germination, noxious weeds, tetrazolium, cold test, soybean accelerated aging, and electrophoresis analysis. Total sample numbers decreased by 8.1% from 1988. A total of 6 permanent and 20 part-time persons are presntly employed at the lab. Varietal testing utilizing electrophoresis has expanded. An Iso-Electric Focusing (IEF) unit was purchased and is being used to perform wheat identification. IEF will double our capacity while holding costs constant. Band differentiation is also improved. Five staff members from the laboratory attended the August meeting of S.A.M. in Fargo, ND. Five staff members attended the Federal Seed School hosted by the University of Minnesota (Minnesota Crop Improvement Laboratory). Three staff members attended the annual A.O.S.A.-S.C.S.T. meeting and soybean workshop in Peoria, IL. The Seed Laboratory brought into service a thermo-gradient plate, fume hood, accelerated aging chamber, growth chamber, and an iso-electric focusing unit. Computer networking is still underway. Authorization was issued for construction of a walk-in germinator to be completed in 1990.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

                Outputs
                The Seed Testing Laboratory analyzed the following numbers of samples during thecalendar year 1988: Service samples-11,267; Seed Certification samples-2,191; State Dept. of Agriculture samples-120; Foundation Seed-192; SDSU research samples-341; Total--14,111. Approximately 35,750 tests were conducted, including purity, gernimation, noxious weed, tetrazolium, cold test and soybean accelerated aging analyses. Total sample numbers increased by 63% from 1987. The number of service samples was the highest in the laboratory history. A total of 114 species from 16 different states were tested. A total of 61 students received training in seed analysis. The electrophoresis testing laboratory conducted 925 cultivar purity tests on wheat and oats from six different states. The lab hosted a 2-day school for Seed Analysts of the Midwest (S.A.M.) in May. Four staff members from the laboratory attended the August meeting of the S.A.M. in Prescott, WI. One staff member attended a Federal Seed School in July hosted by the Iowa State Seed Laboratory. Two staff members attended the Annual A.O.S.A.-S.C.S.T. meeting in Rochester, NY. The seed laboratory converted to digital scales, remodeled purity and storage facilities, revised computer program and purchased two new computers. Networking our computer system is presently underway to increase efficiency.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                  Outputs
                  The Seed Testing Laboratory analyzed samples during the calendar year 1987: Approximately 20,527 tests were conducted including purity analysis, germination, noxious exams, Tetrazolium, cold tests, and soybean accelerated aging tests. Total samples increased by 17% from 1986. The number of Service samples was the highest in the last 30 years. A total of 30 students received training in seed testing. A new graduate student started work on varietal purity testing of wheat cultivars. Laboratory studies continued on developing climax blowing points for switchgrass and reed canarygrass purities. A rule proposal was submitted to the Association of Official Seed Analysts to change the germination testing procedure for green needlegrass. The Seed Testing Lab participated in 5 referees on purity and germination testing. The Seed Laboratory Director presented three separate seminars on seed technology to farmers, seedsmen and seed trade members.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/86 to 12/30/86

                    Outputs
                    Approximately 15,250 tests were conducted including purity analysis, germination, noxious exams, Tetrazolium, cold tests, and soybean accelerated aging tests. Total samples tested decreased by 7% from 1985. A total of 19 students received training in seed testing. A graduate student continued work on shortening Green Needlegrass germination testing length. Laboratory studies were initiated on determining climax blowing points for switchgrass and reed canarygrass. The Seed Laboratory hosted a Federal Seed School with 12 participants. Two analysts took the A.O.S.A. Analyst Accreditation test and one analyst was accreditated. The process of reporting interim results on purity and noxious tests was implemented. A new test was offered to determine sweetclover varietal purity. Varietal purity testing on wheat cultivars will be adopted as a standard test in the fall of 1987. The Seed Laboratory conducted interstate referees on Creedping Foxtail germination and Green Needlegrass germination. The Seed Laboratory Director presented three separate seminars on seed technology to farmers, seedsmen, and seed trade members.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                      Outputs
                      Approximately 16,500 tests were conducted including purity analysis, germination, noxious, TZ, cold tests, and accelerated aging. Total samples tested decreased by 2% from the record year of 1984. A total of 18 students received training in seed testing. A graduate student continued work on shortenig Green Needlegrass germination testing length. Two lab employees attended a Federal Seed School. Seed testing lab implemented a computer to process service samples. Three students who received training were hired by seed companies to conduct seed analysis work. The seed lab conducted a coated alfalfa seed referee for the S.A.M. organization.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                        Outputs
                        The Seed Testing Laboratory tested the following number of samples during calendar year 1984: Service Samples 5,616, Seed Certification Samples 2,125, State Dept. of Agriculture Samples 513. Approximately 16,000 tests were conducted including purity analysis, germination, noxious, TZ, cold tests and accelerated aging. Total samples tested were the largest in recent years. A total of 20 students received training in seed testing. A graduate student initiated research on germination testing of soybeans. Two lab employees attended a seed testing workshop.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                          Outputs
                          The Seed Laboratory analyzed the following number of samples during calendar year 1983: Seed Samples, Seed Certification Samples, State Dept. of Ag Samples. Including purity analysis, germination, noxious, TZ tests, cold tests, and accelerated aging tests, approximately 14,500 tests were conducted. Service samples increased by 64% over the previous year with minor increases in Dept. of Ag and Certification samples. A total of 17 students received training in seed technology and testing. A graduate research assistant completed work on the genetic and environmental effects on fluorescence of oats. Twenty analysts attended a Federal Seed School sponsored by the lab in May.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                            Outputs
                            The Seed Laboratory analyzed the following number of samples during calendar year 1982: Including purity analysis, germination, noxious, and T-tests, approximately 12,000 tests were conducted. A total of 18 students received training in seed technology and testing. A graduate research assistant continued work on the genetic and environmental effects on fluorescence of oats.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                              Outputs
                              The seed laboratory analyzed the following number of samples during the period: Service samples - 3418, Seed Certification - 1654, State Dept. of Ag 410, and Other 358 for a total of 5840. Grow-out tests were completed on 275 oat seed lots comprising 41 cultivars. Ten seed lots were found to be mislabeled. Hydration of soybean seed lots before germinating is now a standard procedure since it was found that differential swelling during initial imbibition does cause cotyledon breakage. Work continues on improving techniques for tetrazolium testing of sand lovegrass and sand dropseed seeds. A graduate research assistantship was created and a graduate student employed to investigate genetic and environmental effects on the fluorescence of oats.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                                Outputs
                                The Seed Testing Laboratory analyzed the following samples during this period: Service Samples - 3501, Seed Certification - 1984, State Department of Agriculture - 522, and Research - 300. This has included a large increase in special tests such as tetrazolium tests, chaffy grasses like Garrison creeping foxtail and specialty seeds such as sand dropseed and sand lovegrass. Research in 1980 included soybean preplant hydration, tetrazolium testing on many species, and purity techniques on chaffy grasses and projected research is being undertaken to develop viable seed count reporting methods and vigor testing of small seeded legumes. Hydration of very dry soybean seeds prior to planting on wet blotters has proven to very desirable and will be included as a standard Seed Lab testing rule in the near future. Tetrazolium test research has included a new seed embryo exposure method that can be used for many common grasses and development of methods for sand lovegrass and Garrison creeping foxtail. Chaffy grass furity testing has proven to be more accurate and efficient if the analyst incorporates a novel reverse blowing method.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                                  Outputs
                                  The Seed Testing Laboratory of the Agricultural Experiment Station tested more than 6,000 seed samples in this period. They include from one to four separate seed analysis procedures on each of the following: Service Samples 4019 Seed Certification Samples 1465 State Department of Agriculture Samples 489 Research and Referee Samples 175 6148 Ongoing research has mainly involved improvement in seed testing procedures and work with seed related problems. The major findings not previously reported are: (1) development of an improved method of tetrazolium testing for grasses and cereal crops, (2) use of preplant hydration to improve germination and accelerate aging tests for soybeans, (3) cooperative research which has resulted in the inclusion of dormant seed in germination labeling of range grasses, (4) alteration of germination test procedures for alfalfa, sweetclover, and durum to eliminate losses from secondary infection due to microorganisms, and (5) refinement of purity analysis methods for bluegrass and chaffy grasses.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                    Outputs
                                    The Seed Testing Laboratory of the Agricultural Experiment Station tested samples form the following sources: Service samples 3647, Certification samples 1445, State Dept. of Ag Samples 457, Research 202. Regional research projects on side-oats grama and little bluestem were completed in April and a similar project was initiated on indiangrass in November.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/75 to 12/30/75

                                      Outputs
                                      The Seed Testing Laboratory of the Agricultural Experiment Station tested seed samples from the following sources: Service samples, 5097; Certification samples, 1501; State Dept. of Ag. samples, 384; Research, 286; total: 7268.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                        Outputs
                                        The Seed Testing Laboratory of the Agricultural Experiment Station tested seed samples from the following sources: Service samples 4287 Certification samples 1482 State Dept. of Ag. Samples 362 Research 55 Total 6184; The laboratory is supporting two graduate research assistantships in Seed Technology - one of which is presently open. One Master's degree research problem was completed within the past year. Work is continuing on the Garrison Creeping Meadow foxtail and should be completed within the next

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/73 to 06/30/73

                                          Outputs
                                          The Seed Testing Laboratory of the Agricultural Experiment Station tests seed samples from four sources: Service samples 3576 Certification & Foundation 1553 State Dept. of Agriculture 434 Research (estimated) 475 Total 6038. The laboratory supports two graduate research assistantships in seed technology. Two master's degree research projects were completed during the year June 30, 1972 to June 30, 1973, and one special project "Western Wheatgrass-Effect of storage on germination and dormant seed" was completed. A manuscript is being written on the latter project.

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                            Outputs
                                            Seed Testing work in the past year is as follows: Service samples Samples received from farmers, seed companies, etc. 4586; Certification samples: Seed from fields that passed field inspection for certification 1251; Official samples: Samples collected by Dept. of Agriculture inspectors 361; Total samples 5247. Not reflected in the above statistics is the big increase in grass seed samples with a slight decrease in small grain (cereal) seed samples. The two inservice research projects using Laboratory funds and personnel were continued. A paper is being prepared on the Garrison Creeping Foxtail study.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                              Outputs
                                              A total of 5,245 seed samples were tested during the past year. This total may be broken down into three groupings: 3,635 Service samples (farmers, seed companies, etc.), 1,251 Certification samples, and 359 State Department of Agriculture official inspection samples. Of the official samples 12.5% were found to be mislabeled. Two research projects are being conducted with laboratory funds and personnel: (1) Methods of breaking seed dormancy in western wheatgrass, Agropyron Smithii and (2) Physiological maturity of seed of Garrison Creeping Meadow Foxtail, Alopecurus Arundinaceus.

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/69 to 12/30/69

                                                Outputs
                                                The Seed Testing Laboratory last year tested 3,730 service samples, 1,142 certification samples, 350 Dept. of Agr. samples and 450 drill box survey samples for a total of 5,672 samples. A drill box survey was conducted to ascertain the quality of spring planted small grains and flax. 450 samples werecollected in 23 counties in the eastern half of South Dakota. The summaries have been completed and a publication on the results is being prepared.

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications


                                                  Progress 01/01/68 to 12/30/68

                                                  Outputs
                                                  The Seed Testing Laboratory last year tested: Service Samples 4361; Certified Samples 1356; Official Samples 446; Total Samples 6163. Kentucky bluegrass seedsamples and lawn seed mixture samples tested increased from 18% the year previous to 48% last year. Investigation continues with western wheatgrass seeddormancy. A method of increasing actual germination by cutting the tip of the caryopsis is being pursued with the hope of recommending it as an alternative method of germinating western wheatgrass to be included in the Association of Official Seed Analyst Rules.

                                                  Impacts
                                                  (N/A)

                                                  Publications


                                                    Progress 01/01/67 to 12/30/67

                                                    Outputs
                                                    The Seed Testing Laboratory tested 40% more certified seed samples this year than the previous year. There has been an increase in grass seed samples received in the laboratory with a corresponding reduction of sweetclover and alfalfa seed samples. Grass seed samples showing the greatest increase are Intermediate wheatgrass and Kentucky bluegrass. A total of 5605 samples were tested this year. The quick color viability test (TZ or tetrazolium) is being requested by seedsmen more and more. This test - usually completed in 24 hours - indicates by a color change of the germ if the germ is alive or not. It is expensive ($6.00) but provides a quick estimate of seed viability for which the seedsmen apparently are willing to pay. Investigation in the problem of seed dormancy in western wheatgrass continues.

                                                    Impacts
                                                    (N/A)

                                                    Publications