Source: CORNELL UNIVERSITY submitted to
COOPERATIVE SOIL SURVEY OF NEW YORK STATE
Sponsoring Institution
State Agricultural Experiment Station
Project Status
TERMINATED
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
0007702
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
NYC-125303
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 1997
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2009
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
DeGloria, S. D.
Recipient Organization
CORNELL UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
ITHACA,NY 14853
Performing Department
CROP & SOIL SCIENCES
Non Technical Summary
(N/A)
Animal Health Component
100%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
100%
Developmental
(N/A)
Classification

Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
10101102061100%
Knowledge Area
101 - Appraisal of Soil Resources;

Subject Of Investigation
0110 - Soil;

Field Of Science
2061 - Pedology;
Goals / Objectives
To provide State leadership in the National Cooperative Soil Survey in New York; to develop and maintain technical expertise in the generation, manipulation, utilization and distribution of digital spatial data; to address soil information needs for the predominantly urban population of New York.
Project Methods
Provide Technical assistance and training in support of current soil surveys; investigate new GIS tools for development and use of digital soil survey data; investigate the interactions between urban land used and soil in urban environments.

Progress 10/01/08 to 09/30/09

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research during 2009 focused on field- and laboratory-based assessments of soil properties for soil survey and soil interpretations for land management programs in a variety of agronomic systems. This project has supported contributions to ongoing, periodic soil survey field reviews in Allegany, Cortland, Franklin, Lewis, Ontario, and Yates Counties. All project-supported research required the use of soil resource inventory data integrated with other biophysical data within the context of a soil geo-spatial information system. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the National Cooperative Soil Survey representing units of local, state, and federal government, private consultants, and faculty, staff, and students associated with the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. TARGET AUDIENCES: Users of soil survey information for land management and planning, conservation of agronomic and natural resources, and assessment of conservation practices and priorities. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Project modifications include more emphasis on proximal sensing of soil properties using visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, digital and predictive soil mapping, and spatial and spectral modeling of agronomic and environmental processes.

Impacts
Development and use of advanced soil survey and soil information systems has enhanced agro-environmental assessments and decision support for sustainable land management. Improved analysis and assessment tools have improved knowledge and understanding of soil properties, methods for digital and predictive soil mapping, and impacts of land management activities on soil processes.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/07 to 09/30/08

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research during 2008 focused on field- and laboratory-based assessments of soil properties for soil survey and soil interpretations for land management programs in a variety of agronomic systems. This project has supported contributions to ongoing, periodic soil survey field reviews in Allegany, Cortland, Ontario, and Yates Counties. All project-supported research required the use of soil resource inventory data integrated with other edaphic factor spatial data within the context of a soil geo-spatial information system. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the National Cooperative Soil Survey representing units of local, state, and federal government. TARGET AUDIENCES: Users of soil survey information for land management and planning, conservation of agronomic and natural resources, and assessment of conservation practices. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Project modifications include more emphasis on proximal sensing of soil properties using visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, digital and predictive soil mapping, and spatial and spectral modeling.

Impacts
Development and use of advanced soil survey and soil information systems has enhanced agro-environmental assessments and decision support for sustainable land management. Improved analysis and assessment tools have improved knowledge and understanding of soil properties, methods for digital and predictive soil mapping, and impacts of land management activities on soil processes.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 10/01/06 to 09/30/07

Outputs
OUTPUTS: Research during 2007 has focused on field- and laboratory-based assessments of soil properties for soil survey and soil interpretations for land management programs in a variety of agronomic systems. This project has supported research at Cornell University focusing on: (1) proximal sensing using visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for assessing soil properties in temperate and sub-tropical environments, (2) proximal, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of soil reflectance as a function of long-term tillage practices, and (3) contributions to ongoing, periodic soil survey field reviews in Allegany, Cortland, Ontario, and Yates Counties. All project-supported research required the use of soil resource inventory data integrated with other edaphic factor spatial data within the context of a soil geo-spatial information system. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the National Cooperative Soil Survey representing units of local, state, and federal government. TARGET AUDIENCES: Users of soil survey information for land management and planning, conservation of agronomic and natural resources, and assessment of conservation practices. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Project modifications include more emphasis on proximal sensing of soil properties using visible-near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, digital and predictive soil mapping, and spatial and spectral modeling.

Impacts
Development and use of advanced soil survey and soil information systems has enhanced agro-environmental assessments and decision support for sustainable land management. Improved analysis and assessment tools have improved knowledge and understanding of soil properties, methods for digital and predictive soil mapping, and impacts of land management activities on soil processes.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/06 to 12/31/06

Outputs
Research during 2006 has focused on field and laboratory-based assessments of soil properties for soil survey and soil interpretations for land management programs in a variety of agronomic systems. This project has supported research at Cornell University focusing on: (1) proximal, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for assessing soil properties in semi-arid Turkey, (2) proximal, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of soil reflectance as a function of long-term tillage practices, and (3) contributions to periodic soil survey field reviews in Allegany, Cortland, Ontario, and Yates Counties. All project-supported research required the use of soil resource inventory data integrated with other edaphic factor spatial data within the context of a soil information system. The spatial analysis protocols for using these data are being developed under this project.

Impacts
Development and use of advanced soil survey and soil information systems has enhanced agro-environmental assessments and decision support for sustainable land management. Improved analysis and assessment tools have improved knowledge and understanding of soil properties and impacts of land management activities on soil processes.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/05 to 12/31/05

Outputs
Research has focused on field- laboratory based assessments of soil properties for soil survey and soil interpretations for land management programs in a variety of agronomic systems. This project has supported research at Cornell University focusing on: (1) near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for assessment of soil properties in semi-arid Turkey, (2) hyperspectral analysis of long-term tillage effects on soil reflectance, (3) siting analysis of farm-based centralized anaerobic digester systems for distributed generation using GIS, (4) spatial modeling of soil organic carbon in agricultural landscapes of western Kenya, and (4) population, conservation, and land use change in Honduras. All project-supported research required the use of soil resource inventory data integrated with other edaphic factor spatial data within the context of a soil information system. The spatial analysis protocols for using these data are being developed under this project.

Impacts
Development and use of advanced soil survey and soil information systems has enhanced agro-environmental assessments and decision support for sustainable land management. Improved analysis and assessment tools have improved knowledge and understanding of soil properties and impacts of land management activities on soil processes.

Publications

  • Bilgili, A.V., H.M. van Es, F. Akbas, A. Durak, W.D. Hively, S.D. DeGloria, and T. Owiyo. 2005. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for assessment of soil properties in semi-arid Turkey. Proc. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Ann. Mtg. Am. Soc. Agronomy. Madison, WI (Abstract).
  • Hively, W.D., H.M. van Es, R. Shindelbeck, B. Moebius, D. Grantham, T. Owiyo, W. Philpot, and S.D. DeGloria. 2005. Hyperspectral analysis of long-term tillage effects on soil reflectance. Proc. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Ann. Mtg. Am. Soc. Agronomy. Madison, WI (Abstract).
  • Ma, J., N.R. Scott, S.D.DeGloria, and A.J. Lembo, Jr. 2005. Siting analysis of farm-based centralized anaerobic digester systems for distributed generation using GIS. Biomass & Bioenergy 28:591-600.
  • Owiyo, T., K. Shepherd, M. Walsh, and S.D. DeGloria. 2005. Spatial modeling of soil organic carbon in agricultural landscapes of western Kenya. Proc. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Ann. Mtg. Am. Soc. Agronomy. Madison, WI (Abstract).
  • Pfeffer, M.J., J.W. Schelhas, S.D. DeGloria, and J. Gomez. 2005. Population, conservation, and land use change in Honduras. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 110:14-28.


Progress 01/01/04 to 12/31/04

Outputs
In collaboration with the Allegany County, New York, soil survey, research focused on using hyperspectral reflectance spectroscopy to characterize the spectral reflectance of selected soil properties, sampled by horizon, that are important to soil survey. This included participation in field soil survey activities to sample six pedons resulting in approximately 30 samples. Sub-samples were obtained, from the bulk NRCS sample for characterization, for both hyperspectral and a limited set of laboratory analyses at Cornell University. This sample and the more detailed soil chemical and physical properties to be analyzed in the national soil survey laboratory will be used to correlate hyperspectral reflectance with selected soil properties important to soil survey. In the coming year, we hope to experiment with the spectroradiometer to collect spectral data in situ, then extract samples for subsequent laboratory and statistical analyses.

Impacts
Hyperspectral sensing of soil samples will provide a low-cost alternative to direct measurements of chemical and physical properties of soils where large numbers of observations are required to accurately characterize an area or where the cost of analysis is high.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/03 to 12/31/03

Outputs
(1) Completed Delaware County digital map finishing and Seeley Creek Watershed; and (2) Initiated preparatory work on Chemung County SSURGO-level digitizing and certification and map preparatory work for St. Regis Indian Reservation digital map finishing.

Impacts
Digitally map-finished products are a prerequisite for soil survey publications which are part of national initiatives to meet public demand for natural resource data in digital, computer-compatible, format. This digital conversion of soil survey data and information allows soil and other biophysical data to be integrated for resource assessment and planning. These digital databases are replacing the current soil survey publications for use within numerous local, state, and federal agencies, and the project provides the expertise to characterize soil properties in rural and urban environments, to develop recommended procedures for site assessments requiring soil survey data, and to develop guidelines for the effective management of agricultural resources while minimizing impacts on environmental quality.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/02 to 12/31/02

Outputs
(1) Performed soil survey digitizing of Seeley Creek Watershed in Chemung County, St. Regis Mohawk Reservation, and Tuscarora Reservation from recompiled soil survey and special features data provided by USDA-NRCS; and (2) initiated digital map finishing for Otsego County and Delaware County to meet state and national standards.

Impacts
Digitally map-finished products are a prerequisite for soil survey publications which are part of national initiatives to meet public demand for natural resource data in digital, computer-compatible, format. This digital conversion of soil survey data and information allows soil and other biophysical data to be integrated for resource assessment and planning. These digital databases are replacing the current soil survey publications for use within numerous local, state, and federal agencies, and the project provides the expertise to characterize soil properties in rural and urban environments, to develop recommended procedures for site assessments requiring soil survey data, and to develop guidelines for the effective management of agricultural resources while minimizing impacts on environmental quality.

Publications

  • No publications reported this period


Progress 01/01/01 to 12/31/01

Outputs
Performed soil survey digitizing of Cortland County and digital map finishing for St. Lawrence County to meet state and national standards; developed, coordinated, and delivered SSURGO-level digital soil survey data to multitudes of stakeholders; contributed soil survey and information system knowledge and collaborated on the development and field validation of nutrient fate and transport indices for management of agroecosystems at variable spatial scales.

Impacts
Digitally map-finished products are a prerequisite for soil survey publications which are part of national initiatives to meet public demand for natural resource data in digital, computer-compatible, format. This digital conversion of soil survey data and information allows soil and other biophysical data to be integrated for resource assessment and planning. These digital databases are replacing the current soil survey publications for use within numerous local, state, and federal agencies, and the project provides the expertise to characterize soil properties in rural and urban environments, to develop recommended procedures for site assessments requiring soil survey data, and to develop guidelines for the effective management of agricultural resources while minimizing impacts on environmental quality.

Publications

  • Czymmek, K.J., L.D. Geohring, D.R. Dewing, R.B. Bryant, K. Carpenter, T.S. Steenhuis, Q.M. Ketterings, and H.M. VanEs. 2001. Nutrient management programs in New York. In: Agonomy Abstracts. Am. Soc. Agronomy. Madison, WI.


Progress 01/01/00 to 12/31/00

Outputs
Geostatistical methods were used to assess heavy metal distributions in the soils of LaTourette Park on Staten Island, NY. A method of determining whether metal contents in soils exceed a critical risk-based threshold was developed. Developers and managers can use this method for producing a site assessment with a pre-defined statistical level of confidence in the results. The method should be of use in assessing brownfields and other sites in urban areas. The economic value of soil information was assessed used modern decision analysis techniques. Analyses of this kind should be useful for justifying the cost of making soil surveys, whether for the general public or for private concerns.

Impacts
Characterized soil properties in urban environments of New York City and developed recommended procedures for site-assessment of heavy metal contaminants. Developed a means of assessing the economic value of soil surveys.

Publications

  • Russell-Anelli, J.M. 2000. Risk-based site assessment for soil contamination. Ph.D. dissertation.
  • Giasson, E., C.Van Es, A. Van Wambeke and Bryant, R.B. 2000. Assessing the economic value of soil information using decision analysis techniques. Soil Science 165:971-978.


Progress 01/01/99 to 12/31/99

Outputs
Development of classes for anthropogenic soils progressed as a result of compilation and publication of the proceedings of a workshop and field tour conducted in 1998. Results from investigations of soil properties and heavy metals in urban soils also contributed to this effort. Physical properties and chemical properties derived from anthropogenic sources correlate well with land use in the urban environment. Organic matter and pH are highly variable but values do differ from rural analogs under agricultural management. A conceptual framework for mapping soil degradation was developed. In agricultural areas, degradation may be mapped using a modified landscape analysis approach similar to that commonly used in traditional soil survey. Mapping soils affected by anthropogenic processes or additions may require more complex geostatistical methods.

Impacts
Project results are directly applicable to the New York City soil survey. The conduct of the survey is facilitated and expedited by these findings. There is international interest in this work as modern soil survey programs seek to better serve the needs of the urban population.

Publications

  • Bryant, R. B., Galbraith, J. M. and Russell-Anelli, J. M. 1999. Defining classes for anthropogenic soils in Soil Taxonomy: Progress and future direction. p.3-6. In J. M. Kimble, R. J. Ahrens and R. B. Bryant (ed.) Classification, correlation, and management of anthropogenic soils, Proceedings. USDA-NRCS-NSSC, Lincoln, NE.
  • Galbraith, J. M. and Bryant, R.B. 1999. ICOMANTH circular letter number 2. p.109-114. In J. M. Kimble, R. J. Ahrens and R. B. Bryant (ed.) Classification, correlation, and management of anthropogenic soils, Proceedings. USDA-NRCS-NSSC, Lincoln, NE.
  • Galbraith, J. M., Bryant, R. B. and Russell-Anelli, J. M. 1999. Major kinds of humanly altered soils. p.115-119. In J. M. Kimble, R. J. Ahrens and R. B. Bryant (ed.) Classification, correlation, and management of anthropogenic soils, Proceedings. USDA-NRCS-NSSC, Lincoln, NE.
  • Russell-Anelli, J. M., Bryant, R. B. and Galbraith, J. M. 1999. Evaluating the predictive properties of soil survey - Soil characteristics, land practices, and concentration of elements. p.155-168. In J. M. Kimble, R. J. Ahrens and R. B. Bryant (ed.) Classification, correlation, and management of anthropogenic soils, Proceedings. USDA-NRCS-NSSC, Lincoln, NE.
  • Bryant, R. B., Galbraith, J. M., Russell-Anelli, J. M., Gossett, P. E., and Singleton, A. D. 1999. (Abs.) Soil survey investigations in the urban environment: New challenges and approaches. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. p. 280.
  • Russell-Anelli, J. M. and Bryant, R. B. 1999. (Abs.) Heavy metal distributions in the New York City urban environment. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. p. 270.
  • Russell-Anelli, J. M. and Bryant, R. B. 1999. (Abs.) Mapping heavy metals in the New York City urban environment. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. p. 270.
  • Hoosbeek, M. R., Stein, A. and R. B. Bryant. 1999. Mapping soil degradation. In R. Lal et al. (ed.) Methodology for assessment of soil degradation. Int. Soc. Soil Sci. monograph, 558 pp.


Progress 01/01/98 to 12/31/98

Outputs
The following soil surveys in New York were digitized to national SSURGO standards in 1998: Clinton, Dutchess Madison, Oneida, Otsego, Rockland, St. Lawrence (northern part), Saratoga, Seneca, and Seneca Nation Indian Reservation. Arrangements are being made to make these data available through Mann Library's online services at Cornell University. As farm managers adopt new technology for site specific farming there is increasing demand for better understanding of soil and crop yield relationships. Data generated for quantifying the effects of erosion on corn yield were analyzed to provide better understanding of the covariance of yield with soil properties on a hillslope in the glaciated Appalachian Plateau region of southern New York. Modern and traditional methods for mapping soil degradation were described for the international audience in a compendium of methodologies for assessing this global problem.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Timlin, D.J., Pachepsky, Y., Snyder, V.A. and Bryant, R.B. 1998. Spatial and temporal variability of corn yield on a hillslope. SSSAJ 62: 764-773.
  • Hoosbeek, M. R., Stein, A. and R. B. Bryant. 1998. Mapping soil degradation. In R. Lal et al. (ed.) Methodology for assessment of soil degradation. Int. Soc. Soil Sci. monograph, 558 pp.


Progress 01/01/97 to 12/31/97

Outputs
Soil surveys of Oneida and Deleware Counties were digitized to national soil survey standards. A soil survey of a portion of La Tourette Park on Staten Island was completed. It was published in a full color format and also made accessible on the world wide web. This soil survey represents the first in a next generation of order one soil surveys in urban areas and serves as a model for new soil surveys in other areas of the country. Five new soil series were established in response to a need for describing soils that have been extensively modified by human activity. Subsequent work is focused on interpretations for soil surveys of urban areas. Current activities in the urban soil survey program, results of studies on heavy metal distributions in urban soils, and the results of a study of urban land use impacts on soil quality were presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Society of Agronomy. In October 1997, the Cornell University Soil Survey Program co-hosted an Urban Soils Conference in New York City that was attended by approximately 100 people.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Gossett, P.E., Galbraith, J.M. and Bryant, R.B. 1997. (Abs.) Interactive New York City Soil Survey. American Society of Agronomy
  • Bryant, R.B., Scheyer, J.M. and Russell-Anelli, J.M. 1997. (Abs.) Urban Soil Survey Interpretations for Heavy Metals. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. p.256.
  • Goddard, T.M., Galbraith, J.M., Hernandez, L.A. and Bryant, R.B. 1997 (Abs.) The New York City Soil Survey: A Customer-Centered Model for Urban Soil Surveys. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings.
  • Russell-Anelli, J.M. and Bryant, R.B. 1997. (Abs.) Assessing Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils of the Urban Environment. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. p.256.
  • Singleton, A.D. and Bryant, R.B. 1997 1997. (Abs.) Urban Land Use Impacts on Soil Quality in Central Park, New York City. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. p.256.


Progress 01/01/96 to 12/30/96

Outputs
Soil surveys of Seneca County, Dutchess County, St. Regis Indian Reservation, the Rushford lake Watershed in Allegany County, and the lake Champlain Lowlands in Essex County were digitized to national soil survey standards. Laboratory data and accessary information in support of the soil survey of a portion of La Tourette Park on Staten Island were compiled and prepared for publication. Analyses of heavy metal content in soils of the La Tourette park survey area were completed and entered into a spatial database using ArcInfo Preliminary results were presented in poster format at the Annual Meetings of the American Society of Agronomy.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications

  • Russell-Anelli, J.M. 1996. (Abs.) Heavy metals and urban soil survey. American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings. P. 271.


Progress 01/01/95 to 12/30/95

Outputs
The soil survey of Putnam and Westchester counties was released in 1995. Field work for a soil survey of a portion of La Tourette Park on Staten Island was completed. Soil surveys of the Skaneateles Lake Watershed and the Seneca Nation of Indians were digitized to National soil survey standards. Digital soil surveys, soil characterization databases, and simulated models were used to map pesticide leaching potential in the Northeast, and results were published.

Impacts
(N/A)

Publications


    Progress 01/01/94 to 12/30/94

    Outputs
    The soil survey of Chautauqua county was published in August of 1994. A special project to assess the amount of carbon sequestered in cryic soils was initiated, and the first stage of field activities were completed. Pedons were sampled for characterization and standing biomass was measured at five sites in the high peaks area of the Adirondacks. An urban soils initiative, to result in soil survey of the 5 burrough area of New York City, was begun in October, 1994. The following soil survey areas were digitized according to National soil survey standards: (1) selected watersheds in Jefferson county (78,000 acres), (2) areas of the Keuka Lake watershed in Steuben county (45,000 acres), (3) selected watershed areas in Ontario county (40,000 acres), and (4) a buffer zone segment along the Walhill River in Orange county (8,000 acres).

    Impacts
    (N/A)

    Publications


      Progress 01/01/93 to 12/30/93

      Outputs
      The soil survey of Greene county was published in 1993, and field work was initiated in Allegany county. Soil survey activities in the New York City watershed were completed and digital soil survey data for the entire watershed was made available for use in planning, management and conservation. The watershed covers parts of Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, Sullivan, Ulster, Greene, Delaware and Schoharie counties. A geographic analysis of the amount of soil organic carbon in the Tughill Major Land Resource Area (MLRA 141) was completed using data from the pedon characterization database and the STATSGO digital soil survey. A soil genesis field trip was organized and conducted in western New York featuring soil geomorph work done in the Allegany re-entrant.

      Impacts
      (N/A)

      Publications


        Progress 01/01/92 to 12/30/92

        Outputs
        The soil survey of Albany county was published in 1992, and field work was completed in Clinton county. The majority of soil survey activities this year were focused on the New York City watershed in response to a memorandum of understanding to provide digital soil survey data for use in planning, management and conservation. Activities include completion, update, recompilation, and digitization of the watershed which covers parts of Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, Sullivan, Ulster, Greene, Delaware, and Schoharie counties. In October, Cornell representatives participated in the annual meeting of NYS soil scientists in Walton, NY for planning and coordination of watershed activities. The Soil Information Systems Laboratory (SISL) began digitizing watershed areas of Putnam, Westchester, and Dutchess counties. The Soil Characterization Laboratory completed and published data on selected pedons from Clinton county. Pedon data from the National Soil Survey Laboratory and from an EPA acid deposition study are being added to the Cornell pedon characterization database.

        Impacts
        (N/A)

        Publications


          Progress 01/01/91 to 12/30/91

          Outputs
          The soil survey of Rockland County was published in 1991, and field work was completed in Oneida and Dutchess counties. Memorandums of understanding to begin soil surveys in Franklin County, southern part and Herkimer County, northern part were signed. During the past year, our soil survey activities included technical visits to 4 survey areas, 2 planning sessions, and soil sampling in Otsego County. A third season of soil temperature data were collected on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks to determine the cryic temperature regime boundary. The Soil Information Systems Laboratory (SISL) completed digitization of the complete detailed soil survey of Yates County; the East Sidney Lake watershed area of Delaware County; the Neversink and related watersheds in Greene, Ulster, and Sullivan counties; and the Chaumont watershed in Jefferson County. The Soil Characterization Laboratory completed the characterization of 24 complete pedons from Hamilton and Cattaraugus counties. In addition, the entire pedon database for New York was summarized with respect to soil organic carbon content as part of the global change studies conducted through the USDA-SCS World Soil Resources Group.

          Impacts
          (N/A)

          Publications


            Progress 01/01/90 to 12/30/90

            Outputs
            Soil surveys of Jefferson, Sullivan, and Warren counties were published in 1990,and field work was completed in Hamilton county. There are currently 9 active soil surveys in progress. Memorandums of understanding to begin soil survey revisions in Alleghany, Livingston, and Tioga counties were signed. Work in these areas will begin at a future date as on-going surveys are completed. During the past year, our soil survey activities included participation in 3 field reviews, 2 planning sessions, and soil sampling in Cattaraugus, Hamilton, and Clinton counties. Soil temperature measurements were collected on Whiteface Mountain in order to determine the elevational boundary of the cryic temperature regime in the Adirondacks. The Soil Information Systems Laboratory (SISL) completed digitization of the New York State base map for soil interpretations and a power corridor from Canada to Long Island. Detailed soil survey information was digitized for the Cuba Lake Watershed in support of the Alleghany soil and water conservation district project. Soil maps of selected areas in India were digitized in support of training activities for soil scientists from that country.

            Impacts
            (N/A)

            Publications


              Progress 01/01/88 to 12/30/88

              Outputs
              In 1988, there were ongoing progressive soil surveys in 11 counties. The Chautauqua County Soil Survey has passed the final correlation. During 1988, 1 survey was released, Rensselaer County. During the past year, our soil survey activities included participation in 8 field reviews, 2 planning and training sessions in support of the NYS Cooperative Soil Survey, and soil sampling (40 pedons) in Fulton, Essex, Tompkins, Cattaraugus, and Delaware counties. The interaction of soils and land use was investigated for 3 sites in central NY using a landuse-soil property matrix analyzed by principal component analysis. The approach used in this study has the potential to indicate and rate the relative importance of soil properties as they influence land use policies and practices. An automated soil database and digitized soil survey maps were used to inventory soil properties and constraints which influence forage crop growth. By relating individual soil map units to forage growth criteria, soil interpretive maps were created to illustrate the spatial distribution of lands suitable for producing each of the forages studied. A comparison of iron mineralogy across soil drainage sequences in red (2.5YR) and brown (10YR) lithofacies of Late Wisconsinan till-derived soils show similarities in reduction processes and intensities.

              Impacts
              (N/A)

              Publications


                Progress 01/01/87 to 12/30/87

                Outputs
                In 1987, soil surveys were initiated in Dutchess, Hamilton and Cattaraugus Counties and soil surveys of Nassau and Erie Counties were published or released. The mapping phase has been completed in Chautauqua County and the manuscript is in progress. Presently, 83% of the total and land area of New York State has been mapped. During the past year, our soil survey activities included field reviews of on-going soil surveys, planning and training sessions in support of the N.Y.S. Cooperative Soil Survey, and soil sampling (62 pedons) in Delaware, Otsego, Oneida, Essex, Clinton, and Cattaraugus Counties. Specific projects include modeling soil temperatures regimes in the southern tier of New York, soil genesis in glacial tills of the Catskill region, the soil survey of Finger Lakes National Forest, and the development of digital elevation models (DEM) in soil mapping and landscape analysis.

                Impacts
                (N/A)

                Publications


                  Progress 01/01/85 to 12/30/85

                  Outputs
                  New soil surveys have been initiated in Delaware and Fulton Counties. Soil Surveys for Chenango County and the Seneca Nation in Cattaraugus County were published. Approximately 72% of the total land area in New York State has been mapped. Seventy-five pedons (420 soil samples) were characterized in support of the soil survey. This data was provided by the Soil Characterization Laboratory to the soil survey party leaders to aid them in classifying and interpreting the soil series. During the past year, members of the staff participated in map inspection, field reviews, planning sessions, and training sessions in support of the New York State Cooperative Soil Survey effort. In addition to the activities in support of the on-going soil survey in New York State, staff members participated in the survey of 30 watersheds in the Adirondack Highlands as part of a pilot study to assess the effects of acid deposition. An additional 35 pedons were characterized in support of this effort. Three topo-biosequences of spodosols in the Adirondacks were further characterized by selective dissolution of aluminum and iron.

                  Impacts
                  (N/A)

                  Publications


                    Progress 01/01/84 to 12/30/84

                    Outputs
                    Currently 41 counties are mapped, 11 counties are in progress, and 6 counties remain to be surveyed. Analyses of 66 pedons (400 soil samples) from 10 counties were characterized in support of soil survey. This data was provided by the Soil Characterization Laboratory to the soil survey party leaders to aid them in classifying and interpreting the soil series. Forty-eight samples were analyzed in support of departmental research. Forty samples were analyzed upon request by industry in NYS and the Northeast. Analyses of 130 samples were requested by individuals. Soil characterization data for an additional 200 pedons were stored on computer. A statistics software package, compatible with the data base management program was acquired to expand data analysis capabilities. Approximately 30 soil monoliths were prepared for information and educational uses. During the past year, members of the staff participated in map inspection, field reviews, planning sessions, and training sessions in support of the New York Cooperative Soil Survey effort.

                    Impacts
                    (N/A)

                    Publications


                      Progress 01/01/83 to 12/30/83

                      Outputs
                      New soil surveys have been initiated in Essex and Cattaraugus Counties. Field mapping was completed in Albany, Greene, Nassau, and Sullivan Counties. Currently 37 counties are mapped, 11 counties are in progress, and 8 counties remain to be surveyed. Analyses of 350 soil samples (45 pedons) from 9 counties were completed during the year. This data was provided by the Soil Characterization Laboratory to the soil survey party leaders to aid them in classifying and interpreting the soil series. X-ray diffraction equipment is now capable of routine characterization of soil clays. Approximately 25 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction. X-ray fluorescence, thermal gravimetric, and differential thermal analysis equipment is being upgraded and procedures are being developed in the soil characterization laboratory in order to provide additional mineralogy data for soils of New York State. Soil characterization data for an additional fifty pedons was stored on computer. A data base management program was adapted to provide the capability for searching computer stored soil data for specific information upon request. Approximately 40 soil monoliths were prepared for information and educational uses. During the past year, members of the staff participated in map inspections, field reviews, planning sessions and training sessions in support of the New York Cooperative Soil Survey effort.

                      Impacts
                      (N/A)

                      Publications


                        Progress 01/01/82 to 12/30/82

                        Outputs
                        New soil surveys have been initiated in Clinton, Saratoga and Otsego Counties. In addition, Westchester, Rockland and Putnam Counties are being re-surveyed. Currently, 33 counties are mapped, 13 counties are in progress, and 10 counties remain to be surveyed. Analyses of 300 soil samples (40 pedons) from 8 counties were completed during the year. This data was provided by the Soil Characterization Laboratory to the soil survey party leaders to aid them in classifying and interpreting the soil series. Detailed soil survey maps were prepared from the new annex to the Cornell Agronomy Farm at Aurora and the Harford sheep pasture. X ray diffraction equipment is presently being upgraded and procedures are being developed in the soil characterization laboratory in order to provide additional mineralogy data for soils of New York State. Soil characterization data for one-hundred pedons was stored on computer. Approximately 30 soil monoliths were prepared for informational and educational uses. During the past year, members of the staff participated in map inspections, field reviews, and planning sessions in support of the New York Cooperative Soil Survey effort.

                        Impacts
                        (N/A)

                        Publications


                          Progress 01/01/81 to 12/30/81

                          Outputs
                          Ray Bryant, Project Leader, started in August. Soil surveys were published for Oswego and Orange Counties. With the completion of field work in Chenago and Warren Counties, a total of 33 counties are mapped, with 10 counties in progress and 13 counties remaining to be surveyed. Analysis of 250 soil samples (35 pedons) from 6 counties were completed during the year. This data was provided by the Soil Characterization Laboratory to the soil survey party leaders to aid them in classifying and interpreting the soil series. Assistance was given to the State Board of Equalization and Assessment on the use of soil survey information in the determination of agricultural land values. A detailed soil survey map was made of the Baker Farm in Essex County. Approximately 15 soil monoliths were prepared for informational and educational uses. During the past year, members of the staff participated in map inspections and field reviews as part of the cooperative soil survey effort.

                          Impacts
                          (N/A)

                          Publications


                            Progress 01/01/80 to 12/30/80

                            Outputs
                            With the completion of the Jefferson County soil survey, a total of 31 counties are mapped, with 11 counties in progress and 14 counties remaining to be surveyed. Analysis on 280 soil samples (40 pedons) from 10 counties were completed during the year. This data was provided by the Characterization Laboratory to the soil survey party leaders to aid them in classifying and interpreting the soil series. Soil productivity indices based on TDNs were jointly prepared with SCS for Livingston, Franklin, Herkimer, Oswego, Tioga, Allegheny and Dutchess counties. These productivity indices will be used as a component in the calculation of agricultural land value assessment in New York State.

                            Impacts
                            (N/A)

                            Publications


                              Progress 01/01/79 to 12/30/79

                              Outputs
                              Soil surveys were published for Schuyler and Ulster Counties. Soil productivityindices based on TDNs were jointly prepared with SCS for Washington, Schoharie, Montgomery, Schenectady, Onodaga, Lewis, Madison, Rensselaer, Erie, Wayne, Niagara, Broome, Chemung and Orleans Counties. With the completion of the Rensselaer County soil survey, a total of 30 counties are mapped, with 10 counties in progress and 16 counties remaining to be surveyed. Analysis on 300 soil samples (55 pedons) from 8 counties were completed during the year. This data was provided by the Characterization Laboratory to the soil survey party leaders to aid them in classifying and interpreting the soil series. The laboratory is developing the thin section capability to identify both argillic horizons (clay films) and spodic horizons (cracked coatings or organic pellets). CUAES personnel co-sponsored a two-week basic soils training course for beginning state and federal soil scientists. Assistance was given to the State Board of Equalization and Assessment on farm sale analysis based on soil survey information.

                              Impacts
                              (N/A)

                              Publications


                                Progress 01/01/78 to 12/30/78

                                Outputs
                                Ken Olson, Asst. Project Leader, started in May. Field and lab training of SCSsoil scientists was held and a sampling program for the Characterization Lab developed. Results of 20 profiles (Chenango Co.) are nearly complete. Additional samples were taken in Chautauqua, Columbia, Jefferson, St. Lawrence and Sullivan Counties. Special soil maps of research areas at Miner Institute and Harford Research Farm were prepared. Four soil surveys were published: Orleans, Steuben, Wayne and Montgomery-Schenectady Counties. Soil productivity indices based on TDN were jountly prepared with SCS for Cayuga, Cortland, Jefferson, Monroe, Orange, Seneca, and Wyoming Counties. To assist the State Board of Equalization and Assessment, a farm sale analysis based on soil survey was made. TDN estimates for soil map units in the Ithaca area were exponentially related to assigned appraisal values (r 2 equal to .90). Regressions of TDN-values for soil maps of operating farms with tentative 1978 tax assessments were highly predictive (r 2 greater than .9). The method is being further evaluated by E and A. Procedures for estimating the accuracy of soil survey base maps and map unit composition have been developed. Most exciting are graphical solutions of upper and lower confidence limits for percent accuracy of map unit components. The method will be field tested by SCS.

                                Impacts
                                (N/A)

                                Publications


                                  Progress 01/01/77 to 12/30/77

                                  Outputs
                                  CUAES personnel contributed mapping and other services in Chenango and St. Lawrence Counties under grant funds. Cooperators attended field reviews, state workshops and training courses, and the national work planning conference. Sections of the Soils Handbook and survey manuscripts were reviewed. Sampling of Spodosols for National Lab analysis was completed. A joint program with SCS was started that provides an index of productivity for the mapping units in a county. These are based on average TDN per acre per year for rotations commonly used on dairy farms in NY. This approach is also being explored with the State Board of Equalization and Assessment. Soil temperature measurements were expanded to six counties to provide additional information on crop season patterns in current soil survey areas. A soil characterization lab under Keith Wheeler's direction is now operational. Twenty-six profiles from Chenango County are currently being analzyed, and a training program for SCS will be provided early 1978.

                                  Impacts
                                  (N/A)

                                  Publications


                                    Progress 01/01/76 to 12/30/76

                                    Outputs
                                    CUAES personnel contributed mapping and other services in Chenango, Erie, and St. Lawrence counties under grant funds. Cooperators attended field reviews, regional and national work planning conferences, state workshops and training courses. New York soils. Cornell Agronomy Mimeo 76-19, 1976. 37 Manual, and survey manuscripts were reviewed. Data summaries of clay ratios in many soils indicate that stratification of parent materials may often be misinterpreted as argillic horizons. Sampling with SCS was undertaken to resolve the presence of argillic horizins in wetter soils. A summary of fragipan properties will guide a research project to determine strength characteristics this next year. A program of evaluating soil productivity using TDN was initiated. Water table measurements continued in western New York. Thermistors were installed in four counties as part of a program to refine temperature patterns in soils; of particular concern is the effect of elevation on soil temperatures. The manuscript and map for Soils and Soil Landscapes in New York was completed. Publication is expected in 1977.

                                    Impacts
                                    (N/A)

                                    Publications


                                      Progress 01/01/75 to 12/30/75

                                      Outputs
                                      Detailed soil surveys continue in 12 counties. CUAES personnel contributed mapping in Chenango,Erie and St. Lawrence counties under grant funds. Two research assistants joined the project to help handle data information and assist in field mapping. During the year, two initial and three progressive field reviews were attended by cooperators in addition to the national work planning conference, two state workshops, and several training courses. Portionsof the Soils Handbook and Soil Survey Manual were reviewed. Data summary on argillic and fragipan horizons was initiated in preparation of a joint SCS-CUAESstudy of argillic horizons. Water table measurements were continued in western New York. Background work for a new bulletin on soil landscapes is being gathered. Information from the survey investigation of deep lacustrine valley fills has been prepared for publication.

                                      Impacts
                                      (N/A)

                                      Publications


                                        Progress 01/01/74 to 12/30/74

                                        Outputs
                                        Detailed soil surveys continue in 13 counties. CUAES personnel contributed mapping in Chenango, Erie, and St. Lawrence counties under grant funds. During the year, one initial, two progressive, one comprehensive, and two final field reviews were attended by cooperators. Two survey manuscripts were reviewed. A joint program with SCS to study water table fluctuations in Jefferson County wasstarted. At each site, five piezometers will be installed and monitored during the next few years. M. Jarvis from England consulted with us on developing methods to evaluate cost-effectiveness of soil surveys. A review of past studies indicates variability at all scales of observation but field work accuracy of 80-90%. Survey investigations of valley wall deposits of lacustrinesediments in Erie County revealed uniform gray, silty, clays as much as 110 feetthick. General stratigraphy supports soil stability interpretations being made by the survey party.

                                        Impacts
                                        (N/A)

                                        Publications


                                          Progress 01/01/73 to 12/30/73

                                          Outputs
                                          Detailed surveys continue in 17 counties. Published soil surveys were received for Chemung, Monroe, and Niagara counties bringing the total acres published to 6,479,888. Of the 30,700,000 acres in New York slightly more than half have field work completed. CUAES contributed mapping in Erie and Chenango counties where local funds support the personnel. During the year 1 initial, 7 progressive, and 2 final field reviews were made by cooperators in the survey. A sandy soil study trip, sampling of Humods, tristate review of Spodosols, and reviews of work done by soil resource specialists were participated in. Evaluation of elevations of soils in CNI plots for potential climatic phases indicate that 20 series used in N.Y. may need to be renamed, another 16 series clasified by N.Y. are mapped in two temperature regimes, and another 35 series have a significant extent outside of the defined temperature range Work in soilinterpretations concentrated on quantifying engineering criteria for rating soils for various uses, developing a model of transport functions of soil particles in a drainage basin, characterization of water table fluctuations overlong periods of time, evaluating soil use programs in other counties, and developing initial stages of continuing work in land use research and land classification.

                                          Impacts
                                          (N/A)

                                          Publications


                                            Progress 01/01/72 to 12/30/72

                                            Outputs
                                            CUAES personnel continued work in Erie and Oswego Counties under county acceleration contracts. Field mapping was completed in Westchester County and the soil scientist transferred to SCS employment in Greene County, terminating the Westchester contract. Several weeks of low-intensity mapping for the Adirondack Park Agency was carried out by Dr. Feuer prior to his retirement. Work on interpretation for grapes continued. A joint effort by CUAES and SCS produced "Soil Survey Interpretations of Soils in New York State" and this was introduced at several meetings statewide. About 300 copies have been distributed. Accelerated soil survey, with local funding, is in progress in 10 counties; field mapping is complete in 5 more; manuscript is being written in 3 and publication is underway in 5 others. Reports on Cayuga and Seneca Counties were issued.

                                            Impacts
                                            (N/A)

                                            Publications


                                              Progress 01/01/71 to 12/30/71

                                              Outputs
                                              Detailed surveys continued in 28 counties with about a million acres mapped. CUAES personnel contributed about 61,000 acres in Erie, Oswego, and Westchester counties where local funds support station personnel. Mapping was completed in Washington, Orleans, Montgomery, Schenectady and Steuben counties, field reviewswere made in 16 survey areas, and the manuscript for Wyoming County was reviewed. Guidelines to evaluate soils for commercial grape production were developed. Soil maps for about 700,000 acres were reproduced at 1:24,000 and interpretive maps of limitations were prepared. Macro intensity map units in Warren County are being evaluated to improve descriptions, mapping procedures, and interpretations of the included soils. Elevations of 3500 CNI plots were recorded to study the elevational distribution of series and potential climatic phases. Initial steps are being taken to develop updated productivity ratings and indices for the more important soils used for farming. Additional soil survey interpretations involved special projects in the Canadarago Lake watershed, Cornell Plantations area, several towns in Tompkins County, and continuing compilation of interpretive guide sheets for soil series. General principles of soil use were outlined using historic Sardis, Turkey as an example.

                                              Impacts
                                              (N/A)

                                              Publications


                                                Progress 01/01/70 to 12/30/70

                                                Outputs
                                                Detailed surveys continued in 28 counties with more than a million acres mapped.Experiment Station personnel contributed about 95,000 acres in Erie, Oswego, andWestchester counties where local funds support Station personnel. Mapping was completed in Onondaga County, field reviews were made in 20 survey areas, and the manuscript for Suffolk County was reviewed. Long-range plans and prioritiesfor soil surveys in New York were revised. Work copies and brief descriptive legend of a 1:250,000 map of soil associations were prepared for review. An additional legend using phases of subgroups has been drafted for review. A correlation of the 1966 CNI soil code to 1970 equivalents combined 50 units and will necessitate new computer summaries. Average rooting depth, water holding capacity, and other soil properties are being tabulated for the CNI map units. In a study of predicted performance of several soils as mapped in Tompkins Co. positive relationships were found between four measures of predicted performanceand both (a) economic viability of farming and (b) intensity of farming. The results indicate that there are significant differences in actual soil performance that correspond to those predicted by the soil survey. Research on soil survey interpretations concentrated on special projects in the Appalachian region, Canadarago Lake watershed, Tompkins-Cortland Community College site, andGenesee Co. in N.Y.S. Historical land use was studied in Ariz. and Sardis, Turkey for implications to planning in N.Y.S.

                                                Impacts
                                                (N/A)

                                                Publications


                                                  Progress 01/01/69 to 12/30/69

                                                  Outputs
                                                  Detailed soil surveys were conducted by the National Cooperative Soil Survey in 29 counties with slightly more than a million acres mapped. State personnel contributed 108,530 acres in Erie, Oswego, Schenectady, and Steuben Counties; funds from these counties supported State personnel in those surveys. Field mapping was completed in Suffolk and Rockland counties; report manuscripts were reviewed for Chemung and Seneca counties; galley proofs were reviewed for Broomeand Cayuga counties; and published reports were received for Genesee and Schonarie counties. About 20 more series descriptions were drafted and revised to conform to standards of new classification system. A review draft of the 1:250,000 scale soil association map was completed and work continues on a descriptive legend to accompany these map sheets. Arthur Kuhl compared kinds ofbase photos for soil mapping and observed a slight, but consistent increase in accuracy from black-and-white to infrared to color aerial photos. Comparisions included glacial materials and drainage classes common in central New York State.

                                                  Impacts
                                                  (N/A)

                                                  Publications


                                                    Progress 01/01/68 to 12/30/68

                                                    Outputs
                                                    Detailed soil surveys were conducted in 31 counties; State personnel contributing 139,500 acres in Montgomery, Erie, Oswego, and Steuben Counties. Contribution of funds from the latter three counties supported State personnel in those surveys. Field mapping was completed in Chemung, Herkimer, and Wyomingcounties; survey report manuscripts for Monroe, Niagara, and Seneca counties arebeing reviewed; reports for Broome and Cayuga counties are in galley proof stage; and completed reports for Genesee and Schoharie counties are at the printers. Soil survey work plans were drawn up for two new survey areas, (1) Orange County and (2) Putnam, Rockland, and Westchester counties. Requests for assistance in preparing interim soils reports have been increasing and State personnel assisted with three town reports. About 30 series descriptions have been drafted and revised to conform to the standards of the new classification system. Compilation of soil characterization data from 1960-1967 was completed.Field mapping of control maps in preparation for evaluating color and infrared color photography for soil survey was completed.

                                                    Impacts
                                                    (N/A)

                                                    Publications


                                                      Progress 01/01/67 to 12/30/67

                                                      Outputs
                                                      Detailed soil surveys were conducted on 29 counties, state personnel contributing 181, 584 acres in Erie, Oswego, and Steuben counties. Contributionof funds from these three counties supported state personnel in those areas. Ivan Jansen, a soil technologist headquartered at Ithaca, reported on April 1; field work was completed in Niagara and report manuscripts completed for Broome,Cayuga, Monroe, and Seneca counties. Portions of the generalized soil map of NewYork at a scale of 1:250,000 are being tested in the Appalachia project under Dr. Olson's leadership. About 25 series descriptions have been revised to conform to the new classification system. Compilaton of soil characterization data since 1960 is nearly complete and should be available for users in early 1968. This project is to be revised before February 1, 1968. The aggregate accomplishment of the project to date is reviewed in the revised project statement.

                                                      Impacts
                                                      (N/A)

                                                      Publications